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A review of the global climate change impacts, adaptation, and sustainable mitigation measures

  • Review Article
  • Published: 04 April 2022
  • Volume 29 , pages 42539–42559, ( 2022 )

Cite this article

  • Kashif Abbass 1 ,
  • Muhammad Zeeshan Qasim 2 ,
  • Huaming Song 1 ,
  • Muntasir Murshed   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-9872-8742 3 , 4 ,
  • Haider Mahmood   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-6474-4338 5 &
  • Ijaz Younis 1  

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Climate change is a long-lasting change in the weather arrays across tropics to polls. It is a global threat that has embarked on to put stress on various sectors. This study is aimed to conceptually engineer how climate variability is deteriorating the sustainability of diverse sectors worldwide. Specifically, the agricultural sector’s vulnerability is a globally concerning scenario, as sufficient production and food supplies are threatened due to irreversible weather fluctuations. In turn, it is challenging the global feeding patterns, particularly in countries with agriculture as an integral part of their economy and total productivity. Climate change has also put the integrity and survival of many species at stake due to shifts in optimum temperature ranges, thereby accelerating biodiversity loss by progressively changing the ecosystem structures. Climate variations increase the likelihood of particular food and waterborne and vector-borne diseases, and a recent example is a coronavirus pandemic. Climate change also accelerates the enigma of antimicrobial resistance, another threat to human health due to the increasing incidence of resistant pathogenic infections. Besides, the global tourism industry is devastated as climate change impacts unfavorable tourism spots. The methodology investigates hypothetical scenarios of climate variability and attempts to describe the quality of evidence to facilitate readers’ careful, critical engagement. Secondary data is used to identify sustainability issues such as environmental, social, and economic viability. To better understand the problem, gathered the information in this report from various media outlets, research agencies, policy papers, newspapers, and other sources. This review is a sectorial assessment of climate change mitigation and adaptation approaches worldwide in the aforementioned sectors and the associated economic costs. According to the findings, government involvement is necessary for the country’s long-term development through strict accountability of resources and regulations implemented in the past to generate cutting-edge climate policy. Therefore, mitigating the impacts of climate change must be of the utmost importance, and hence, this global threat requires global commitment to address its dreadful implications to ensure global sustenance.

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Introduction

Worldwide observed and anticipated climatic changes for the twenty-first century and global warming are significant global changes that have been encountered during the past 65 years. Climate change (CC) is an inter-governmental complex challenge globally with its influence over various components of the ecological, environmental, socio-political, and socio-economic disciplines (Adger et al.  2005 ; Leal Filho et al.  2021 ; Feliciano et al.  2022 ). Climate change involves heightened temperatures across numerous worlds (Battisti and Naylor  2009 ; Schuurmans  2021 ; Weisheimer and Palmer  2005 ; Yadav et al.  2015 ). With the onset of the industrial revolution, the problem of earth climate was amplified manifold (Leppänen et al.  2014 ). It is reported that the immediate attention and due steps might increase the probability of overcoming its devastating impacts. It is not plausible to interpret the exact consequences of climate change (CC) on a sectoral basis (Izaguirre et al.  2021 ; Jurgilevich et al.  2017 ), which is evident by the emerging level of recognition plus the inclusion of climatic uncertainties at both local and national level of policymaking (Ayers et al.  2014 ).

Climate change is characterized based on the comprehensive long-haul temperature and precipitation trends and other components such as pressure and humidity level in the surrounding environment. Besides, the irregular weather patterns, retreating of global ice sheets, and the corresponding elevated sea level rise are among the most renowned international and domestic effects of climate change (Lipczynska-Kochany  2018 ; Michel et al.  2021 ; Murshed and Dao 2020 ). Before the industrial revolution, natural sources, including volcanoes, forest fires, and seismic activities, were regarded as the distinct sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, and H 2 O into the atmosphere (Murshed et al. 2020 ; Hussain et al.  2020 ; Sovacool et al.  2021 ; Usman and Balsalobre-Lorente 2022 ; Murshed 2022 ). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) struck a major agreement to tackle climate change and accelerate and intensify the actions and investments required for a sustainable low-carbon future at Conference of the Parties (COP-21) in Paris on December 12, 2015. The Paris Agreement expands on the Convention by bringing all nations together for the first time in a single cause to undertake ambitious measures to prevent climate change and adapt to its impacts, with increased funding to assist developing countries in doing so. As so, it marks a turning point in the global climate fight. The core goal of the Paris Agreement is to improve the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping the global temperature rise this century well below 2 °C over pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5° C (Sharma et al. 2020 ; Sharif et al. 2020 ; Chien et al. 2021 .

Furthermore, the agreement aspires to strengthen nations’ ability to deal with the effects of climate change and align financing flows with low GHG emissions and climate-resilient paths (Shahbaz et al. 2019 ; Anwar et al. 2021 ; Usman et al. 2022a ). To achieve these lofty goals, adequate financial resources must be mobilized and provided, as well as a new technology framework and expanded capacity building, allowing developing countries and the most vulnerable countries to act under their respective national objectives. The agreement also establishes a more transparent action and support mechanism. All Parties are required by the Paris Agreement to do their best through “nationally determined contributions” (NDCs) and to strengthen these efforts in the coming years (Balsalobre-Lorente et al. 2020 ). It includes obligations that all Parties regularly report on their emissions and implementation activities. A global stock-take will be conducted every five years to review collective progress toward the agreement’s goal and inform the Parties’ future individual actions. The Paris Agreement became available for signature on April 22, 2016, Earth Day, at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. On November 4, 2016, it went into effect 30 days after the so-called double threshold was met (ratification by 55 nations accounting for at least 55% of world emissions). More countries have ratified and continue to ratify the agreement since then, bringing 125 Parties in early 2017. To fully operationalize the Paris Agreement, a work program was initiated in Paris to define mechanisms, processes, and recommendations on a wide range of concerns (Murshed et al. 2021 ). Since 2016, Parties have collaborated in subsidiary bodies (APA, SBSTA, and SBI) and numerous formed entities. The Conference of the Parties functioning as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA) convened for the first time in November 2016 in Marrakesh in conjunction with COP22 and made its first two resolutions. The work plan is scheduled to be finished by 2018. Some mitigation and adaptation strategies to reduce the emission in the prospective of Paris agreement are following firstly, a long-term goal of keeping the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, secondly, to aim to limit the rise to 1.5 °C, since this would significantly reduce risks and the impacts of climate change, thirdly, on the need for global emissions to peak as soon as possible, recognizing that this will take longer for developing countries, lastly, to undertake rapid reductions after that under the best available science, to achieve a balance between emissions and removals in the second half of the century. On the other side, some adaptation strategies are; strengthening societies’ ability to deal with the effects of climate change and to continue & expand international assistance for developing nations’ adaptation.

However, anthropogenic activities are currently regarded as most accountable for CC (Murshed et al. 2022 ). Apart from the industrial revolution, other anthropogenic activities include excessive agricultural operations, which further involve the high use of fuel-based mechanization, burning of agricultural residues, burning fossil fuels, deforestation, national and domestic transportation sectors, etc. (Huang et al.  2016 ). Consequently, these anthropogenic activities lead to climatic catastrophes, damaging local and global infrastructure, human health, and total productivity. Energy consumption has mounted GHGs levels concerning warming temperatures as most of the energy production in developing countries comes from fossil fuels (Balsalobre-Lorente et al. 2022 ; Usman et al. 2022b ; Abbass et al. 2021a ; Ishikawa-Ishiwata and Furuya  2022 ).

This review aims to highlight the effects of climate change in a socio-scientific aspect by analyzing the existing literature on various sectorial pieces of evidence globally that influence the environment. Although this review provides a thorough examination of climate change and its severe affected sectors that pose a grave danger for global agriculture, biodiversity, health, economy, forestry, and tourism, and to purpose some practical prophylactic measures and mitigation strategies to be adapted as sound substitutes to survive from climate change (CC) impacts. The societal implications of irregular weather patterns and other effects of climate changes are discussed in detail. Some numerous sustainable mitigation measures and adaptation practices and techniques at the global level are discussed in this review with an in-depth focus on its economic, social, and environmental aspects. Methods of data collection section are included in the supplementary information.

Review methodology

Related study and its objectives.

Today, we live an ordinary life in the beautiful digital, globalized world where climate change has a decisive role. What happens in one country has a massive influence on geographically far apart countries, which points to the current crisis known as COVID-19 (Sarkar et al.  2021 ). The most dangerous disease like COVID-19 has affected the world’s climate changes and economic conditions (Abbass et al. 2022 ; Pirasteh-Anosheh et al.  2021 ). The purpose of the present study is to review the status of research on the subject, which is based on “Global Climate Change Impacts, adaptation, and sustainable mitigation measures” by systematically reviewing past published and unpublished research work. Furthermore, the current study seeks to comment on research on the same topic and suggest future research on the same topic. Specifically, the present study aims: The first one is, organize publications to make them easy and quick to find. Secondly, to explore issues in this area, propose an outline of research for future work. The third aim of the study is to synthesize the previous literature on climate change, various sectors, and their mitigation measurement. Lastly , classify the articles according to the different methods and procedures that have been adopted.

