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Cosmic History

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The Universe’s History

The origin, evolution, and nature of the universe have fascinated and confounded humankind for centuries. New ideas and major discoveries made during the 20th century transformed cosmology – the term for the way we conceptualize and study the universe – although much remains unknown. Here is the history of the universe according to cosmologists’ current theories.

Cosmic Inflation

Around 13.8 billion years ago, the universe expanded faster than the speed of light for a fraction of a second, a period called cosmic inflation. Scientists aren’t sure what came before inflation or what powered it. It’s possible that energy during this period was just part of the fabric of space-time. Cosmologists think inflation explains many aspects of the universe we observe today, like its flatness, or lack of curvature, on the largest scales. Inflation may have also magnified density differences that naturally occur on space’s smallest, quantum-level scales, which eventually helped form the universe’s large-scale structures.

Big Bang Infographic showing the timeline of the history of the big bang and the formation of the building blocks of the universe

Big Bang and Nucleosynthesis

When cosmic inflation stopped, the energy driving it transferred to matter and light – the big bang. One second after the big bang, the universe consisted of an extremely hot (18 billion degrees Fahrenheit or 10 billion degrees Celsius) primordial soup of light and particles. In the following minutes, an era called nucleosynthesis, protons and neutrons collided and produced the earliest elements – hydrogen, helium, and traces of lithium and beryllium. After five minutes, most of today’s helium had formed, and the universe had expanded and cooled enough that further element formation stopped. At this point, though, the universe was still too hot for the atomic nuclei of these elements to catch electrons and form complete atoms. The cosmos was opaque because a vast number of electrons created a sort of fog that scattered light.

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Big Bang Infographic showing the timeline of the history of the big bang and the formation of the building blocks of the universe. he history of the universe is outlined in this infographic. It starts with Inflation, then the first particles in 1 microsecond, followed by first nuclei (10 seconds); first light (300,000 years); first stars (200 million years); galaxies and dark matter (400 million years); dark energy (10 billion years); present (13.8 billion years). NASA

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Recombination

Around 380,000 years after the big bang, the universe had cooled enough that atomic nuclei could capture electrons, a period astronomers call the epoch of recombination. This had two major effects on the cosmos. First, with most electrons now bound into atoms, there were no longer enough free ones to completely scatter light, and the cosmic fog cleared. The universe became transparent, and for the first time, light could freely travel over great distances. Second, the formation of these first atoms produced its own light. This glow, still detectable today, is called the cosmic microwave background. It is the oldest light we can observe in the universe.

Heat map of the infant universe

After the cosmic microwave background, the universe again became opaque at shorter wavelengths due to the absorbing effects of all those hydrogen atoms. For the next 200 million years the universe remained dark. There were no stars to shine. The cosmos at this point consisted of a sea of hydrogen atoms, helium, and trace amounts of heavier elements.

First Stars

Gas was not uniformly distributed throughout the universe. Cooler areas of space were lumpier, with denser clouds of gas. As these clumps grew more massive, their gravity attracted additional matter. As they became denser, and more compact, the centers of these clumps became hotter – hot enough eventually that nuclear fusion occurred in their centers. These were the first stars. They were 30 to 300 times more massive than our Sun and millions of times brighter. Over several hundred million years, the first stars collected into the first galaxies.

Reionization

At first, starlight couldn’t travel far because it was scattered by the relatively dense gas surrounding the first stars. Gradually, the ultraviolet light emitted by these stars broke down, or ionized, hydrogen atoms in the gas into their constituent electrons and protons. As this reionization progressed, starlight traveled farther, breaking up more and more hydrogen atoms. By the time the universe was 1 billion years old, stars and galaxies had transformed nearly all this gas, making the universe transparent to light as we see it today.

For many years, scientists thought the universe’s current expansion was slowing down. But in fact, cosmic expansion is speeding up. In 1998, astronomers found that certain supernovae, bright stellar explosions, were fainter than expected. They concluded this could only happen if the supernovae had moved farther away, at a faster rate than predicted.

Scientists suspect a mysterious substance they call dark energy is accelerating expansion. Future research may yield new surprises, but cosmologists suggest it’s likely the universe will continue to expand forever.

Discover More Topics From NASA

Looking like a pinwheel, this face-on spiral galaxy holds a bright-white core at image center. Arms curve outward from the core. They hold dark dust lanes and bright star-forming regions. All on a black background dotted with stars.

Black Holes

presentation of universe

What is the universe?

It encompasses everything that ever was and ever will be.

The universe. Nebula Abstract background. Xuanyu Han via Getty Images

  • How old is it?
  • How was it made?
  • Observable universe
  • Universe infinite?
  • What is it made of?
  • How will it end?

Additional resources

Bibliography.

The universe is literally everything, the sum of all existence. It includes all matter, like stars and galaxies. The universe also includes all radiation and all other forms of energy. No matter where or when you exist, you are a part of the universe, as is everything you experience. There is nothing outside the universe, because anything that exists is automatically included in the definition of the universe.

How old is the universe, and is it expanding?

Our best understanding of the history of the universe comes from the Big Bang theory . Observations of distant galaxies reveal that all galaxies are, on average, moving away from every other galaxy. Astronomers interpret this motion to mean that the universe itself is expanding; on the very largest scales, the distances between galaxies grow with time. This means that in the past, the universe was smaller, hotter and denser than it is today.

Einstein 's theory of general relativity allows cosmologists to connect the contents of the universe to its expansion history and, from there, calculate its age. According to current estimates, based on a wide variety of observations — such as distant supernovas , the cosmic microwave background and the abundance of light elements — the universe is approximately 13.787 billion years old. In its earliest moments, the entire universe was compressed into an infinitely tiny point known as the singularity . From that singularity, space expanded, giving rise to the universe that we see today, according to NASA .

How was the universe created?

Diagram showing the different steps of the Big Bang.

Scientists do not know what came before the Big Bang. However, they do know that the singularity is not real; instead, it's an artifact of general relativity that occurs when the equations break down and lose their ability to describe a physical situation. A true explanation for the singularity must lie in a theory of quantum gravity, which is a physical theory of strong gravity at extremely tiny scales. Physicists do not currently have such a theory, but they do have several candidates, like string theory and loop quantum gravity.

Scientists don't even know if the question " What came before the Big Bang ?" makes sense. Our understanding of the passage of time comes from the same theory of relativity that breaks down when describing the early universe. It could very well be that our conceptions of "before" and "after" are inadequate to describe what happens at such extreme scales, according to astrophysicist Ethan Siegel .

Ultimately, the reason the universe exists is perhaps the greatest of all philosophical questions.

What is the observable universe?

Astronomers currently do not know how large the universe is , but there is a limit to what we can see. This volume is known as the observable universe.

Because the universe has a finite age, and because the propagation of light is limited to a maximum speed, only a certain portion of the universe has been illuminated from our vantage point. The observable universe is a sphere roughly 42 billion light-years across. (For scale, the Milky Way is only 100,000 light-years across, and the nearest star to the sun is less than 4 light-years away.)

The galaxies that astronomers observe at the very edge of this sphere released their light up to 13 billion years ago. However, the universe is expanding faster than the speed of light, which is not an issue, because special relativity dictates that the restriction that objects can't travel faster than the speed of light applies only measurements made nearby an observer, not to objects in the  distant universe.

If the universe were static, then as time progressed, we would be able to observe even more distant galaxies as their light eventually reached us. However, the expansion of the universe is carrying away those more distant galaxies faster than the light from them can travel back to us, and we will never be able to observe them, PBS' Nova reported .

Is the universe infinite?

Cosmologists think that beyond the edge of the observable universe lies… more universe: more stars, more galaxies, more planets, more everything. Because it's unobservable, however, astronomers do not know how large the entire universe is. It's possible that the universe is truly infinite, with no boundary in space at all, according to NASA .

However, one size estimate comes from the theory of inflation, an event many cosmologists think occurred during the earliest moments of the Big Bang. During inflation, the universe rapidly swelled to many orders of magnitude larger in a tiny fraction of a second. Inflation theory puts the minimum size of the universe at around 10^62 times wider in diameter than the observable universe.

What is the universe made of?

Dark Matter in a simulated universe_Illustration Credit & Copyright Tom Abel & Ralf Kaehler (KIPAC, SLAC), AMNH

Most of the contents of the universe are of a form currently unknown to modern physics. Around 68% of the total energy in the universe is composed of dark energy , a hypothetical form of energy that appears to reside in the vacuum of space-time itself. However, physicists do not know where this energy originates from or why it has the strength it does, according to Harvard University's Universe Forum .

About 27% of the matter and energy of the universe is composed of dark matter , which is believed to be an invisible form of matter that does not interact with light. While the vast majority of physicists think dark matter is some new kind of fundamental particle (or particles), they have not yet directly detected it.

The remaining 5% of the universe consists of normal, familiar matter, like stars, planets and vast gas clouds.

How will the universe end?