Review methodology for reviewers

This review-based article followed systematic literature review techniques that have proved the literature review as a rigorous framework (Benita  2021 ; Tranfield et al.  2003 ). Moreover, we illustrate in Fig.  1 the search method that we have started for this research. First, finalized the research theme to search literature (Cooper et al.  2018 ). Second, used numerous research databases to search related articles and download from the database (Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus Index Journals, Emerald, Elsevier Science Direct, Springer, and Sciverse). We focused on various articles, with research articles, feedback pieces, short notes, debates, and review articles published in scholarly journals. Reports used to search for multiple keywords such as “Climate Change,” “Mitigation and Adaptation,” “Department of Agriculture and Human Health,” “Department of Biodiversity and Forestry,” etc.; in summary, keyword list and full text have been made. Initially, the search for keywords yielded a large amount of literature.

figure 1

Source : constructed by authors

Methodology search for finalized articles for investigations.

Since 2020, it has been impossible to review all the articles found; some restrictions have been set for the literature exhibition. The study searched 95 articles on a different database mentioned above based on the nature of the study. It excluded 40 irrelevant papers due to copied from a previous search after readings tiles, abstract and full pieces. The criteria for inclusion were: (i) articles focused on “Global Climate Change Impacts, adaptation, and sustainable mitigation measures,” and (ii) the search key terms related to study requirements. The complete procedure yielded 55 articles for our study. We repeat our search on the “Web of Science and Google Scholars” database to enhance the search results and check the referenced articles.

In this study, 55 articles are reviewed systematically and analyzed for research topics and other aspects, such as the methods, contexts, and theories used in these studies. Furthermore, this study analyzes closely related areas to provide unique research opportunities in the future. The study also discussed future direction opportunities and research questions by understanding the research findings climate changes and other affected sectors. The reviewed paper framework analysis process is outlined in Fig.  2 .

figure 2

Framework of the analysis Process.

Natural disasters and climate change’s socio-economic consequences

Natural and environmental disasters can be highly variable from year to year; some years pass with very few deaths before a significant disaster event claims many lives (Symanski et al.  2021 ). Approximately 60,000 people globally died from natural disasters each year on average over the past decade (Ritchie and Roser  2014 ; Wiranata and Simbolon  2021 ). So, according to the report, around 0.1% of global deaths. Annual variability in the number and share of deaths from natural disasters in recent decades are shown in Fig.  3 . The number of fatalities can be meager—sometimes less than 10,000, and as few as 0.01% of all deaths. But shock events have a devastating impact: the 1983–1985 famine and drought in Ethiopia; the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami; Cyclone Nargis, which struck Myanmar in 2008; and the 2010 Port-au-Prince earthquake in Haiti and now recent example is COVID-19 pandemic (Erman et al.  2021 ). These events pushed global disaster deaths to over 200,000—more than 0.4% of deaths in these years. Low-frequency, high-impact events such as earthquakes and tsunamis are not preventable, but such high losses of human life are. Historical evidence shows that earlier disaster detection, more robust infrastructure, emergency preparedness, and response programmers have substantially reduced disaster deaths worldwide. Low-income is also the most vulnerable to disasters; improving living conditions, facilities, and response services in these areas would be critical in reducing natural disaster deaths in the coming decades.

figure 3

Source EMDAT ( 2020 )

Global deaths from natural disasters, 1978 to 2020.

The interior regions of the continent are likely to be impacted by rising temperatures (Dimri et al.  2018 ; Goes et al.  2020 ; Mannig et al.  2018 ; Schuurmans  2021 ). Weather patterns change due to the shortage of natural resources (water), increase in glacier melting, and rising mercury are likely to cause extinction to many planted species (Gampe et al.  2016 ; Mihiretu et al.  2021 ; Shaffril et al.  2018 ).On the other hand, the coastal ecosystem is on the verge of devastation (Perera et al.  2018 ; Phillips  2018 ). The temperature rises, insect disease outbreaks, health-related problems, and seasonal and lifestyle changes are persistent, with a strong probability of these patterns continuing in the future (Abbass et al. 2021c ; Hussain et al.  2018 ). At the global level, a shortage of good infrastructure and insufficient adaptive capacity are hammering the most (IPCC  2013 ). In addition to the above concerns, a lack of environmental education and knowledge, outdated consumer behavior, a scarcity of incentives, a lack of legislation, and the government’s lack of commitment to climate change contribute to the general public’s concerns. By 2050, a 2 to 3% rise in mercury and a drastic shift in rainfall patterns may have serious consequences (Huang et al. 2022 ; Gorst et al.  2018 ). Natural and environmental calamities caused huge losses globally, such as decreased agriculture outputs, rehabilitation of the system, and rebuilding necessary technologies (Ali and Erenstein  2017 ; Ramankutty et al.  2018 ; Yu et al.  2021 ) (Table 1 ). Furthermore, in the last 3 or 4 years, the world has been plagued by smog-related eye and skin diseases, as well as a rise in road accidents due to poor visibility.

Climate change and agriculture

Global agriculture is the ultimate sector responsible for 30–40% of all greenhouse emissions, which makes it a leading industry predominantly contributing to climate warming and significantly impacted by it (Grieg; Mishra et al.  2021 ; Ortiz et al.  2021 ; Thornton and Lipper  2014 ). Numerous agro-environmental and climatic factors that have a dominant influence on agriculture productivity (Pautasso et al.  2012 ) are significantly impacted in response to precipitation extremes including floods, forest fires, and droughts (Huang  2004 ). Besides, the immense dependency on exhaustible resources also fuels the fire and leads global agriculture to become prone to devastation. Godfray et al. ( 2010 ) mentioned that decline in agriculture challenges the farmer’s quality of life and thus a significant factor to poverty as the food and water supplies are critically impacted by CC (Ortiz et al.  2021 ; Rosenzweig et al.  2014 ). As an essential part of the economic systems, especially in developing countries, agricultural systems affect the overall economy and potentially the well-being of households (Schlenker and Roberts  2009 ). According to the report published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, i.e., CH 4, CO 2 , and N 2 O, are increased in the air to extraordinary levels over the last few centuries (Usman and Makhdum 2021 ; Stocker et al.  2013 ). Climate change is the composite outcome of two different factors. The first is the natural causes, and the second is the anthropogenic actions (Karami 2012 ). It is also forecasted that the world may experience a typical rise in temperature stretching from 1 to 3.7 °C at the end of this century (Pachauri et al. 2014 ). The world’s crop production is also highly vulnerable to these global temperature-changing trends as raised temperatures will pose severe negative impacts on crop growth (Reidsma et al. 2009 ). Some of the recent modeling about the fate of global agriculture is briefly described below.