To understand how the universe will end, we must first accurately measure its contents. Since the main component of the universe is dark energy, that will dictate its future evolution. The main effect of dark energy is that it is accelerating the expansion of the universe. So the universe is not only getting larger every day but getting larger faster and faster every day. Assuming that dark energy will remain unchanged (which is a big assumption, because we currently do not understand the nature of dark energy), then this accelerated expansion will eventually drive almost every galaxy out of our observable sphere, astrophysicist Kevin Pimbblet wrote in The Conversation .

Hundreds of billions of years from now, almost every galaxy will become invisible to us. Eventually, the Milky Way will run out of fresh gas to create new stars. Trillions of years from now, the last stars will extinguish, leaving behind a thin soup of fundamental particles that will slowly cool to a temperature of absolute zero.

  • To sink your teeth into cosmology, check out " Your Place in the Universe " (Prometheus, 2018), written by article author and astrophysicist Paul M. Sutter.
  • Explore the ultimate fate of the universe in this great video from PBS Space Time.
  • See how calculating the size of the universe is no small feat in this episode of the "Astronomy Cast" podcast.

Brennan, P. (2020, December 3). What is the universe? NASA. https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/what-is-an-exoplanet/what-is-the-universe/  

Halpern, P. (2012, October 10). How large is the observable universe? PBS NOVA. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/how-large-is-the-observable-universe/  

NASA. (2010, April 16). What is the inflation theory? https://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_cosmo_infl.html#:~:text=The%20Inflation%20Theory%20proposes%20a,relatively%20gradually%20throughout%20its%20history  

Pimbblet, K. (2015, September 3). The fate of the universe: heat death, Big Rip or cosmic consciousness? The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/the-fate-of-the-universe-heat-death-big-rip-or-cosmic-consciousness-46157  

Siegel, E. (2022, March 4). Ask Ethan: Did our universe really arise from nothing? Big Think. https://bigthink.com/starts-with-a-bang/universe-nothing/

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Paul Sutter

Paul M. Sutter is a research professor in astrophysics at  SUNY Stony Brook University and the Flatiron Institute in New York City. He regularly appears on TV and podcasts, including  "Ask a Spaceman." He is the author of two books, "Your Place in the Universe" and "How to Die in Space," and is a regular contributor to Space.com, Live Science, and more. Paul received his PhD in Physics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2011, and spent three years at the Paris Institute of Astrophysics, followed by a research fellowship in Trieste, Italy. 

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presentation of universe

The history of the universe: Big Bang to now in 10 easy steps

Take a trip through time to discover the history of the universe.

Galaxies near the beginning of the history of the universe

Step 1: How it all started

Step 2: the universe's first growth spurt, step 3: too hot to shine, step 4: let there be light, step 5: emerging from the cosmic dark ages, step 6: more stars and more galaxies, step 7: birth of our solar system, step 8: the invisible stuff in the universe, step 9: the expanding and accelerating universe, step 10: we still need to know more, additional resources, bibliography.

The history of the universe and how it evolved is broadly accepted as the Big Bang model, which states that the universe began as an incredibly hot, dense point roughly 13.7 billion years ago. So, how did the universe go from being fractions of an inch (a few millimeters) across to what it is today? Here is a breakdown of the Big Bang to now in 10 easy-to-understand steps.

Diagram of the big bang

The Big Bang was not an explosion in space, as the theory's name might suggest. Instead, it was the appearance of space everywhere in the universe, researchers have said. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe was born as a very hot, very dense, single point in space. Cosmologists are unsure what happened before this moment, but with sophisticated space missions, ground-based telescopes and complicated calculations, scientists have been working to paint a clearer picture of the early universe and its formation. A key part of this comes from observations of the cosmic microwave background , which contains the afterglow of light and radiation left over from the Big Bang. This relic of the Big Bang pervades the universe and is visible to microwave detectors, which allows scientists to piece together clues of the early universe. In 2001, NASA launched the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission to study the conditions as they existed in the early universe by measuring radiation from the cosmic microwave background. Among other discoveries, WMAP was able to determine the age of the universe — about 13.7 billion years old.

When the universe was very young — something like a hundredth of a billionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second (whew!) — it underwent an incredible growth spurt. During this burst of expansion, which is known as inflation, the universe grew exponentially and doubled in size at least 90 times.

"The universe was expanding, and as it expanded, it got cooler and less dense," David Spergel, a theoretical astrophysicist at Princeton University in Princeton, N.J., told SPACE.com. After inflation, the universe continued to grow, but at a slower rate. 

As space expanded, the universe cooled and matter formed.

Light chemical elements were created within the first three minutes of the universe's formation. As the universe expanded, temperatures cooled and protons and neutrons collided to make deuterium, which is an isotope of hydrogen. Much of this deuterium combined to make helium.

Map of universe created from WMAP data

For the first 380,000 years after the Big Bang, however, the intense heat from the universe's creation made it essentially too hot for light to shine. Atoms crashed together with enough force to break up into a dense, opaque plasma of protons, neutrons and electrons that scattered light like fog.

About 380,000 years after the Big Bang, matter cooled enough for electrons to combine with nuclei to form neutral atoms. This phase is known as "recombination," and the absorption of free electrons caused the universe to become transparent. The light that was unleashed at this time is detectable today in the form of radiation from the cosmic microwave background. Yet, the era of recombination was followed by a period of darkness before stars and other bright objects were formed.

Roughly 400 million years after the Big Bang, the universe began to come out of its dark ages. This period in the universe's evolution is called the age of re-ionization. This dynamic phase was thought to have lasted more than a half-billion years, but based on new observations, scientists think re-ionization may have occurred more rapidly than previously thought. During this time, clumps of gas collapsed enough to form the very first stars and galaxies. The emitted ultraviolet light from these energetic events cleared out and destroyed most of the surrounding neutral hydrogen gas. The process of re-ionization, plus the clearing of foggy hydrogen gas, caused the universe to become transparent to ultraviolet light for the first time.

Hubble image of galaxies

Astronomers comb the universe looking for the most far-flung and oldest galaxies to help them understand the properties of the early universe. Similarly, by studying the cosmic microwave background, astronomers can work backwards to piece together the events that came before. Data from older missions like WMAP and the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), which launched in 1989, and missions still in operation, like the Hubble Space Telescope, which launched in 1990, all help scientists try to solve the most enduring mysteries and answer the most debated questions in cosmology.

Our solar system is estimated to have been born a little after 9 billion years after the Big Bang, making it about 4.6 billion years old. According to current estimates, the sun is one of more than 100 billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy alone, and orbits roughly 25,000 light-years from the galactic core.

Infrared image of developing star

Many scientists think the sun and the rest of our solar system was formed from a giant, rotating cloud of gas and dust known as the solar nebula. As gravity caused the nebula to collapse, it spun faster and flattened into a disk. During this phase, most of the material was pulled toward the center to form the sun.

In the 1960s and 1970s, astronomers began thinking that there might be more mass in the universe than what is visible. Vera Rubin , an astronomer at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, observed the speeds of stars at various locations in galaxies. Basic Newtonian physics implies that stars on the outskirts of a galaxy would orbit more slowly than stars at the center, but Rubin found no difference in the velocities of stars farther out. In fact, she found that all stars in a galaxy seem to circle the center at more or less the same speed. This mysterious and invisible mass became known as dark matter . Dark matter is inferred because of the gravitational pull it exerts on regular matter. One hypothesis states the mysterious stuff could be formed by exotic particles that don't interact with light or regular matter, which is why it has been so difficult to detect. 

An illustration of Earth and dark matter filaments

In the 1920s, astronomer Edwin Hubble made a revolutionary discovery about the universe. Using a newly constructed telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory in Los Angeles, Hubble observed that the universe is not static, but rather is expanding. Decades later, in 1998, the prolific space telescope named after the famous astronomer, the Hubble Space Telescope , studied very distant supernovas and found that, a long time ago, the universe was expanding more slowly than it is today. This discovery was surprising because it was long thought that the gravity of matter in the universe would slow its expansion, or even cause it to contract.

– How big is the universe?

– What is the coldest place in the universe?

– How many black holes are there in the universe?

– What color is the universe?

Dark energy is thought to be the strange force that is pulling the cosmos apart at ever-increasing speeds, but it remains undetected and shrouded in mystery. The existence of this elusive energy, which is thought to make up 80% of the universe, is one of the most hotly debated topics in cosmology.

While much has been discovered about the creation and evolution of the universe, there are enduring questions that remain unanswered. Dark matter and dark energy remain two of the biggest mysteries, but cosmologists continue to probe the universe in hopes of better understanding how it all began.

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), launched in 2021, will continue the hunt for the elusive dark matter, as well as peering back to the beginning of time and the evolution of the universe using its infrared instruments.

Illustration of JWST

For more information about the evolution of the universe check out, " The History of the Universe " by David H. Lyth or " A Brief History of Time " by Stephen Hawking. You can also keep up to date with the discoveries of JWST, visit NASA's dedicated webpage or the European Space Agency's dedicated webpage . 