Decline in cereal productivity

Crop productivity will also be affected dramatically in the next few decades due to variations in integral abiotic factors such as temperature, solar radiation, precipitation, and CO 2 . These all factors are included in various regulatory instruments like progress and growth, weather-tempted changes, pest invasions (Cammell and Knight 1992 ), accompanying disease snags (Fand et al. 2012 ), water supplies (Panda et al. 2003 ), high prices of agro-products in world’s agriculture industry, and preeminent quantity of fertilizer consumption. Lobell and field ( 2007 ) claimed that from 1962 to 2002, wheat crop output had condensed significantly due to rising temperatures. Therefore, during 1980–2011, the common wheat productivity trends endorsed extreme temperature events confirmed by Gourdji et al. ( 2013 ) around South Asia, South America, and Central Asia. Various other studies (Asseng, Cao, Zhang, and Ludwig 2009 ; Asseng et al. 2013 ; García et al. 2015 ; Ortiz et al. 2021 ) also proved that wheat output is negatively affected by the rising temperatures and also caused adverse effects on biomass productivity (Calderini et al. 1999 ; Sadras and Slafer 2012 ). Hereafter, the rice crop is also influenced by the high temperatures at night. These difficulties will worsen because the temperature will be rising further in the future owing to CC (Tebaldi et al. 2006 ). Another research conducted in China revealed that a 4.6% of rice production per 1 °C has happened connected with the advancement in night temperatures (Tao et al. 2006 ). Moreover, the average night temperature growth also affected rice indicia cultivar’s output pragmatically during 25 years in the Philippines (Peng et al. 2004 ). It is anticipated that the increase in world average temperature will also cause a substantial reduction in yield (Hatfield et al. 2011 ; Lobell and Gourdji 2012 ). In the southern hemisphere, Parry et al. ( 2007 ) noted a rise of 1–4 °C in average daily temperatures at the end of spring season unti the middle of summers, and this raised temperature reduced crop output by cutting down the time length for phenophases eventually reduce the yield (Hatfield and Prueger 2015 ; R. Ortiz 2008 ). Also, world climate models have recommended that humid and subtropical regions expect to be plentiful prey to the upcoming heat strokes (Battisti and Naylor 2009 ). Grain production is the amalgamation of two constituents: the average weight and the grain output/m 2 , however, in crop production. Crop output is mainly accredited to the grain quantity (Araus et al. 2008 ; Gambín and Borrás 2010 ). In the times of grain set, yield resources are mainly strewn between hitherto defined components, i.e., grain usual weight and grain output, which presents a trade-off between them (Gambín and Borrás 2010 ) beside disparities in per grain integration (B. L. Gambín et al. 2006 ). In addition to this, the maize crop is also susceptible to raised temperatures, principally in the flowering stage (Edreira and Otegui 2013 ). In reality, the lower grain number is associated with insufficient acclimatization due to intense photosynthesis and higher respiration and the high-temperature effect on the reproduction phenomena (Edreira and Otegui 2013 ). During the flowering phase, maize visible to heat (30–36 °C) seemed less anthesis-silking intermissions (Edreira et al. 2011 ). Another research by Dupuis and Dumas ( 1990 ) proved that a drop in spikelet when directly visible to high temperatures above 35 °C in vitro pollination. Abnormalities in kernel number claimed by Vega et al. ( 2001 ) is related to conceded plant development during a flowering phase that is linked with the active ear growth phase and categorized as a critical phase for approximation of kernel number during silking (Otegui and Bonhomme 1998 ).

The retort of rice output to high temperature presents disparities in flowering patterns, and seed set lessens and lessens grain weight (Qasim et al. 2020 ; Qasim, Hammad, Maqsood, Tariq, & Chawla). During the daytime, heat directly impacts flowers which lessens the thesis period and quickens the earlier peak flowering (Tao et al. 2006 ). Antagonistic effect of higher daytime temperature d on pollen sprouting proposed seed set decay, whereas, seed set was lengthily reduced than could be explicated by pollen growing at high temperatures 40◦C (Matsui et al. 2001 ).

The decline in wheat output is linked with higher temperatures, confirmed in numerous studies (Semenov 2009 ; Stone and Nicolas 1994 ). High temperatures fast-track the arrangements of plant expansion (Blum et al. 2001 ), diminution photosynthetic process (Salvucci and Crafts‐Brandner 2004 ), and also considerably affect the reproductive operations (Farooq et al. 2011 ).

The destructive impacts of CC induced weather extremes to deteriorate the integrity of crops (Chaudhary et al. 2011 ), e.g., Spartan cold and extreme fog cause falling and discoloration of betel leaves (Rosenzweig et al. 2001 ), giving them a somehow reddish appearance, squeezing of lemon leaves (Pautasso et al. 2012 ), as well as root rot of pineapple, have reported (Vedwan and Rhoades 2001 ). Henceforth, in tackling the disruptive effects of CC, several short-term and long-term management approaches are the crucial need of time (Fig.  4 ). Moreover, various studies (Chaudhary et al. 2011 ; Patz et al. 2005 ; Pautasso et al. 2012 ) have demonstrated adapting trends such as ameliorating crop diversity can yield better adaptability towards CC.

figure 4

Schematic description of potential impacts of climate change on the agriculture sector and the appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures to overcome its impact.

Climate change impacts on biodiversity

Global biodiversity is among the severe victims of CC because it is the fastest emerging cause of species loss. Studies demonstrated that the massive scale species dynamics are considerably associated with diverse climatic events (Abraham and Chain 1988 ; Manes et al. 2021 ; A. M. D. Ortiz et al. 2021 ). Both the pace and magnitude of CC are altering the compatible habitat ranges for living entities of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial regions. Alterations in general climate regimes influence the integrity of ecosystems in numerous ways, such as variation in the relative abundance of species, range shifts, changes in activity timing, and microhabitat use (Bates et al. 2014 ). The geographic distribution of any species often depends upon its ability to tolerate environmental stresses, biological interactions, and dispersal constraints. Hence, instead of the CC, the local species must only accept, adapt, move, or face extinction (Berg et al. 2010 ). So, the best performer species have a better survival capacity for adjusting to new ecosystems or a decreased perseverance to survive where they are already situated (Bates et al. 2014 ). An important aspect here is the inadequate habitat connectivity and access to microclimates, also crucial in raising the exposure to climate warming and extreme heatwave episodes. For example, the carbon sequestration rates are undergoing fluctuations due to climate-driven expansion in the range of global mangroves (Cavanaugh et al. 2014 ).

Similarly, the loss of kelp-forest ecosystems in various regions and its occupancy by the seaweed turfs has set the track for elevated herbivory by the high influx of tropical fish populations. Not only this, the increased water temperatures have exacerbated the conditions far away from the physiological tolerance level of the kelp communities (Vergés et al. 2016 ; Wernberg et al. 2016 ). Another pertinent danger is the devastation of keystone species, which even has more pervasive effects on the entire communities in that habitat (Zarnetske et al. 2012 ). It is particularly important as CC does not specify specific populations or communities. Eventually, this CC-induced redistribution of species may deteriorate carbon storage and the net ecosystem productivity (Weed et al. 2013 ). Among the typical disruptions, the prominent ones include impacts on marine and terrestrial productivity, marine community assembly, and the extended invasion of toxic cyanobacteria bloom (Fossheim et al. 2015 ).

The CC-impacted species extinction is widely reported in the literature (Beesley et al. 2019 ; Urban 2015 ), and the predictions of demise until the twenty-first century are dreadful (Abbass et al. 2019 ; Pereira et al. 2013 ). In a few cases, northward shifting of species may not be formidable as it allows mountain-dwelling species to find optimum climates. However, the migrant species may be trapped in isolated and incompatible habitats due to losing topography and range (Dullinger et al. 2012 ). For example, a study indicated that the American pika has been extirpated or intensely diminished in some regions, primarily attributed to the CC-impacted extinction or at least local extirpation (Stewart et al. 2015 ). Besides, the anticipation of persistent responses to the impacts of CC often requires data records of several decades to rigorously analyze the critical pre and post CC patterns at species and ecosystem levels (Manes et al. 2021 ; Testa et al. 2018 ).

Nonetheless, the availability of such long-term data records is rare; hence, attempts are needed to focus on these profound aspects. Biodiversity is also vulnerable to the other associated impacts of CC, such as rising temperatures, droughts, and certain invasive pest species. For instance, a study revealed the changes in the composition of plankton communities attributed to rising temperatures. Henceforth, alterations in such aquatic producer communities, i.e., diatoms and calcareous plants, can ultimately lead to variation in the recycling of biological carbon. Moreover, such changes are characterized as a potential contributor to CO 2 differences between the Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods (Kohfeld et al. 2005 ).

Climate change implications on human health

It is an understood corporality that human health is a significant victim of CC (Costello et al. 2009 ). According to the WHO, CC might be responsible for 250,000 additional deaths per year during 2030–2050 (Watts et al. 2015 ). These deaths are attributed to extreme weather-induced mortality and morbidity and the global expansion of vector-borne diseases (Lemery et al. 2021; Yang and Usman 2021 ; Meierrieks 2021 ; UNEP 2017 ). Here, some of the emerging health issues pertinent to this global problem are briefly described.

Climate change and antimicrobial resistance with corresponding economic costs

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an up-surging complex global health challenge (Garner et al. 2019 ; Lemery et al. 2021 ). Health professionals across the globe are extremely worried due to this phenomenon that has critical potential to reverse almost all the progress that has been achieved so far in the health discipline (Gosling and Arnell 2016 ). A massive amount of antibiotics is produced by many pharmaceutical industries worldwide, and the pathogenic microorganisms are gradually developing resistance to them, which can be comprehended how strongly this aspect can shake the foundations of national and global economies (UNEP 2017 ). This statement is supported by the fact that AMR is not developing in a particular region or country. Instead, it is flourishing in every continent of the world (WHO 2018 ). This plague is heavily pushing humanity to the post-antibiotic era, in which currently antibiotic-susceptible pathogens will once again lead to certain endemics and pandemics after being resistant(WHO 2018 ). Undesirably, if this statement would become a factuality, there might emerge certain risks in undertaking sophisticated interventions such as chemotherapy, joint replacement cases, and organ transplantation (Su et al. 2018 ). Presently, the amplification of drug resistance cases has made common illnesses like pneumonia, post-surgical infections, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, etc., too difficult and costly to be treated or cure well (WHO 2018 ). From a simple example, it can be assumed how easily antibiotic-resistant strains can be transmitted from one person to another and ultimately travel across the boundaries (Berendonk et al. 2015 ). Talking about the second- and third-generation classes of antibiotics, e.g., most renowned generations of cephalosporin antibiotics that are more expensive, broad-spectrum, more toxic, and usually require more extended periods whenever prescribed to patients (Lemery et al. 2021 ; Pärnänen et al. 2019 ). This scenario has also revealed that the abundance of resistant strains of pathogens was also higher in the Southern part (WHO 2018 ). As southern parts are generally warmer than their counterparts, it is evident from this example how CC-induced global warming can augment the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains within the biosphere, eventually putting additional economic burden in the face of developing new and costlier antibiotics. The ARG exchange to susceptible bacteria through one of the potential mechanisms, transformation, transduction, and conjugation; Selection pressure can be caused by certain antibiotics, metals or pesticides, etc., as shown in Fig.  5 .

figure 5

Source: Elsayed et al. ( 2021 ); Karkman et al. ( 2018 )

A typical interaction between the susceptible and resistant strains.