Scientific American, " The Evolution of the Universe ", October 1994. 

Walter Perry, " Origin and Evolution of the Universe ", Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, November 2021.

Bharat Ratra and Michael S. Vogeley, " The Beginning and Evolution of the Universe ", Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Volume 120, March 2008, 

NASA, " Brief History of the Universe ", December 2006. 

Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! And if you have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at: [email protected].

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Scott Dutfield

Scott is a staff writer for  How It Works  magazine and has previously written for other science and knowledge outlets, including BBC Wildlife magazine, World of Animals magazine,  Space.com  and  All About History magazine . Scott has a masters in science and environmental journalism and a bachelor's degree in conservation biology degree from the University of Lincoln in the U.K. During his academic and professional career, Scott has participated in several animal conservation projects, including English bird surveys, wolf monitoring in Germany and leopard tracking in South Africa. 

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presentation of universe

Origins of the universe, explained

The most popular theory of our universe's origin centers on a cosmic cataclysm unmatched in all of history—the big bang.

The best-supported theory of our universe's origin centers on an event known as the big bang. This theory was born of the observation that other galaxies are moving away from our own at great speed in all directions, as if they had all been propelled by an ancient explosive force.

A Belgian priest named Georges Lemaître first suggested the big bang theory in the 1920s, when he theorized that the universe began from a single primordial atom. The idea received major boosts from Edwin Hubble's observations that galaxies are speeding away from us in all directions, as well as from the 1960s discovery of cosmic microwave radiation—interpreted as echoes of the big bang—by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson.

Further work has helped clarify the big bang's tempo. Here’s the theory: In the first 10^-43 seconds of its existence, the universe was very compact, less than a million billion billionth the size of a single atom. It's thought that at such an incomprehensibly dense, energetic state, the four fundamental forces—gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces—were forged into a single force, but our current theories haven't yet figured out how a single, unified force would work. To pull this off, we'd need to know how gravity works on the subatomic scale, but we currently don't.

It's also thought that the extremely close quarters allowed the universe's very first particles to mix, mingle, and settle into roughly the same temperature. Then, in an unimaginably small fraction of a second, all that matter and energy expanded outward more or less evenly, with tiny variations provided by fluctuations on the quantum scale. That model of breakneck expansion, called inflation, may explain why the universe has such an even temperature and distribution of matter.

After inflation, the universe continued to expand but at a much slower rate. It's still unclear what exactly powered inflation.

Aftermath of cosmic inflation

As time passed and matter cooled, more diverse kinds of particles began to form, and they eventually condensed into the stars and galaxies of our present universe.

For Hungry Minds

By the time the universe was a billionth of a second old, the universe had cooled down enough for the four fundamental forces to separate from one another. The universe's fundamental particles also formed. It was still so hot, though, that these particles hadn't yet assembled into many of the subatomic particles we have today, such as the proton. As the universe kept expanding, this piping-hot primordial soup—called the quark-gluon plasma—continued to cool. Some particle colliders, such as CERN's Large Hadron Collider , are powerful enough to re-create the quark-gluon plasma.

Radiation in the early universe was so intense that colliding photons could form pairs of particles made of matter and antimatter, which is like regular matter in every way except with the opposite electrical charge. It's thought that the early universe contained equal amounts of matter and antimatter. But as the universe cooled, photons no longer packed enough punch to make matter-antimatter pairs. So like an extreme game of musical chairs, many particles of matter and antimatter paired off and annihilated one another.

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Somehow, some excess matter survived—and it's now the stuff that people, planets, and galaxies are made of. Our existence is a clear sign that the laws of nature treat matter and antimatter slightly differently. Researchers have experimentally observed this rule imbalance, called CP violation , in action. Physicists are still trying to figure out exactly how matter won out in the early universe.

the spiral arms in the galaxy Messier 63.

Building atoms

Within the universe's first second, it was cool enough for the remaining matter to coalesce into protons and neutrons, the familiar particles that make up atoms' nuclei. And after the first three minutes, the protons and neutrons had assembled into hydrogen and helium nuclei. By mass, hydrogen was 75 percent of the early universe's matter, and helium was 25 percent. The abundance of helium is a key prediction of big bang theory, and it's been confirmed by scientific observations.

Despite having atomic nuclei, the young universe was still too hot for electrons to settle in around them to form stable atoms. The universe's matter remained an electrically charged fog that was so dense, light had a hard time bouncing its way through. It would take another 380,000 years or so for the universe to cool down enough for neutral atoms to form—a pivotal moment called recombination. The cooler universe made it transparent for the first time, which let the photons rattling around within it finally zip through unimpeded.

We still see this primordial afterglow today as cosmic microwave background radiation , which is found throughout the universe. The radiation is similar to that used to transmit TV signals via antennae. But it is the oldest radiation known and may hold many secrets about the universe's earliest moments.

From the first stars to today

There wasn't a single star in the universe until about 180 million years after the big bang. It took that long for gravity to gather clouds of hydrogen and forge them into stars. Many physicists think that vast clouds of dark matter , a still-unknown material that outweighs visible matter by more than five to one, provided a gravitational scaffold for the first galaxies and stars.

Once the universe's first stars ignited , the light they unleashed packed enough punch to once again strip electrons from neutral atoms, a key chapter of the universe called reionization. In February 2018, an Australian team announced that they may have detected signs of this “cosmic dawn.” By 400 million years after the big bang , the first galaxies were born. In the billions of years since, stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies have formed and re-formed—eventually yielding our home galaxy, the Milky Way, and our cosmic home, the solar system.

Even now the universe is expanding , and to astronomers' surprise, the pace of expansion is accelerating. It's thought that this acceleration is driven by a force that repels gravity called dark energy . We still don't know what dark energy is, but it’s thought that it makes up 68 percent of the universe's total matter and energy. Dark matter makes up another 27 percent. In essence, all the matter you've ever seen—from your first love to the stars overhead—makes up less than five percent of the universe.

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Top 25 Space PowerPoint Templates to Know More About Universe!

Top 25 Space PowerPoint Templates to Know More About Universe!

Deepali Khatri

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What is Space? Is it something that can be measured with a ruler? A very simple answer to this can be, Space means everything what’s between planets, moons, starts, etc. In simple words space is everything beyond the top of Earth’s atmosphere- the satellites, Moon, mars, Milky way, and much more.

To know more about space, the space astronomy, the galaxies, satellites, asteroids, planets and other things in the space it is not possible for every individual to go there and explore the galaxies and the universe. This is why we have created an equivalent tool that will aid you in exploring more about universe and its constituents.

These PowerPoint slides can not only be used for astronomical discoveries but can also be used by the social science teachers to acquaint the students with the movement of the planets, how they affect the weather, and the occurrence of days and nights. So, download these space PowerPoint templates for presentations requiring background of stars and Universe.

Space PowerPoint Templates:

Space Earth PowerPoint Background And Template-1

Space Earth PowerPoint Background And Template

Get this Space Earth PowerPoint Template

Get this space earth PowerPoint template to share the new discoveries in space. Scientist can display how the Milky Way galaxy launches newly formed stars into the space. Talk about various planets in the universe, different galaxies, asteroids, meteors, etc. using this ready-made space earth PPT slide.

Universe Theme Showing Sunrise From Outer Space-2

Universe Theme Showing Sunrise From Outer Space

Download this Universe Theme Showing Sunrise from Outer Space

Incorporate the above shown professionally designed PowerPoint template to talk about the universe and its stories. Unveil the mechanism of its working. Students can also prepare their physics assignments taking the advantage of this PowerPoint templates. Science teachers can include this PowerPoint slide to teach children about the universe, planets and Sun to clear their concepts.

Planets In Space Earth PowerPoint Templates And PowerPoint Backgrounds-3

Planets In Space Earth PowerPoint Templates And PowerPoint Backgrounds

Download this Planet in Space PowerPoint Template

Explore universe and the planets by employing this planet in space PowerPoint slide. This amazingly curated PowerPoint layout can be used in astrology seminars. Astronomers can also download this pre-developed PowerPoint slide. Not only this, teachers can make the students learn about Earth and various planets with this visually appealing PowerPoint slide.

Man Carrying Rocket Ship On Back-4

Man Carrying Rocket Ship On Back

Grab this Man Carrying Rocket Ship on Back PowerPoint Slide Show

Talk about some interesting facts of rocket ship. Discuss about the most powerful rocket ever made. Mention the uses and benefits of rockets. Display how NASA uses rockets to launch people and things into the space. Jot down the names of the rockets like Delta II, Taurus, Atlas V that NASA uses. Let the students know about the fastest rocket on Earth which is Juno Space craft.