Certain studies highlighted that conventional urban wastewater treatment plants are typical hotspots where most bacterial strains exchange genetic material through horizontal gene transfer (Fig.  5 ). Although at present, the extent of risks associated with the antibiotic resistance found in wastewater is complicated; environmental scientists and engineers have particular concerns about the potential impacts of these antibiotic resistance genes on human health (Ashbolt 2015 ). At most undesirable and worst case, these antibiotic-resistant genes containing bacteria can make their way to enter into the environment (Pruden et al. 2013 ), irrigation water used for crops and public water supplies and ultimately become a part of food chains and food webs (Ma et al. 2019 ; D. Wu et al. 2019 ). This problem has been reported manifold in several countries (Hendriksen et al. 2019 ), where wastewater as a means of irrigated water is quite common.

Climate change and vector borne-diseases

Temperature is a fundamental factor for the sustenance of living entities regardless of an ecosystem. So, a specific living being, especially a pathogen, requires a sophisticated temperature range to exist on earth. The second essential component of CC is precipitation, which also impacts numerous infectious agents’ transport and dissemination patterns. Global rising temperature is a significant cause of many species extinction. On the one hand, this changing environmental temperature may be causing species extinction, and on the other, this warming temperature might favor the thriving of some new organisms. Here, it was evident that some pathogens may also upraise once non-evident or reported (Patz et al. 2000 ). This concept can be exemplified through certain pathogenic strains of microorganisms that how the likelihood of various diseases increases in response to climate warming-induced environmental changes (Table 2 ).

A recent example is an outburst of coronavirus (COVID-19) in the Republic of China, causing pneumonia and severe acute respiratory complications (Cui et al. 2021 ; Song et al. 2021 ). The large family of viruses is harbored in numerous animals, bats, and snakes in particular (livescience.com) with the subsequent transfer into human beings. Hence, it is worth noting that the thriving of numerous vectors involved in spreading various diseases is influenced by Climate change (Ogden 2018 ; Santos et al. 2021 ).

Psychological impacts of climate change

Climate change (CC) is responsible for the rapid dissemination and exaggeration of certain epidemics and pandemics. In addition to the vast apparent impacts of climate change on health, forestry, agriculture, etc., it may also have psychological implications on vulnerable societies. It can be exemplified through the recent outburst of (COVID-19) in various countries around the world (Pal 2021 ). Besides, the victims of this viral infection have made healthy beings scarier and terrified. In the wake of such epidemics, people with common colds or fever are also frightened and must pass specific regulatory protocols. Living in such situations continuously terrifies the public and makes the stress familiar, which eventually makes them psychologically weak (npr.org).

CC boosts the extent of anxiety, distress, and other issues in public, pushing them to develop various mental-related problems. Besides, frequent exposure to extreme climatic catastrophes such as geological disasters also imprints post-traumatic disorder, and their ubiquitous occurrence paves the way to developing chronic psychological dysfunction. Moreover, repetitive listening from media also causes an increase in the person’s stress level (Association 2020 ). Similarly, communities living in flood-prone areas constantly live in extreme fear of drowning and die by floods. In addition to human lives, the flood-induced destruction of physical infrastructure is a specific reason for putting pressure on these communities (Ogden 2018 ). For instance, Ogden ( 2018 ) comprehensively denoted that Katrina’s Hurricane augmented the mental health issues in the victim communities.

Climate change impacts on the forestry sector

Forests are the global regulators of the world’s climate (FAO 2018 ) and have an indispensable role in regulating global carbon and nitrogen cycles (Rehman et al. 2021 ; Reichstein and Carvalhais 2019 ). Hence, disturbances in forest ecology affect the micro and macro-climates (Ellison et al. 2017 ). Climate warming, in return, has profound impacts on the growth and productivity of transboundary forests by influencing the temperature and precipitation patterns, etc. As CC induces specific changes in the typical structure and functions of ecosystems (Zhang et al. 2017 ) as well impacts forest health, climate change also has several devastating consequences such as forest fires, droughts, pest outbreaks (EPA 2018 ), and last but not the least is the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. The rising frequency and intensity of another CC product, i.e., droughts, pose plenty of challenges to the well-being of global forests (Diffenbaugh et al. 2017 ), which is further projected to increase soon (Hartmann et al. 2018 ; Lehner et al. 2017 ; Rehman et al. 2021 ). Hence, CC induces storms, with more significant impacts also put extra pressure on the survival of the global forests (Martínez-Alvarado et al. 2018 ), significantly since their influences are augmented during higher winter precipitations with corresponding wetter soils causing weak root anchorage of trees (Brázdil et al. 2018 ). Surging temperature regimes causes alterations in usual precipitation patterns, which is a significant hurdle for the survival of temperate forests (Allen et al. 2010 ; Flannigan et al. 2013 ), letting them encounter severe stress and disturbances which adversely affects the local tree species (Hubbart et al. 2016 ; Millar and Stephenson 2015 ; Rehman et al. 2021 ).

Climate change impacts on forest-dependent communities

Forests are the fundamental livelihood resource for about 1.6 billion people worldwide; out of them, 350 million are distinguished with relatively higher reliance (Bank 2008 ). Agro-forestry-dependent communities comprise 1.2 billion, and 60 million indigenous people solely rely on forests and their products to sustain their lives (Sunderlin et al. 2005 ). For example, in the entire African continent, more than 2/3rd of inhabitants depend on forest resources and woodlands for their alimonies, e.g., food, fuelwood and grazing (Wasiq and Ahmad 2004 ). The livings of these people are more intensely affected by the climatic disruptions making their lives harder (Brown et al. 2014 ). On the one hand, forest communities are incredibly vulnerable to CC due to their livelihoods, cultural and spiritual ties as well as socio-ecological connections, and on the other, they are not familiar with the term “climate change.” (Rahman and Alam 2016 ). Among the destructive impacts of temperature and rainfall, disruption of the agroforestry crops with resultant downscale growth and yield (Macchi et al. 2008 ). Cruz ( 2015 ) ascribed that forest-dependent smallholder farmers in the Philippines face the enigma of delayed fruiting, more severe damages by insect and pest incidences due to unfavorable temperature regimes, and changed rainfall patterns.

Among these series of challenges to forest communities, their well-being is also distinctly vulnerable to CC. Though the detailed climate change impacts on human health have been comprehensively mentioned in the previous section, some studies have listed a few more devastating effects on the prosperity of forest-dependent communities. For instance, the Himalayan people have been experiencing frequent skin-borne diseases such as malaria and other skin diseases due to increasing mosquitoes, wild boar as well, and new wasps species, particularly in higher altitudes that were almost non-existent before last 5–10 years (Xu et al. 2008 ). Similarly, people living at high altitudes in Bangladesh have experienced frequent mosquito-borne calamities (Fardous; Sharma 2012 ). In addition, the pace of other waterborne diseases such as infectious diarrhea, cholera, pathogenic induced abdominal complications and dengue has also been boosted in other distinguished regions of Bangladesh (Cell 2009 ; Gunter et al. 2008 ).

Pest outbreak

Upscaling hotter climate may positively affect the mobile organisms with shorter generation times because they can scurry from harsh conditions than the immobile species (Fettig et al. 2013 ; Schoene and Bernier 2012 ) and are also relatively more capable of adapting to new environments (Jactel et al. 2019 ). It reveals that insects adapt quickly to global warming due to their mobility advantages. Due to past outbreaks, the trees (forests) are relatively more susceptible victims (Kurz et al. 2008 ). Before CC, the influence of factors mentioned earlier, i.e., droughts and storms, was existent and made the forests susceptible to insect pest interventions; however, the global forests remain steadfast, assiduous, and green (Jactel et al. 2019 ). The typical reasons could be the insect herbivores were regulated by several tree defenses and pressures of predation (Wilkinson and Sherratt 2016 ). As climate greatly influences these phenomena, the global forests cannot be so sedulous against such challenges (Jactel et al. 2019 ). Table 3 demonstrates some of the particular considerations with practical examples that are essential while mitigating the impacts of CC in the forestry sector.

Climate change impacts on tourism

Tourism is a commercial activity that has roots in multi-dimensions and an efficient tool with adequate job generation potential, revenue creation, earning of spectacular foreign exchange, enhancement in cross-cultural promulgation and cooperation, a business tool for entrepreneurs and eventually for the country’s national development (Arshad et al. 2018 ; Scott 2021 ). Among a plethora of other disciplines, the tourism industry is also a distinct victim of climate warming (Gössling et al. 2012 ; Hall et al. 2015 ) as the climate is among the essential resources that enable tourism in particular regions as most preferred locations. Different places at different times of the year attract tourists both within and across the countries depending upon the feasibility and compatibility of particular weather patterns. Hence, the massive variations in these weather patterns resulting from CC will eventually lead to monumental challenges to the local economy in that specific area’s particular and national economy (Bujosa et al. 2015 ). For instance, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report demonstrated that the global tourism industry had faced a considerable decline in the duration of ski season, including the loss of some ski areas and the dramatic shifts in tourist destinations’ climate warming.

Furthermore, different studies (Neuvonen et al. 2015 ; Scott et al. 2004 ) indicated that various currently perfect tourist spots, e.g., coastal areas, splendid islands, and ski resorts, will suffer consequences of CC. It is also worth noting that the quality and potential of administrative management potential to cope with the influence of CC on the tourism industry is of crucial significance, which renders specific strengths of resiliency to numerous destinations to withstand against it (Füssel and Hildén 2014 ). Similarly, in the partial or complete absence of adequate socio-economic and socio-political capital, the high-demanding tourist sites scurry towards the verge of vulnerability. The susceptibility of tourism is based on different components such as the extent of exposure, sensitivity, life-supporting sectors, and capacity assessment factors (Füssel and Hildén 2014 ). It is obvious corporality that sectors such as health, food, ecosystems, human habitat, infrastructure, water availability, and the accessibility of a particular region are prone to CC. Henceforth, the sensitivity of these critical sectors to CC and, in return, the adaptive measures are a hallmark in determining the composite vulnerability of climate warming (Ionescu et al. 2009 ).

Moreover, the dependence on imported food items, poor hygienic conditions, and inadequate health professionals are dominant aspects affecting the local terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Meanwhile, the greater dependency on ecosystem services and its products also makes a destination more fragile to become a prey of CC (Rizvi et al. 2015 ). Some significant non-climatic factors are important indicators of a particular ecosystem’s typical health and functioning, e.g., resource richness and abundance portray the picture of ecosystem stability. Similarly, the species abundance is also a productive tool that ensures that the ecosystem has a higher buffering capacity, which is terrific in terms of resiliency (Roscher et al. 2013 ).

Climate change impacts on the economic sector

Climate plays a significant role in overall productivity and economic growth. Due to its increasingly global existence and its effect on economic growth, CC has become one of the major concerns of both local and international environmental policymakers (Ferreira et al. 2020 ; Gleditsch 2021 ; Abbass et al. 2021b ; Lamperti et al. 2021 ). The adverse effects of CC on the overall productivity factor of the agricultural sector are therefore significant for understanding the creation of local adaptation policies and the composition of productive climate policy contracts. Previous studies on CC in the world have already forecasted its effects on the agricultural sector. Researchers have found that global CC will impact the agricultural sector in different world regions. The study of the impacts of CC on various agrarian activities in other demographic areas and the development of relative strategies to respond to effects has become a focal point for researchers (Chandioet al. 2020 ; Gleditsch 2021 ; Mosavi et al. 2020 ).

With the rapid growth of global warming since the 1980s, the temperature has started increasing globally, which resulted in the incredible transformation of rain and evaporation in the countries. The agricultural development of many countries has been reliant, delicate, and susceptible to CC for a long time, and it is on the development of agriculture total factor productivity (ATFP) influence different crops and yields of farmers (Alhassan 2021 ; Wu  2020 ).

Food security and natural disasters are increasing rapidly in the world. Several major climatic/natural disasters have impacted local crop production in the countries concerned. The effects of these natural disasters have been poorly controlled by the development of the economies and populations and may affect human life as well. One example is China, which is among the world’s most affected countries, vulnerable to natural disasters due to its large population, harsh environmental conditions, rapid CC, low environmental stability, and disaster power. According to the January 2016 statistical survey, China experienced an economic loss of 298.3 billion Yuan, and about 137 million Chinese people were severely affected by various natural disasters (Xie et al. 2018 ).

Mitigation and adaptation strategies of climate changes

Adaptation and mitigation are the crucial factors to address the response to CC (Jahanzad et al. 2020 ). Researchers define mitigation on climate changes, and on the other hand, adaptation directly impacts climate changes like floods. To some extent, mitigation reduces or moderates greenhouse gas emission, and it becomes a critical issue both economically and environmentally (Botzen et al. 2021 ; Jahanzad et al. 2020 ; Kongsager 2018 ; Smit et al. 2000 ; Vale et al. 2021 ; Usman et al. 2021 ; Verheyen 2005 ).

Researchers have deep concern about the adaptation and mitigation methodologies in sectoral and geographical contexts. Agriculture, industry, forestry, transport, and land use are the main sectors to adapt and mitigate policies(Kärkkäinen et al. 2020 ; Waheed et al. 2021 ). Adaptation and mitigation require particular concern both at the national and international levels. The world has faced a significant problem of climate change in the last decades, and adaptation to these effects is compulsory for economic and social development. To adapt and mitigate against CC, one should develop policies and strategies at the international level (Hussain et al. 2020 ). Figure  6 depicts the list of current studies on sectoral impacts of CC with adaptation and mitigation measures globally.

figure 6

Sectoral impacts of climate change with adaptation and mitigation measures.

Conclusion and future perspectives

Specific socio-agricultural, socio-economic, and physical systems are the cornerstone of psychological well-being, and the alteration in these systems by CC will have disastrous impacts. Climate variability, alongside other anthropogenic and natural stressors, influences human and environmental health sustainability. Food security is another concerning scenario that may lead to compromised food quality, higher food prices, and inadequate food distribution systems. Global forests are challenged by different climatic factors such as storms, droughts, flash floods, and intense precipitation. On the other hand, their anthropogenic wiping is aggrandizing their existence. Undoubtedly, the vulnerability scale of the world’s regions differs; however, appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures can aid the decision-making bodies in developing effective policies to tackle its impacts. Presently, modern life on earth has tailored to consistent climatic patterns, and accordingly, adapting to such considerable variations is of paramount importance. Because the faster changes in climate will make it harder to survive and adjust, this globally-raising enigma calls for immediate attention at every scale ranging from elementary community level to international level. Still, much effort, research, and dedication are required, which is the most critical time. Some policy implications can help us to mitigate the consequences of climate change, especially the most affected sectors like the agriculture sector;

Seasonal variations and cultivation practices

Warming might lengthen the season in frost-prone growing regions (temperate and arctic zones), allowing for longer-maturing seasonal cultivars with better yields (Pfadenhauer 2020 ; Bonacci 2019 ). Extending the planting season may allow additional crops each year; when warming leads to frequent warmer months highs over critical thresholds, a split season with a brief summer fallow may be conceivable for short-period crops such as wheat barley, cereals, and many other vegetable crops. The capacity to prolong the planting season in tropical and subtropical places where the harvest season is constrained by precipitation or agriculture farming occurs after the year may be more limited and dependent on how precipitation patterns vary (Wu et al. 2017 ).

New varieties of crops

The genetic component is comprehensive for many yields, but it is restricted like kiwi fruit for a few. Ali et al. ( 2017 ) investigated how new crops will react to climatic changes (also stated in Mall et al. 2017 ). Hot temperature, drought, insect resistance; salt tolerance; and overall crop production and product quality increases would all be advantageous (Akkari 2016 ). Genetic mapping and engineering can introduce a greater spectrum of features. The adoption of genetically altered cultivars has been slowed, particularly in the early forecasts owing to the complexity in ensuring features are expediently expressed throughout the entire plant, customer concerns, economic profitability, and regulatory impediments (Wirehn 2018 ; Davidson et al. 2016 ).

Changes in management and other input factors

To get the full benefit of the CO 2 would certainly require additional nitrogen and other fertilizers. Nitrogen not consumed by the plants may be excreted into groundwater, discharged into water surface, or emitted from the land, soil nitrous oxide when large doses of fertilizer are sprayed. Increased nitrogen levels in groundwater sources have been related to human chronic illnesses and impact marine ecosystems. Cultivation, grain drying, and other field activities have all been examined in depth in the studies (Barua et al. 2018 ).