Rocket With Globe Space And Planets Icons Flat PowerPoint Design-5

Rocket With Globe Space And Planets Icons Flat PowerPoint Design

Download this Rocket with Globe Space and Planet Icons PowerPoint Slide

Professionals working in the field of aerospace technology can employ this slide to demonstrate the concept related to their industry. Students studying aerospace engineering can use it to prepare their projects and assignments. The template gives you a lot of space to jot down your ideas and talk about rockets and various planets.

Launch Readiness Rocket Going Up In Space Shuttle-6

Launch Readiness Rocket Going Up In Space Shuttle

Grab this Launch Readiness Rocket PowerPoint Slide

This PPT slide is perfect to talk how does rocket ship fly. Mention all the stages related to rocket launch and share some important facts related to rocket ship. This amazing launch readiness PowerPoint slide can be used for preparing any presentation related to space or rocket. DRDO can use this slide to decide and plan about their next mission.

Space Planets Earth PowerPoint Templates And PowerPoint Backgrounds-7

Space Planets Earth PowerPoint Templates And PowerPoint Backgrounds

Grab this Space Planets PowerPoint Slide Design

The above shown PowerPoint depicts a solar system. Science teachers can download this PowerPoint slide to guide students about the universe and planets in it. Discuss the big bang theory, galaxies and asteroids with the help of this creatively designed PowerPoint slide. Talk about the satellite each planet has. It can also be used by the astrologers for space astronomy.

Launch Readiness Showing Discovery In The Space Shuttle Launch-8

Launch Readiness Showing Discovery In The Space Shuttle Launch

Click here to Get this Launch Readiness Showing Discovery PowerPoint Layout

Use this professionally designed Launch readiness PowerPoint template to showcase the devised strategies for a successful launch. One can also talk about the rockets and how they send satellite into the orbits. DRDO can explain its next mission by showcasing their plans regarding the launch of this predeveloped PowerPoint slide design.

Earth Globe PowerPoint Backgrounds And Templates-9

Earth Globe PowerPoint Backgrounds And Templates

Grab this Earth Globe PowerPoint Slide Design

This slide is perfect for showcasing the facts about Earth. Let your viewers know how Earth looks form space. Share the changing view of Earth from space with this professionally designed Earth Globe PowerPoint Slide. Educators can explain the concept of social studies by writing the facts on this PPT slide and can make the students understand the concepts easily. It can serve as a great tool for the space related presentation also.

Space Satellite Icon PowerPoint Shapes-10

Space Satellite Icon PowerPoint Shapes

Download this Space Satellite Icon PPT Template

Explain the concepts related to satellites using this ready-made space satellite PowerPoint slide design. Make students understand how many types of satellites are there i.e. artificial and natural. Mention the name of the satellites of different planet by incorporating this readily available satellite icon PowerPoint layout.

Coloured Earth From Space Abstract PowerPoint Templates And PowerPoint Backgrounds-11

Coloured Earth From Space Abstract PowerPoint Templates And PowerPoint Backgrounds

Click here to Download this Coloured Earth from Space PowerPoint Template

This slide can be used to showcase how Earth looks from space. Display the changing view of the planet earth and talk about some interesting facts of Earth and the other planets. It can be used for the presentations related to general knowledge and education. Incorporate this PowerPoint template for presentation on scientific topics as well.

Space Ship In Star Wars Image-12

Space Ship In Star Wars Image

Get this Space Ship In Star Wars Image PowerPoint Slide

The above shown professionally designed PowerPoint template can be used to demonstrate space shuttle and advance technology of satellite. Engage your viewers in astrology and physics related topics. Customize the template as per your convenience and use it for space and technology programs.

Space Satellite On Moon Icon-13 

Space Satellite On Moon Icon

Get this Space Satellite on Moon Icon PowerPoint Template

You can use this PPT template to list down mission to the Moon. Mention the countries which have satellite on moon. Talk about Chandrayaan 2 and the strategies made during that mission. Display the plans made for the controversial satellites. For educational presentation requiring satellite background this PPT layout can be downloaded.

Alien Creature Travelling In Space Craft Icon-14

Alien Creature Travelling In Space Craft Icon

Download this Alien Creature Travelling PowerPoint Template

This PPT template can be used for kids in the TV shows and movies. Talk about aliens and their stories with this creatively designed Alien creature travelling in space PowerPoint template. Display the interesting facts and stories about aliens using this PowerPoint template.

Image Depicting American Astronaut Taking Space Challenges-15

Image Depicting American Astronaut Taking Space Challenges

Get this Image Depicting American Astronaut PowerPoint Template

The above shown PowerPoint slide can be used to showcase the basic requirements. The examination that NASA astronauts must pass can also be depicted with the help of this professionally designed PowerPoint template. This template can be used in presentation related to general knowledge. Mention the name of the astronaut that was Yuri Gagarin who was the first person to fly in space. This will help in enhancing the knowledge of students.

Satellite Telecom Image-16

Satellite Telecom Image

Download this Satellite Telecom Image PPT Graphic

The above shown creatively designed PowerPoint template can be used to impart some general knowledge to the viewers on satellite. State the number and the names of various satellite that each planet has. It can also be used to display the space studies and findings. Showcase the elements of satellite communication to give people a better understanding of the topic.

Universe Theme With Satellite Image Of Earth-17

Universe Theme With Satellite Image Of Earth

Download this Universe Theme PPT Slide

State some interesting facts about universe and the planets in it. Talk about the satellite of each planet and showcase its working. Display how these satellites are controlled and how it receives signals from earth and re-transmit those signals. One can also present the working of satellite communication from space.

Satellite Icon With Clouds And Frequency-18

Satellite Icon With Clouds And Frequency

Click here to Grab this Satellite Icon with Clouds and Frequency PPT Slide

Display the affect of rain and clouds on satellite. The pre-designed template can also be used to present the influence of clouds and rain on the waveform signature from satellite. Display the space findings and the research done with the assistance of this ready-made Satellite icon PowerPoint template.

Space Satellite Icon With Four Text Holders-19

Space Satellite Icon With Four Text Holders

Download this Space Satellite Icon PPT Slide

Let your audience know about the number of satellites which are there in the space. Also, throw a light on the workings of the satellite in the space using this creative space satellite PowerPoint slide design. Mention the names of the countries which have satellite in the space. This PPT slide is a great tool for making presentation related to education or general knowledge.

Space Sunrise Science PowerPoint Templates-20

Space Sunrise Science PowerPoint Templates

Download this Space Sunrise Science PowerPoint Template

The above shown PowerPoint slide will let you convey how sunrise look from space. Talk about the views of scientists on sunset and sunrise. Let your viewers know why astronauts who lived in space avoid looking at the sun because of the harmful aspect of sun rays. Talk about all the interesting facts of sunrise using this professionally designed PowerPoint template.

Space Satellite Icon With Two Planets-21

Space Satellite Icon With Two Planets

Download this Space Satellite Icon with Two Planets PowerPoint Slide Design

This PPT slide can be perfectly used to make the students understand the concept of satellites. Talk about the artificial and the natural satellite and educate students in a visually appealing way. The template is apt for presentation on the topic of general knowledge and can also be used by the educators of social studies and science to guide the children.

Universe Theme With Bright Star In Center-22

Universe Theme With Bright Star In Center

Incorporate this Professionally Designed Universe Theme PowerPoint Template

Talk about fascinating stories of Universe and how it was created. Let your viewers know about the creators of Universe. Explore universe and discuss about the big bang theory, galaxies, meteors and asteroids. The above shown creatively designed PPT template can be used for space astronomy as well.

Planets In Space Geographical PowerPoint Templates-23

Planets In Space Geographical PowerPoint Templates

Download this Planets in Space Geographical PPT Template

Here is a perfect PowerPoint template to showcase all the planets in the solar system and talk a little about each planet. This slide can be perfectly used for making the students understand entire solar system and for making the kids learn the names of the planets. Talk about the satellites each planet has and about some of the features of each planet taking the assistance of this ready-made PowerPoint slide.

Universe Theme With Galaxies In Different Colors-24

Universe Theme With Galaxies In Different Colors

Download this Readymade Universe PowerPoint Slide

This PowerPoint template can be used to discuss every detail about the galaxy and its types, the number of galaxies, etc. Discuss about Milky way and let them know that this galaxy is a huge collection of gas, dust and billions of stars using this amazing PowerPoint slide. Showcase the most famous galaxies in our universe using this PPT template.

Universe Theme With Earths Image From Moon Surface-25

Universe Theme With Earths Image From Moon Surface

Click here to Download this Professionally Designed PowerPoint Template

Get this Universe theme PPT template and showcase to the viewers how Earth is a satellite of Sun and Moon is a satellite for Earth. Let people know how Earth looks from the Moon’s surface. Mention a little about "earth rise" which is a picture of Earth and some of the Moon’s surface that was taken by one of the astronauts.

So, incorporate the above shown templates and prepare projects, assignments and educational presentations requiring background with stars and Milky way.

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Giant structure in space challenges understanding of the universe

blue ring red arc of galaxies in the sky with constellations

Evrim Yazgin

Evrim Yazgin has a Bachelor of Science majoring in mathematical physics and a Master of Science in physics, both from the University of Melbourne.

About 9.2 billion light-years from Earth is a colossal structure which has confounded astronomers.

The discovery might upend current cosmological theories.

What they’ve found is a 1.3-billion-light-year-across, almost perfect ring of galaxies. No such structure has been seen before. And it doesn’t match any known formation mechanism. It has been dubbed the “Big Ring.”

The discovery was presented at the 243rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society and is detailed in a pre-print paper available on arXiv .

It is the second giant structure found by teams led by Alexia Lopez, an astronomer at the University of Central Lancashire in the UK. The first, a giant arc of galaxies, was unveiled in 2022. That structure is 3.3 billion light-years across and appears in the same region of sky at the same distance from Earth as the Big Ring.

“Neither of these two ultra-large structures is easy to explain in our current understanding of the universe,” Lopez says. “And their ultra-large sizes, distinctive shapes, and cosmological proximity must surely be telling us something important – but what exactly?”

NASA confirms new Saturn moon mission

A possible explanation for the Big Ring, according to Lopez, is “Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations” (BAOs).

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“BAOs arise from oscillations in the early universe and today should appear, statistically at least, as spherical shells in the arrangement of galaxies. However, detailed analysis of the Big Ring revealed it is not really compatible with the BAO explanation: the Big Ring is too large and is not spherical.”

Another possibility is the structures are remnants of “defects” in the early universe called cosmic strings.

The structures challenge the so-called “Cosmological Principle.”

“The Cosmological Principle assumes that the part of the universe we can see is viewed as a ‘fair sample’ of what we expect the rest of the universe to be like,” Lopez explains. “We expect matter to be evenly distributed everywhere in space when we view the universe on a large scale, so there should be no noticeable irregularities above a certain size.”

“Cosmologists calculate the current theoretical size limit of structures to be 1.2 billion light-years, yet both of these structures are much larger,” Lopez adds.

“From current cosmological theories we didn’t think structures on this scale were possible. We could expect maybe one exceedingly large structure in all our observable universe. Yet, the Big Ring and the Giant Arc are two huge structures and are even cosmological neighbours, which is extraordinarily fascinating,” Lopez says.

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Originally published by Cosmos as Giant structure in space challenges understanding of the universe

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The Universe May Be Shaped Like a Hall of Mirrors, Scientists Say

There's a highway to the edge....

For decades now , scientists have argued about how the universe is shaped, in the sense of complex parameters that govern the rules of space and time. Is it a simple open expanse, like a bigger version of the spaces we're used to? Does it wrap around on itself like a donut? Or something even stranger?

Now, new research published in the journal Physical Review Letters , in the inaugural paper from a new consortium of cosmologists known as the COMPACT Collaboration, found that the "topology" of the universe — the shape of its geometry, basically — is likely anything but simple.

The researchers looked at the universe's cosmic microwave background , which is basically the inherent "glow" of space, dating back to ancient radiation at the dawn of time.

While they didn't nail down any one definite topology for the universe, they did find that data on the universe's background radiation doesn't rule out some seriously exotic shapes — and in fact, we might just live in something akin to an infinite hall of mirrors.

Twist and Shout

Take the main focus of the paper, a shape known as a "3-torus." As the American Physical Society explained in a summary of the paper, that would be like if there was a cube on which each set of opposing sides were connected — meaning that no matter how large the universe  appears , if you peer deep enough into its depths, you'll see the back of your head.

The APA described the effect as a "hall of mirrors," adding that "lines of [sight] within a 3-torus form closed loops that return to the viewer, so everything appears to repeat infinitely."

Obviously, this is all just dealing with what's possible, not what actually is — which is why COMPACT is looking to see if they can find a "detectable topological fingerprint" in the cosmic background radiation that might give a more definite answer.

In an interview with the APS, Columbia cosmologist Oliver Philcox, who wasn't involved in the new paper, seemed to agree that any informed guess is worth considering.

"There’s a lot of possible ways the universe could be topologically connected," Philcox said, "and it’s hard to rule them out."

More on cosmological puzzles: Physicists Say They May Have Found a Powerful Glitch in the Universe

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formation of the universe

Formation of the Universe

Jul 18, 2014

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Formation of the Universe. Nebula. All the ingredients for building planets, moons, and stars are found in the vast, seemingly empty regions of space between the stars.

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Presentation Transcript

Nebula • All the ingredients for building planets, moons, and stars are found in the vast, seemingly empty regions of space between the stars. • Clouds in space are called Nebulas – mixture of gases (mainly hydrogen and helium) and dust (elements such as carbon and iron). • Gravity pulls matter together – nebulas are less dense than air . Therefore the gravitational pull is very weak.

Nebulae • The relationship between temperature and pressure keep the nebula from collapsing. • Temperature is the measure of average kinetic energy (energy in motion) of the particles in an object. • Little energy = slow movement and low temperature • High energy = fast movement and high temperature. • Pressure = when the moving particles collide they push away from one another

How a Solar System Forms • Globules – compressed regions of a nebula • Solar Nebula – the nebula that formed our solar system. (These collapse) • Planetesimals – small planets • Outer planets – planetesimals that formed near the outer part of the solar disk where the hydrogen and helium were located. (gas giants) • Inner planets – planetesimals that formed closer to the nebula’s center (too hot for gases to remain ) mostly rocky material.

Nuclear Fusion • The process where the nuclei of two or more small atoms combine (fuse) to form a larger nucleus – releases a lot of energy. • Sun = 4 hydrogen nuclei fuse together to form one nucleus of Helium. • Radiative Zone – dense region of the Sun through which energy from the core passes • Convective Zone – Region of the Sun where gases circulate and carry energy to the photosphere • Photosphere – The visible surface of the Sun.

Solar Activity • Sunspots – cooler, dark spots of the photosphere of the sun. - Cycle about every 11 years. • Solar Flares – regions of extremely high temperature and brightness that develop on the sun’s surface.

Solar Flares

The Earth takes Shape • Made mostly of rock, ¾ of the planet is covered with water. Surrounded by protective layer (atmosphere) made mostly of nitrogen and oxygen (and small amounts of other gases). • Formed as a small planetesimals collided and combined. • Gravity – holds us together and made our shape more round.

Causes of Heat: • Planetesimals colliding with Earth generated heat. • Radioactive material heated the Earth • All of this created an enormous amount of energy.. • Effects of heat: • Volcanoes, earthquakes, hot springs • Created the layers of the Earth.

Earth’s Layers The core of the Earth is like a ball of very hot metals. The outer core is liquid. The outer core is made up of iron and is very dense.

1.) Crust= thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth (above the Mantle) 2.) Mantle = The layer of rock between the Earth’s crust and core 3.) Core = The central part of the Earth below the mantle

Layers of the EARTH INNER CORE 800 miles thick and up to 13,000 F CRUST 5 to 25 miles thick and up to 1,600 F OUTER CORE 1,400 miles thick and up to 11,000 F MANTLE 1,800 miles thick and up to 8,000 F

Earth’s Atmosphere 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% Argon -0.03 % Carbon Dioxide Misc. other gases.

Early Atmosphere • Early Atmosphere was a mixture of gases that were released as the Earth cooled. • Scientist think that Earth’s early atmosphere was a steamy mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor. (The molten rock released these)

Volcanoes contribution • Volcanoes probably formed from volcanic gases. • They released chlorine, nitrogen, and sulfur as well as the carbon dioxide and water vapor. • (Some of this water vapor may have condensed to form the Earth’s first oceans.) • Comets crashed to Earth creating craters, also contributed carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen to the Earth.

Ultraviolet Radiation and Life • Scientist think UV radiation helped produce the conditions necessary for life. • It has a lot of energy and can break apart molecules in the air. With no Ozone to protect the early Earth. • Molecules in the air and at the Earth’s surface broke up and ended up in the water. These chemicals may have combined to form complex molecules that made life possible. • Then organisms that produced food by photosynthesis appeared and with this process oxygen was released. This increased over time and formed our ozone layer.

Oceans and Continents • Once the Earth cooled enough rain fell and remained on the surface. • By about 4 billion years ago a global ocean covered the planet. • Rocks on the Earth have melted and cooled many times – each time they melted the heavier elements sank and the lighter ones rose to the surface. After time, some of the rocks were light enough to pile on the surface. Voila – Continents.

Planetary Motion • Earth spins on its axis – the spin of a body on its axis is ROTATION. • The ORBIT is the path that a body follows as it travels around another body in space. • One complete orbit is a REVOLUTION. • Therefore the Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the Sun in an orbit.

Kepler’s3 Laws of Motion • 1.) Planets orbit the Sun in an Elongated circle called an ellipse. • An Ellipse’s maximum length is the MAJOR AXIS • Half the distance is the SEMIMAJOR AXIS • The semimajor axis is used to describe the size of the ellipse. • 2.) Planets move faster closer to the Sun and slower when they are far away. • 3.) Planets further away from the Sun take longer to orbit the Sun.