The technological and socio-economic adaptation

The policy consequence of the causative conclusion is that as a source of alternative energy, biofuel production is one of the routes that explain oil price volatility separate from international macroeconomic factors. Even though biofuel production has just begun in a few sample nations, there is still a tremendous worldwide need for feedstock to satisfy industrial expansion in China and the USA, which explains the food price relationship to the global oil price. Essentially, oil-exporting countries may create incentives in their economies to increase food production. It may accomplish by giving farmers financing, seedlings, fertilizers, and farming equipment. Because of the declining global oil price and, as a result, their earnings from oil export, oil-producing nations may be unable to subsidize food imports even in the near term. As a result, these countries can boost the agricultural value chain for export. It may be accomplished through R&D and adding value to their food products to increase income by correcting exchange rate misalignment and adverse trade terms. These nations may also diversify their economies away from oil, as dependence on oil exports alone is no longer economically viable given the extreme volatility of global oil prices. Finally, resource-rich and oil-exporting countries can convert to non-food renewable energy sources such as solar, hydro, coal, wind, wave, and tidal energy. By doing so, both world food and oil supplies would be maintained rather than harmed.

IRENA’s modeling work shows that, if a comprehensive policy framework is in place, efforts toward decarbonizing the energy future will benefit economic activity, jobs (outweighing losses in the fossil fuel industry), and welfare. Countries with weak domestic supply chains and a large reliance on fossil fuel income, in particular, must undertake structural reforms to capitalize on the opportunities inherent in the energy transition. Governments continue to give major policy assistance to extract fossil fuels, including tax incentives, financing, direct infrastructure expenditures, exemptions from environmental regulations, and other measures. The majority of major oil and gas producing countries intend to increase output. Some countries intend to cut coal output, while others plan to maintain or expand it. While some nations are beginning to explore and execute policies aimed at a just and equitable transition away from fossil fuel production, these efforts have yet to impact major producing countries’ plans and goals. Verifiable and comparable data on fossil fuel output and assistance from governments and industries are critical to closing the production gap. Governments could increase openness by declaring their production intentions in their climate obligations under the Paris Agreement.

It is firmly believed that achieving the Paris Agreement commitments is doubtlful without undergoing renewable energy transition across the globe (Murshed 2020 ; Zhao et al. 2022 ). Policy instruments play the most important role in determining the degree of investment in renewable energy technology. This study examines the efficacy of various policy strategies in the renewable energy industry of multiple nations. Although its impact is more visible in established renewable energy markets, a renewable portfolio standard is also a useful policy instrument. The cost of producing renewable energy is still greater than other traditional energy sources. Furthermore, government incentives in the R&D sector can foster innovation in this field, resulting in cost reductions in the renewable energy industry. These nations may export their technologies and share their policy experiences by forming networks among their renewable energy-focused organizations. All policy measures aim to reduce production costs while increasing the proportion of renewables to a country’s energy system. Meanwhile, long-term contracts with renewable energy providers, government commitment and control, and the establishment of long-term goals can assist developing nations in deploying renewable energy technology in their energy sector.

Availability of data and material

Data sources and relevant links are provided in the paper to access data.

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School of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, People’s Republic of China

Kashif Abbass, Huaming Song & Ijaz Younis

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing, 210094, People’s Republic of China

Muhammad Zeeshan Qasim

School of Business and Economics, North South University, Dhaka, 1229, Bangladesh

Muntasir Murshed

Department of Journalism, Media and Communications, Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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KA: Writing the original manuscript, data collection, data analysis, Study design, Formal analysis, Visualization, Revised draft, Writing-review, and editing. MZQ: Writing the original manuscript, data collection, data analysis, Writing-review, and editing. HS: Contribution to the contextualization of the theme, Conceptualization, Validation, Supervision, literature review, Revised drapt, and writing review and editing. MM: Writing review and editing, compiling the literature review, language editing. HM: Writing review and editing, compiling the literature review, language editing. IY: Contribution to the contextualization of the theme, literature review, and writing review and editing.

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Abbass, K., Qasim, M.Z., Song, H. et al. A review of the global climate change impacts, adaptation, and sustainable mitigation measures. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29 , 42539–42559 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19718-6

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Climate change and health in North America: literature review protocol

  • Sherilee L. Harper   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-7298-8765 1 ,
  • Ashlee Cunsolo 2 ,
  • Amreen Babujee 1 ,
  • Shaugn Coggins 1 ,
  • Mauricio Domínguez Aguilar 3 &
  • Carlee J. Wright 1  

Systematic Reviews volume  10 , Article number:  3 ( 2021 ) Cite this article

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Climate change is a defining issue and grand challenge for the health sector in North America. Synthesizing evidence on climate change impacts, climate-health adaptation, and climate-health mitigation is crucial for health practitioners and decision-makers to effectively understand, prepare for, and respond to climate change impacts on human health. This protocol paper outlines our process to systematically conduct a literature review to investigate the climate-health evidence base in North America.

A search string will be used to search CINAHL®, Web of Science™, Scopus®, Embase® via Ovid, and MEDLINE® via Ovid aggregator databases. Articles will be screened using inclusion/exclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. First, the inclusion/exclusion criteria will be applied to article titles and abstracts, and then to the full articles. Included articles will be analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods.

This protocol describes review methods that will be used to systematically and transparently create a database of articles published in academic journals that examine climate-health in North America.

Peer Review reports

The direct and indirect impacts of climate change on human health continue to be observed globally, and these wide-ranging impacts are projected to continue to increase and intensify this century [ 1 , 2 ]. The direct climate change effects on health include rising temperatures, which increase heat-related mortality and morbidity [ 3 , 4 , 5 ], and increased frequency and intensity of storms, resulting in increased injury, death, and psychological stressors [ 2 , 6 , 7 , 8 ]. Indirect climate change impacts on health occur via altered environmental conditions, such as climate change impacts on water quality and quantity, which increase waterborne disease [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ]; shifting ecosystems, which increase the risk of foodborne disease [ 14 , 15 , 16 ], exacerbate food and nutritional security [ 17 , 18 ], and change the range and distribution of vectors that cause vectorborne disease [ 19 , 20 ]; and place-based connections and identities, leading to psycho-social stressors and potential increases in negative mental health outcomes and suicide [ 6 , 8 ]. These wide-ranging impacts are not uniformly or equitably distributed: children, the elderly, those with pre-existing health conditions, those experiencing lower socio-economic conditions, women, and those with close connections to and reliance upon the local environment (e.g. Indigenous Peoples, farmers, fishers) often experience higher burdens of climate-health impacts [ 1 , 2 , 21 ]. Indeed, climate change impacts on human health not only are dependent on exposure to climatic and environmental changes, but also depend on climate change sensitivity and adaptive capacity—both of which are underpinned by the social determinants of health [ 1 , 22 , 23 ].

The inherent complexity, great magnitude, and widespread, inequitable, and intersectional distribution of climate change impacts on health present an urgent and grand challenge for the health sector this century [ 2 , 24 , 25 ]. Climate-health research and evidence is critical for informing effective, equitable, and timely adaptation responses and strategies. For instance, research continues to inform local to international climate change and health vulnerability and adaptation assessments [ 26 ]. However, to create evidence-based climate-health adaptation strategies, health practitioners, researchers, and policy makers must sift and sort through vast and often unmanageable amounts of information. Indeed, the global climate-health evidence base has seen exponential growth in recent years, with tens of thousands of articles published globally this century [ 22 , 25 , 27 , 28 ]. Even when resources are available to parse through the evidence base, the available research evidence may not be locally pertinent to decision-makers, may provide poor quality of evidence, may exclude factors important to decision-makers, may overlook temporal and geographical scales over which decision-makers have impact, and/or may not produce information in a timely manner [ 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 ].

Literature reviews that utilize systematic methods present a tool to efficiently and effectively integrate climate-health information and provide data to support evidence-based decision-making. Furthermore, literature reviews that use systematic methods are replicable and transparent, reduce bias, and are ultimately intended to improve reliability and accuracy of conclusions. As such, systematic approaches to identify, explore, evaluate, and synthesize literature separates insignificant, less rigorous, or redundant literature from the critical and noteworthy studies that are worthy of exploration and consideration [ 38 ]. As such, a systematic approach to synthesizing the climate-health literature provides invaluable information and adds value to the climate-health evidence base from which decision-makers can draw from. Therefore, we aim to systematically and transparently create a database of articles published in academic journals that examine climate-health in North America. As such, we outline our protocol that will be used to systematically identify and characterize literature at the climate-health nexus in North America.