Law of Universal Gravitation • Newton’s law of Universal Gravitation states that the force of gravity depends on the product of the masses of the objects divided by the square of the distance between the objects. so if the objects are moved twice as far apart = 2² if they are moved 10 times as far apart = 10² Inertia = an object’s resistance in speed or direction until the outside force acts on the object.

Chapter 21 • The Solar System…. • Ooooooooooohhhhhhhhhhhhh……..

Calculations • Distances are measured in Astronomical Units • One AU (astronomical unit) = distance from the Earth to the Sun. The Speed of light = 300,000 km per second Light minute = the distance light travels in one minute (18,000,000 km) How many AU = 8.3 light minutes? One Distances can be measured in Light minutes as well as light hours.

Telescopes • Up until the 17th century only 8 bodies were known.. Earth, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Sun and the Moon. • When the telescope – 9 more large bodies were known by the end of the 17th century. • By the end of the 18th century Uranus, its two moons and two more of Saturn’s moons. • In the 19th century Neptune and the moons of other planets discovered. • 20th century – Pluto and other bodies found

Inner verses Outer • 4 closest planets to the Sun • Denser and Rockier – known as terrestrial planets • Spaced closely together • Terrestrial planet = one of 4 highly dense planets near the Sun • 4 farthest planets from the Sun • Larger and composed mainly of gas. • “Gas Giants”

Section Review 1.) What is an Astronomical Unit? The average distance from Earth to the Sun 2.) When was Uranus discovered? 18th Century 3.) What invention helped early scientist discover more bodies in our solar system? Telescope 4.) How are the inner planets different from the outer planets? Inner planets are dense and rocky – the outer ones are large and made mainly of gas

Rotations • Prograde Rotation = The counterclockwise spin of a planet or moon as seen from above the planet’s north pole. (same as Sun’s rotation). • Retrograde Rotation = The clockwise spin of a planet or moon as seen from above the planet’s north pole.

How Old • If I lived on Mercury I would be 178 years old and Mrs. Lewis would be 149. • If you are 10 you would be 42 • If you are 11 you would be 46 • If you are 12 you would be 50 • Because on Mercury 1 year = 88 days.

Rotation verses Revolution Rotation Revolution • Mercury = 58days 19hours • Venus = 243days 16hours (R) • Earth = 23hours 56 min • Mars = 24hours 40 min • 88 days • 224days 17 hours • 365days 6hours • 1year 322 days On Venus a day is longer (243 days) than a year (224)

Venus • Venus is only slightly smaller than Earth. Its atmosphere is slightly less dense, and slightly less massive. • Because it has a retrograde rotation, the Sun rises in the west and sets in the east. • It has volcanoes on the surface like Earth • Its surface temperature is 464⁰ c – this is due to its greenhouse effect. • Greenhouse effect is where the carbon dioxide traps all the thermal energy from sunlight.

Why is Earth so Special? • 1.) Earth formed at just the right distance from the Sun. Therefore it is warm enough to keep most of its water from freezing but cool enough (unlike Venus) to keep its water from boiling away. (liquid water is essential for chemical processes that living things need). What is the Earth Science Enterprise? NASA’s program that uses satellites to study Earth’s atmosphere, land, oceans, life, and ice.

Mars • Mars has a thinner atmosphere and of the 4 inner planets it is the farthest away from the Sun. • Colder – and the air is so thin it is like our atmosphere at 30,000km • This makes the pressure so thin that liquid water boils quickly away. • The only water present is in the form of ice. – (Evidence shows that liquid water existed in Mars’ past). • Scientist believe that the water now exists as polar ice caps and as ice beneath the surface.

Section Two Review What is a terrestrial planet? A planet that has a solid rocky surface A counterclockwise rotation of a planet or moon. Define Prograde Rotation Define Retrograde Rotation. A clockwise rotation of a planet or moon What is the difference between a planet’s period of rotation and period of revolution? Period of rotation = time a planet takes to rotate on its axis. Period of revolution = time a planet takes to revolve around the Sun Why is Venus’ surface temperature higher than other planets? Because of its greenhouse effect

The Outer Planets – Gas Giants Rotation Revolution • Jupiter = 9 hours 54 minutes • Saturn = 10 hours 42 minutes • Uranus = 17 hours 12 minutes • Neptune = 16 hours 6 minutes • Jupiter = 11 years 313 days • Saturn = 29 years 155 days • Uranus = 83 years 273 days • Neptune = 163 years 263 days Gas Giants are planets that have deep, massive atmospheres rather than hard and rocky surfaces like those of the inner planets.

Jupiter Saturn • Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system • Atmosphere is made of layered clouds of water, methane and ammonia. • Gives off more energy than it receives from the Sun. • Great Red Spot = a storm system over 400 years old and about 3 times the diameter of Earth • Still forming (helium falls from the atmosphere and sinks to the core). • Rings are made of icy particles ranging in size from a few cm to several meters wide. • Atmosphere is made of methane, ammonia, and ethane. • Gives off more energy than it receives from the Sun

Uranus Neptune • Atmosphere is mainly hydrogen and methane • Blue color comes because the elements (hydrogen and methane) absorb the red part of sunlight. • Tilted – Uranus is tipped over on its side. Its axis of rotation is tilted almost 90⁰ • Atmosphere is mainly hydrogen and methane. • Atmosphere has belts of clouds that are much more visible. • Great Dark Spot like Jupiter’s Great Red Spot.

Pluto • Now classified a Dwarf Planet • ½ the size of Mercury • Made mainly of ice and rock. (scientist think that it is covered in frozen nitrogen) • Atmosphere = thin and made of methane • Moon (Charon) is half Pluto’s size. • Pluto’s classification was questioned when Eris was discovered – Eris is larger than Pluto. • Dwarf Planets = any object that orbits the sun, is round because of its own gravity, but has not cleared its orbital path.

Classification • A planet orbits a star • Has enough mass to be rounded out by its own gravity. • Not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion • Has cleared its own field of debris. (planetesimals, etc)

Moons (section 4) • Satellites – a natural or artificial body that revolves around a planet. • The surface of the moon tells us a lot. We know how old the moon is and can therefore count the number of craters to find the rate of cratering since the birth of our solar system. This information can be used to number the craters on other bodies and determine their age.

How our moon formed • When we collected moon rocks during Apollo 11, scientist found their composition to be similar to that of the Earth’s mantle. • Scientist believe that while the Earth was forming a large Mars-sized object hit the Earth and a part of the mantle was blasted into orbit. • Phase: The change in the sunlit area of one celestial body as seen from another celestial body.

Phases of the Moon

Waxing = the sunlit fraction that we can see is getting larger. • Waning = the sunlit fraction is getting smaller. • Half the moon is always lit by the sun just like half of the Earth is always lit. • The moon’s period of rotation is the same as its period of revolution so we always see the same side of the moon.

Eclipse = an event in which the shadow of one celestial body falls on another A solar Eclipse – the moon comes between Earth and the Sun – the shadow of the moon falls on part of the Earth A lunar eclipse – Earth comes between the Sun and the Moon – the shadow of the Earth falls on the Moon

The Moons of Other Planets • Mars has two moon – Phobos and Deimos (they are small, dark, and oddly shaped. Surface materials like some asteroids. • All the Gas Giants have multiple moons. • Jupiter has dozens of moons – The largest are Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa. These were all discovered by Galileo in 1610. (Galilean satellites). • Saturn also has dozens of moons – made mostly of frozen water. The largest is Titan.

Jupiter Saturn

Uranus, Neptune and Pluto’s moons • Uranus has several moons – made of ice and rock. • Miranda has smooth cratered plains but it also has regions with grooves and cliffs. • Neptune – several known moons. Only one is large – Titon. It has a retrograde orbit. • Pluto – has at least three moons. Charon, Hydra, Nix The largest is Charon.

Section Summary A ______ is a body that revolves around a larger body (natural or artificial). Satellite Ganymede is a Galilean satellite ? True A large body collided with Earth causing part of the Earth’s mantle to eject into orbit around the Earth Describe the current theory for the orgin of Earth’s moon. What causes the phases of the moon? The phases result from the moon’s changing position relative to Earth and the Sun. What is the difference between a lunar and a solar eclipse? Lunar = Earth comes between the Sun and the Moon. Solar = the moon comes between Earth and the Sun

Comets • Comet – A small body of ice, rock, and cosmic dust loosely packed together. (dirty snowballs). • Comets have tails when they come close to the Sun. The solar radiation heats the ice so the comet gives off gas and dust in the form of a tail. Sometimes it has two tails – an ion tail and a dust tail. • The center is the nucleus. • Orbits the Sun in a elliptical manner • Many scientist think that comets come from the Oort cloud. – a spherical region that surrounds the solar system. They also exist in the Kuiper belt (outside the orbit of Neptune).

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FORMATION OF THE UNIVERSE

FORMATION OF THE UNIVERSE

FORMATION OF THE UNIVERSE. Application of space technologies to the study of changes in Earth and its systems. Cosmology and Astronomy. Cosmology  is the study of the origin, evolution, properties, and processes of the universe .

407 views • 24 slides

Formation of the Universe Review

Formation of the Universe Review

Formation of the Universe Review. observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving. Doppler Effect. theory that all matter and energy in the universe exploded 10 to 15 billion years ago and began expanding in all directions. Big Bang Theory. Big Bang Theory.

574 views • 41 slides

Formation of the Universe

Formation of the Universe. Pgs. 114 - 117. How did the universe begin?. It is puzzling to try to figure out how everything in the entire universe came to be. The study of the origin and future of the universe is cosmology.

548 views • 13 slides

Evidence for the formation on the Universe

Evidence for the formation on the Universe

Evidence for the formation on the Universe. How do we know the Universe is expanding?. __. __. The Doppler Effect. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Pg. 14 in your Best Friend. Evidence for the Big Bang. light from distant galaxies all shift toward red. Stars emit light.

259 views • 16 slides

Studies of Star Formation in the Nearby Universe

Studies of Star Formation in the Nearby Universe

Studies of Star Formation in the Nearby Universe . Jeff Mangum. NRAO. Extragalactic Star Formation. Multi-transition analysis of molecular excitation within high spatial density (n(H2) > 10^5 cm^-3) and high kinetic temperature ( Tk > 100 K) environments

278 views • 11 slides

Engaging the Mind “Star Formation Throughout the Universe”

Engaging the Mind “Star Formation Throughout the Universe”

Engaging the Mind “Star Formation Throughout the Universe”. Kelsey Johnson UVa, Dept of Astronomy. The Cosmic Ecosystem. If stars didn’t form, none of this other stuff would happen!. what kind of stars , and how many stars form are very important.

432 views • 24 slides

Star Formation in the Universe

Star Formation in the Universe

Star Formation in the Universe. Robert Kennicutt Institute of Astronomy University of Cambridge. Lectures. 1. Diagnostics of Star Formation Rates 2. Demographics of Star-Forming Galaxies and Starbursts (Mon 1pm)

871 views • 69 slides

The Formation and Evolution of the Universe!

The Formation and Evolution of the Universe!

A review of:. The Formation and Evolution of the Universe!. The BIG BANG. ~14 Billion years ago Dense, hot, tiny, massive point in space Exploded Universe expanded to its current state, and is still expanding due to the force of that explosion.

429 views • 21 slides

EVENT 1: Formation of the UNIVERSE

EVENT 1: Formation of the UNIVERSE

EVENT 1: Formation of the UNIVERSE. Air composition Early atm. EVENT 2: Formation of the EARTH. Complex molecules “Mud formation”. EVENT 3: Mixture of elements. CO2 — Carbon dioxide CO — Carbon monoxide H2O — Water N2 — Nitrogen CH4 — Methane NH3 — Ammonia.

333 views • 21 slides

Part 3 The History of Stellar Formation in the Universe

Part 3 The History of Stellar Formation in the Universe

Part 3 The History of Stellar Formation in the Universe. 1) Multi-wavelength views of the past active star formation phases. 2) Galaxy build up with cosmic time. 3) General constraints from the cosmological fossil remnants of the past activity (stars, metals, background radiations)

589 views • 45 slides

Theory on the Formation of the Universe

Theory on the Formation of the Universe

Theory on the Formation of the Universe. Popular Theories. Steady State Theory - theory suggesting that the universe & everything within it is unchanging. Elastic Theory - the universe acts like a rubber band, expanding & contracting over time (currently it is expanding)

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Galaxy Formation in the Early Universe

Galaxy Formation in the Early Universe

Galaxy Formation in the Early Universe. (z≥7). Haojing Yan Center for Cosmology & AstroParticle Physics Ohio State University CCAPP Symposium 2009 October 14, 2009.

319 views • 19 slides

Origin and Formation of the Universe

Origin and Formation of the Universe

Origin and Formation of the Universe. “I CAN” Statements Origin/Formation of the Universe. Identify and Compare the two theories of universe formation [L2] Describe the evidences supporting the Big Bang Theory and universe expansion [L3] Abundance of light elements

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The Formation of the First Star in the Universe

The Formation of the First Star in the Universe

The Formation of the First Star in the Universe. Abel, Bryan, Norman 2001 Presented Nov 19, 2009 PHY 689 Galaxy Formation. Initial Conditions. Simulating the birth of the very first star has straightforward requirements: Basic Chemical and Radiative processes Negligible B -fields

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How have Theories of the formation and structure of the universe changed?

How have Theories of the formation and structure of the universe changed?

S6E1a. Relate the Nature of Science to the progression of basic historical scientific models (geocentric, heliocentric) as they describe our solar system, and the Big Bang as it describes the formation of the universe. How have Theories of the formation and structure of the universe changed?.

641 views • 25 slides

Formation of the Universe

Formation of the Universe. What is the Big Bang theory?. The Big Bang Theory states that the Universe began 13.6 billion yrs ago as a singularity and has been expanding ever since. But it wasn’t big, and there was no bang!. Big Bang Proof. Testing the Big Bang model.

199 views • 18 slides

Star Formation in the Universe

719 views • 69 slides

Formation of the Universe

Formation of the Universe. Cosmology. Cosmology is the study of the Nature, Structure, Origin, And fate of the universe. Universe in a Nutshell. Big Bang Theory. The Big Bang Theory was first proposed in the late 1920 ’ s.

638 views • 58 slides

The Big Bang theory of the formation of the universe

The Big Bang theory of the formation of the universe

All material in the universe was created in a huge "explosion," creating and defining matter and space. The sudden cooling of the superheated ejecta facilitated the combination of atomic components into atoms and molecules.

179 views • 13 slides

Rise and fall of structure formation  in the Universe

Rise and fall of structure formation in the Universe

4 th Sakharov Conference on Physics , 19 May 2009. Rise and fall of structure formation in the Universe. V.N. Lukash Astro Space Centre of Lebedev Institute Co: E.V. Mikheeva, V.N. Strokov. Astronomy vs physics Early and late Universe Geometry & Structure Dark energy .

587 views • 58 slides

presentation of universe

‘Lord of the Rings' Anime Feature, DC's ‘Creature Commandos' Set for Warner Bros. Presentation at Annecy

The new Lord of the Rings anime movie and the first DC Universe title from James Gunn are among the Warner Bros. projects that will be highlighted during the Annecy International Animation Film Festival that takes place next month.

Warner Bros. Animation, Cartoon Network Studios and Hanna-Barbera Studios Europe shared their plans Monday for the annual animation fest held June 9-15 in Annecy, France.

Among the planned events include Andy Serkis hosting a filmmaker conversation and extended look at The Lord of the Rings: The War of the Rohirrim , the anime feature that hails from New Line Cinema and Warner Bros. Animation. Director Kenji Kamiyama and producers Philippa Boyens, Joseph Chou and Jason DeMarco will take part in the discussion and present the first footage from the movie that Warner Bros. is set to release theatrically on Dec. 13.

The animation process is currently underway for The Lord of the Rings: The War of the Rohirrim , which centers on the fortress of Helm's Deep and its founder, Helm Hammerhand, the King of Rohan. (Images from the project can be seen above and below.) Last week, Warner Bros. announced that a live-action Lord of the Rings film from director Serkis is in early development and eyeing a 2026 release.

Other programming highlights at Annecy from the studio include a making-of session for Creature Commandos , which marks the first DC Studios project from bosses Gunn and Peter Safran. Gunn serves as executive producer and writer for the Max animated series that hails from DC Studios and Warner Bros. Animation and does not yet have a premiere date.

At the Annecy presentation, Creature Commandos supervising producer Rick Morales and supervising director Balak Yves will share an in-depth look at the artistic process behind the series that focuses on Amanda Waller (Viola Davis) forming a military group comprised of monstrous villains.

Also set for Annecy is a panel sharing an inside look at the return of the Cartoon Network series The Amazing World of Gumball , in addition to a world-premiere screening of the forthcoming animated feature The Day the Earth Blew Up: A Looney Tunes Movie .

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‘Lord of the Rings' Anime Feature, DC's ‘Creature Commandos' Set for Warner Bros. Presentation at Annecy

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Scientists Say Our Universe Might Be a Hall of Mirrors

Scientists are relatively certain that the observable universe is relatively flat, but in terms of the cosmos’s global topography, uncertainty reigns.

A new study from an international scientific collaboration discovered that Cosmic Microwave Background data didn’t rule out some exotic topological shapes, including a shape known as 3-torus.

While 3-torus—and its included extensions—are relatively simple structures, more complex euclidean topologies are likely possible as well.