This protocol was designed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines [ 39 , 40 ] and presented in accordance with the PRISMA-P checklist.

Research questions

Research on climate change and human health encompasses a diverse range of health outcomes, climate change exposures, populations, and study designs. Given the breadth and depth of information needed by health practitioners and decision-makers, a variety of research questions will be examined (Table 1 ).

Search strategy

The search strategy, including the search string development and selection of databases, was developed in consultation with a research librarian and members of the research team (SLH, AC, and MDA). The search string contains terms related to climate change [ 41 , 42 ], human health outcomes [ 1 , 25 , 43 , 44 ], and study location (Table 2 ). Given the interdisciplinary nature of the climate-health nexus and to ensure that our search is comprehensive, the search string will be used to search five academic databases:

CINAHL® will be searched to capture unique literature not found in other databases on common disease and injury conditions, as well as other health topics;

Web of Science™ will be searched to capture a wide range of multi-disciplinary literature;

Scopus® will be searched to capture literature related to medicine, technology, science, and social sciences;

Embase® via Ovid will be searched to capture a vast range of biomedical sciences journals; and

MEDLINE® via Ovid will be searched to capture literature on biomedical and health sciences.

No language restrictions will be placed on the search. Date restrictions will be applied to capture literature published on or after 01 January 2013, in order to capture literature published after the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (which assessed literature accepted for publication prior to 31 August 2013). An initial test search was conducted on June 10, 2019, and updated on February 14, 2020; however, the search will be updated to include literature published within the most recent full calendar year prior to publication.

To explore the sensitivity of our search and capture any missed articles, (1) a snowball search will be conducted on the reference lists of all the literature that meet the inclusion criteria and (2) a hand search of three relevant disciplinary journals will be conducted:

Environmental Health Perspectives , an open access peer-reviewed journal that is a leading disciplinary journal within environmental health sciences;

The Lancet , a peer-reviewed journal that is the leading disciplinary journal within public health sciences; and

Climatic Change , a peer-reviewed journal covering cross-disciplinary literature that is a leading disciplinary journal for climate change research.

Citations will be downloaded from the databases and uploaded into Mendeley™ reference management software to facilitate reference management, article retrieval, and removal of duplicate citations. Then, de-duplicated citations will be uploaded into DistillerSR® to facilitate screening.

Article selection

Inclusion and exclusion criteria.

To be included, articles must evaluate or examine the intersection of climate change and human health in North America (Fig. 1 ). Health is defined to include physical, mental, emotional, and social health and wellness [ 1 , 25 , 43 , 44 ] (Fig. 1 ). This broad definition will be used to examine the nuanced and complex direct and indirect impacts of climate change on human health. To examine the depth and breadth of climate change impacts on health, climate change contexts are defined to include seasonality, weather parameters, extreme weather events, climate, climate change, climate variability, and climate hazards [ 41 , 42 ] (Fig. 1 ). However, articles that discuss climate in terms of indoor work environments, non-climate hazards due to geologic events (e.g. earthquakes), and non-anthropogenic climate change (e.g. due to volcanic eruptions) will be excluded. This broad definition of climate change contexts will be used in order to examine the wide range and complexity of climate change impacts on human health. To be included, articles need to explicitly link health outcomes to climate change in the goal statement, methods section, and/or results section of the article. Therefore, articles that discuss both human health and climate change—but do not link the two together—will be excluded. The climate-health research has to take place in North America to be included. North America is defined to include Canada, the USA, and Mexico in order to be consistent with the IPCC geographical classifications; that is, in the Fifth Assessment Report, the IPCC began confining North America to include Canada, Mexico, and the USA [ 45 ] (Fig. 1 ). Articles published in any language will be eligible for inclusion. Articles need to be published online on or after 01 January 2013 to be included. No restrictions will be placed on population type (i.e. all human studies will be eligible for inclusion).

figure 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria to review climate change and health literature in North America

Level 1 screening

The title and abstract of each citation will be examined for relevance. A stacked questionnaire will be used to screen the titles and abstracts; that is, when a criterion is not met, the subsequent criteria will not be assessed. When all inclusion criteria are met and/or it is unclear whether or not an inclusion criterion is met (e.g. “unsure”), the article will proceed to Level 2 screening. If the article meets any exclusion criteria, it will not proceed to Level 2 screening. Level 1 screening will be completed by two independent reviewers, who will meet to resolve any conflicts via discussion. The level of agreement between reviewers will be evaluated by dividing the total number of conflicts by the total number of articles screened for Level 1.

Level 2 screening

The full text of all potentially relevant articles will be screened for relevance. A stacked questionnaire will also be used to screen the full texts. In Level 2 screening, only articles that meet all the inclusion criteria will be included in the review (i.e. “unsure” will not be an option). Level 2 screening will be completed by two independent reviewers, who will meet to resolve any conflicts via discussion. The level of agreement between reviewers will be evaluated by dividing the total number of conflicts by the total number of articles screened for Level 2 (Fig. 2 ).

figure 2

Flow chart of screening questions for the literature review on climate change and health in North America

Data extraction and analysis

A data extraction form will be created in DistillerSR® ( Appendix 2 ) and will be tested by three data extractors on a sample of articles to allow for calibration on the extraction process (i.e. 5% of articles if greater than 50 articles, 10% of articles if less than or equal to 50 articles). After completing the calibration process, the form will be adapted based on feedback from the extractors to improve usability and accuracy. The data extractors will then use the data extraction form to complete data extraction. Reviewers will meet regularly to discuss and resolve any further issues in data extraction, in order to ensure the data extraction process remains consistent across reviewers.

Data will be extracted from original research papers (i.e. articles containing data collection and analysis) and review articles that reported a systematic methodology. This data extraction will focus on study characteristics, including the country that the data were collected in, focus of the study (i.e. climate change impact, adaptation, and/or mitigation), weather variables, climatic hazards, health outcomes, social characteristics, and future projections. The categories within each study characteristic will not be mutually exclusive, allowing more than one response/category to be selected under each study characteristic. For the country of study, Canada, the USA, and/or Mexico will be selected if the article describes data collection in each country respectively. Non-North American regions will be selected if the article not only collects data external to North America, but also includes data collection within Canada, the USA, and/or Mexico. For the study focus, data will be extracted on whether the article focuses on climate change impacts, adaptation, and/or mitigation within the goals, methods, and/or results sections of the article. Temperature, precipitation, and/or UV radiation will be selected for weather variables if the article utilizes these data in the goal, methods, and/or results sections. Data will be extracted on the following climatic hazards if the article addresses them in the goal, methods, and/or results sections: heat events (e.g. extreme heat, heat waves), cold events (e.g. extreme cold, winter storms), air quality (e.g. pollution, parts per million (PPM) data, greenhouse gas emissions), droughts, flooding, wildfires, hurricanes, wildlife changes (including changes in disease vectors such as ticks or mosquitos), vegetation changes (including changes in pollen), freshwater (including drinking water), ocean conditions (including sea level rise and ocean acidity/salinity/temperature changes), ice extent/stability/duration (including sea ice and freshwater ice), coastal erosion, permafrost changes, and/or environmental hazards (e.g. exposure to sewage, reduced crop productivity).

Data will be extracted on the following health outcomes if the article focuses on them within the goal, methods, and/or results sections: heat-related morbidity and/or mortality, respiratory outcomes (including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cardiovascular outcomes (including heart attacks or stroke), urinary outcomes (e.g. urinary tract infections, renal failure), dermatologic concerns, mental health and wellness (e.g. suicide, emotional health), fetal health/birth outcomes and/or maternal health, cold exposure, allergies, nutrition (including nutrient deficiency), waterborne disease, foodborne disease, vectorborne disease, injuries (including accidents), and general morbidity and/or mortality. Data on the following social characteristics will also be extracted from the articles if they are included in the goal, methods, and/or results sections of the article: access to healthcare, sex and/or gender, age, income, livelihood (including data on employment, occupation), ethnicity, culture, Indigenous Peoples, rural/remote communities (“rural”, “remote”, or similar terminology must be explicitly mentioned), urban communities (“urban”, “city”, “metropolitan”, or similar terminology must be explicitly used), coastal communities (use of “coastal”, or similar terms must be explicitly mentioned), residence location (zipcode/postal code, neighbourhood, etc.), level of education, and housing (e.g. data on size, age, number of windows, air conditioning). Finally, data will be collected on future projections, including projections that employ qualitative and/or quantitative methods that are included in the goal, methods, and/or results sections of the article.

Descriptive statistics and regression modelling will be used to examine publication trends. Data will be visualized through the use of maps, graphs, and other visualization techniques as appropriate. To enable replicability and transparency, a PRISMA flowchart will be created to illustrate the article selection process and reasons for exclusion. Additionally, qualitative thematic analyses will be conducted. These analyses will utilize constant-comparative approaches to identify patterns across articles through the identification, development, and refinement of codes and themes. Article excerpts will be grouped under thematic categories in order to explore connections in article characteristics, methodologies, and findings.