Understanding the shape of the universe is notoriously difficult. When it comes to local geometry, scientists are relatively certain that the observable universe is flat —or, at least nearly flat. But experts are far less certain of the universe’s overall global topology, and to this day, we still don't know for sure if the universe is infinite or finite, taking on a torus (a.k.a. donut) shape during the quantum processes of the Big Bang.

To explore this long-standing mystery, an international team of scientists formed a group known as the Collaboration for Observations, Models and Predictions of Anomalies and Cosmic Topology (COMPACT) to examine the potential shape of the universe by reanalyzing the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data.

Previously, scientists thought this data proved unpromising for “exotic” topologies, but the first paper by this collaboration—published in the journal Physical Review Letters —challenges this idea. It suggests that the CMB actually supports relatively simple euclidean (a.k.a. flat) topologies, suggesting that even more complex structures are possible.

“While unambiguous indicators of topology have yet to be detected, we present evidence that prior searches for topology have far from exhausted the potentially significant possibilities,” COMPACT researchers wrote in the study. “Much more can be done to discover, or constrain, the topology of space .”

Exploring this global topology is crucial to understanding the universe. A finite shape, such as a torus, could cause illusions wherein telescopes could be viewing the same space of the universe but at different points in the sky , creating a kind of “hall of mirrors.” While no observable evidence points to such an illusion, that could just mean the necessary light hasn’t had enough time to reach us, meaning it’s beyond the CMD horizon.

Instead of considering all 18 mathematically possible topologies, according to an accompanying article by the American Physical Society (APS) , the paper explores a shape known as the 3-Torus (E 1 ), along with two of its extensions (E 2 and E 3 ). The paper concludes that that the first shape, E 1 , can be ruled out when analyzing CMB data (if it’s within the horizon, that is).

However, E 2 and E 3— topologies that apply 180-degree and 90-degree twists to E1, respectively—could theoretically still be explained with CMB data . According to the APS article, “a region of the universe viewed through a twisted closed loop would produce two views of itself that would be different but would remain correlated.” Both E 2 and E 3 are relatively simple structures that can’t be explained away by observable data, so it’s very possible that even more complex topologies could also be viable candidates.

Eventually, stating that we live in one topological universe as opposed to another will require some sort of observational evidence . So, the team said it’s now looking into ways to discover a kind of “topological fingerprint” in CMB data to support certain theories.

Figuring out the universe’s shape is beginning to... well... take shape.

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COMMENTS

  1. Overview

    The Universe's History The origin, evolution, and nature of the universe have fascinated and confounded humankind for centuries. New ideas and major discoveries made during the 20th century transformed cosmology - the term for the way we conceptualize and study the universe - although much remains unknown. Here is the history of the universe according […]

  2. Universe

    The physical universe is defined as all of space and time (collectively referred to as spacetime) and their contents. Such contents comprise all of energy in its various forms, including electromagnetic radiation and matter, and therefore planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space. The universe also includes the physical laws that influence energy and matter, such ...

  3. What is the universe?

    The universe is literally everything, the sum of all existence. It includes all matter, like stars and galaxies. The universe also includes all radiation and all other forms of energy. No matter ...

  4. Universe

    universe, the whole cosmic system of matter and energy of which Earth, and therefore the human race, is a part. Humanity has traveled a long road since societies imagined Earth, the Sun, and the Moon as the main objects of creation, with the rest of the universe being formed almost as an afterthought. Today it is known that Earth is only a small ball of rock in a space of unimaginable vastness ...

  5. The history of the universe: Big Bang to now in 10 easy steps

    Step 2: The universe's first growth spurt. Step 3: Too hot to shine. Step 4: Let there be light. Step 5: Emerging from the cosmic dark ages. Step 6: More stars and more galaxies. Step 7: Birth of ...

  6. The origins of the universe facts and information

    A Belgian priest named Georges Lemaître first suggested the big bang theory in the 1920s, when he theorized that the universe began from a single primordial atom. The idea received major boosts ...

  7. the universe at a glance

    The universe contains everything that exists in time and space. The links below can help you explore the universe. The first section lists articles on constellations , or groups of stars. The second section provides links to articles that explain how the universe can be observed. The third and fourth sections list astronauts and astronomers, ...

  8. Chronology of the universe

    The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology. Research published in 2015 estimates the earliest stages of the universe's existence as taking place 13.8 billion years ago, with an uncertainty of around 21 million years at the 68% confidence level. Nature timeline −13 — ...

  9. Know The Universe: Astronomy Lesson

    Know The Universe: Astronomy Lesson Presentation . Lesson . Free Google Slides theme, PowerPoint template, and Canva presentation template . If you are an astronomy teacher you have to see this template. It is specially designed to create a fun presentation about this science. It has a clear background on which we have included a multitude of ...

  10. THE UNIVERSE

    THE UNIVERSE. Feb 27, 2014 • Download as PPTX, PDF •. 32 likes • 19,319 views. Anas Asif. presentation on our universe!!!! Education. 1 of 20. Download now. THE UNIVERSE - Download as a PDF or view online for free.

  11. PPT Introduction to Astronomy

    Expanding Universe - Weber State University. This PowerPoint presentation introduces the basic concepts and evidence of the expanding universe, such as the Hubble law, the cosmic microwave background and the dark energy. It also explains how astronomers measure distances and velocities of galaxies using various methods. Learn more about the fascinating history and future of our cosmos by ...

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    Universe Theme With Satellite Image Of Earth-17 . Download this Universe Theme PPT Slide . State some interesting facts about universe and the planets in it. Talk about the satellite of each planet and showcase its working. Display how these satellites are controlled and how it receives signals from earth and re-transmit those signals.

  13. The Universe

    The Big Bang Model This model suggests that the universe began as a massive explosion; it is based on evidence that the universe is expanding. About 10 billion years ago all matter in the universe was contained in a hot, dense ball of radiation and sub-atomic particles. An explosion took place and the matter expanded.

  14. The Universe

    Ravikiran / Bangalore. The Universe The universe is a big place, perhaps the biggest. —Kurt Vonnegut This is a spiral galaxy with other galaxies in the background. The universe is "everything that exists." Newton's Static Universe ' Here's what Isaac Newton thought: The universe is static (unchanging) and made of an infinite number of stars ...

  15. PPT

    The Big Bang Theory is the most widely accepted cosmological explanation of how the Universe formed. • According to the theory, the Universe began about 13.7 billion years ago! • Everything that is now in the Universe was squeezed into a very small volume. Imagine all of the known universe in a single, hot, chaotic mass!

  16. Lesson 1-The Formation of The Universe

    1. Lesson 1-The Formation of the Universe Ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. The document provides information about the universe, galaxies, and the solar system. It begins by explaining that the universe contains over 100 billion galaxies, each containing millions or billions of stars held together by ...

  17. PPT

    Presentation Transcript. The Creation of the Universe Cosmic Radiation of the Universe. Mayan Account • Astronomy was extremely important • Practice of astronomy was relegated to priest-astronomers. Ancient Creation Stories • Religion dictates that the world is flat, and the center of the universe • Some philosophers believe otherwise.

  18. PPT

    2. Hubble's Law 3. Nature of the Universal Expansion • Hubble's law implies the Universe is expanding uniformly • Expansion of Universe can be thought of as the expansion of space itself • Observed redshift of distant galaxies — wavelength of photons "stretched" by the expansion of space • Not everything is expanding — if it ...

  19. The Models of The Universe

    the models of the universe.pptx - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Eudoxus, Aristotle, and Ptolemy proposed geocentric (Earth-centered) models of the universe with concentric spheres carrying celestial bodies. Aristarchus proposed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) model, arguing the Earth and planets ...

  20. Giant structure in space challenges understanding of the universe

    Another possibility is the structures are remnants of "defects" in the early universe called cosmic strings. The structures challenge the so-called "Cosmological Principle."

  21. Models of The Universe

    MODELS OF THE UNIVERSE.pptx - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. The document describes several historical models of the universe: - Eudoxus proposed a geocentric model with concentric spheres carrying the Sun, Moon, planets and stars in daily rotations.

  22. The Universe May Be Shaped Like a Hall of Mirrors ...

    Scientists have long argued about how the Universe is shaped — and according to a new study, the more complex explanations are more correct. Big News / Small Bytes. May 13, 4:47 PM EDT.

  23. PPT

    Presentation Transcript. Formation of the Universe. Nebula • All the ingredients for building planets, moons, and stars are found in the vast, seemingly empty regions of space between the stars. • Clouds in space are called Nebulas - mixture of gases (mainly hydrogen and helium) and dust (elements such as carbon and iron).

  24. 'Lord of the Rings' Anime Feature, DC's 'Creature Commandos ...

    The new Lord of the Rings anime movie and the first DC Universe title from James Gunn are among the Warner Bros. projects that will be highlighted during the Annecy International Animation Film ...

  25. Scientists Say Our Universe Might Be a Hall of Mirrors

    A finite shape, such as a torus, could cause illusions wherein telescopes could be viewing the same space of the universe but at different points in the sky, creating a kind of "hall of mirrors ...