Quality appraisal of studies included in the systematic scoping review will be performed using a framework based on the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) [ 46 ] and the Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research (CERQual) tool [ 47 ]. This will enable appraisal of evidence in reviews that contain qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies, as well as appraisal of methodological limitations in included qualitative studies. These tools may be adapted to include additional questions as required in order to fit the scope and objectives of the review. A minimum of two reviewers will independently appraise the included articles and discuss judgements as needed. The findings will be made available as supplementary material for the review.

Climate-health literature reviews using systematic methods will be increasingly critical in the health sector, given the depth and breadth of the growing body of climate change and health literature, as well as the urgent need for evidence to inform climate-health adaptation and mitigation strategies. To support and encourage the systematic and transparent identification and synthesis of climate-health information, this protocol describes our approach to systematically and transparently create a database of articles published in academic journals that examine climate-health in North America.

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Abbreviations

Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool

Parts per million

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analyses

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analyses, Protocol Extension

  • United States of America

Ultraviolet

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Maria Tan at the University of Alberta Library for the advice, expertise and guidance provided in developing the search strategy for this protocol. Special thanks to those who assisted with methodology refinement, including Etienne de Jongh, Katharine Neale, and Tianna Rusnak.

Funding was provided by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (to SLH and AC). The funding body had no role in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript.

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SLH, AC, and MDA contributed to the conceptualization, methodology, writing, and editing of the manuscript. AB contributed to the methodology, writing, and editing of the manuscript. SC contributed to the writing and editing of the manuscript. CJW contributed to visualization, writing, and editing of the manuscript. The authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

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Additional file 1..

Search strategy for CINAHL®, Web of Science™, Scopus®, Embase® via Ovid, and MEDLINE® via Ovid.

Data extraction form

  • *Categories were not mutually exclusive; that is, more than one category could be selected

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Harper, S.L., Cunsolo, A., Babujee, A. et al. Climate change and health in North America: literature review protocol. Syst Rev 10 , 3 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01543-y

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Increased understanding of global warming and documentation of its observable impacts have led to the development of adaptation responses to climate change around the world. A necessary, but often missing, component of adaptation involves the assessment of outcomes and impact. Through a systematic review of research literature, I categorize 110 adaptation initiatives that have been implemented and shown some degree of effectiveness. I analyze the ways in which these activities have been documented as effective using five indicators: reducing risk and vulnerability, developing resilient social systems, improving the environment, increasing economic resources, and enhancing governance and institutions. The act of cataloging adaptation activities produces insights for current and future climate action in two main areas: understanding common attributes of adaptation initiatives reported to be effective in current literature; and identifying gaps in adaptation research and practice that address equality, justice, and power dynamics.

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What makes climate change adaptation effective? A systematic review of the literature.

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Public participation, engagement, and climate change adaptation: A review of the research literature

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  • 1 Department of Geography Trinity College Dublin Dublin 2 Ireland.
  • PMID: 35859618
  • PMCID: PMC9285715
  • DOI: 10.1002/wcc.645

There is a clear need for a state-of-the-art review of how public participation in climate change adaptation is being considered in research across academic communities: The Rio Declaration developed in 1992 at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) included explicit goals of citizen participation and engagement in climate actions (Principle 10). Nation states were given special responsibility to facilitate these by ensuring access to information and opportunities to participate in decision-making processes. Since then the need for public participation has featured prominently in calls to climate action. Using text analysis to produce a corpus of abstracts drawn from Web of Science, a review of literature incorporating public participation and citizen engagement in climate change adaptation since 1992 reveals lexical, temporal, and spatial distribution dynamics of research on the topic. An exponential rise in research effort since the year 2000 is demonstrated, with the focus of research action on three substantial themes-risk, flood risk, and risk assessment, perception, and communication. These are critically reviewed and three substantive issues are considered: the paradox of participation, the challenge of governance transformation, and the need to incorporate psycho-social and behavioral adaptation to climate change in policy processes. Gaps in current research include a lack of common understanding of public participation for climate adaptation across disciplines; incomplete articulation of processes involving public participation and citizen engagement; and a paucity of empirical research examining how understanding and usage of influential concepts of risk, vulnerability and adaptive capacity varies among different disciplines and stakeholders. Finally, a provisional research agenda for attending to these gaps is described. This article is categorized under:Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change > Institutions for AdaptationPolicy and Governance > Governing Climate Change in Communities, Cities, and Regions.

Keywords: citizen engagement; climate change adaptation; public engagement; public participation.

© 2020 The Authors. WIREs Climate Change published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Literature review on aligning climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction

literature review on climate change adaptation

Resolutions and reports adopted at the international level in the last few years provide that a more consistent and sustainable alignment between climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) is today considered a global priority. This literature review offers a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of existing knowledge on the topic and looks into an array of potential avenues for solutions from the literature that could be relevant for law and policy at the national and sub-national levels. 

The report identifies four main recommendation topics commonly identifies in the literature that could be relevant to law and policy, including:

  • cross-sectional coordination and governance;
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Insights intended to improve adaptation planning and reduce vulnerability at the local scale..

  • 1 University of Waterloo, Canada

The final, formatted version of the article will be published soon.

We live in a world of constant change, where multiple factors that generate vulnerability coincide, such as pandemics, climate change, and globalization, among other political and societal concerns.This demands the development of approaches capable of dealing with diverse sources of vulnerability and strategies that enable us to plan for and mitigate harm in the face of uncertainty.Our paper shows that the interpretation and conception that one gives to vulnerability in climate change can influence how decision-making solutions and adaptation measures are proposed and adopted. In this context, our approach integrates contextual vulnerability and decision-making planning tools to bolster the capacity to adapt at a local scale. We link our analysis to the evolution of vulnerability in climate change studies and some core articles and decisions on climate change adaptation and capacity building under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Conference of Parties throughout this study.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, Planning tools, Vulnerability, Climate Change, adaptation

Received: 28 Nov 2023; Accepted: 12 Feb 2024.

Copyright: © 2024 Caceres, Wandel, Pittman and Deadman. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Renato Caceres, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada

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  • Published: 09 February 2024

Globally representative evidence on the actual and perceived support for climate action

  • Peter Andre   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8213-527X 1 ,
  • Teodora Boneva   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-4227-3686 2 ,
  • Felix Chopra   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-7621-1045 3 &
  • Armin Falk   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-7284-3002 2  

Nature Climate Change ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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  • Climate-change mitigation
  • Psychology and behaviour

Mitigating climate change necessitates global cooperation, yet global data on individuals’ willingness to act remain scarce. In this study, we conducted a representative survey across 125 countries, interviewing nearly 130,000 individuals. Our findings reveal widespread support for climate action. Notably, 69% of the global population expresses a willingness to contribute 1% of their personal income, 86% endorse pro-climate social norms and 89% demand intensified political action. Countries facing heightened vulnerability to climate change show a particularly high willingness to contribute. Despite these encouraging statistics, we document that the world is in a state of pluralistic ignorance, wherein individuals around the globe systematically underestimate the willingness of their fellow citizens to act. This perception gap, combined with individuals showing conditionally cooperative behaviour, poses challenges to further climate action. Therefore, raising awareness about the broad global support for climate action becomes critically important in promoting a unified response to climate change.

The world’s climate is a global common good and protecting it requires the cooperative effort of individuals across the globe. Consequently, the ‘human factor’ is critical and renders the behavioural science perspective on climate change indispensable for effective climate action. Despite its importance, limited knowledge exists regarding the willingness of the global population to cooperate and act against climate change 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 . To fill this gap, we designed and conducted a globally representative survey in 125 countries, with the aim of examining the potential for successful global climate action. The central question we seek to answer is to what extent are individuals around the globe willing to contribute to the common good, and how do people perceive other people’s willingness to contribute (WTC)?

Drawing on a multidisciplinary literature on the foundations of cooperation, our study focuses on four aspects that have been identified as critical in promoting cooperation in the context of common goods: the individual willingness to make costly contributions, the approval of pro-climate norms, the demand for political action and beliefs about the support of others. We start with exploring the individual willingness to make costly contributions to act against climate change, which is particularly relevant given that cooperation is costly and involves free-rider incentives 9 . Using a behaviourally validated measure, we assess the extent to which individuals around the globe are willing to contribute a share of their income, and which factors predict the observed cross-country variation.

Furthermore, the provision of common goods crucially depends on the existence and enforcement of social norms. These norms prescribe cooperative behaviour 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 and affect behaviour either through internalization (shame and guilt 16 ) or the enforcement of norms by fellow citizens (sanctions and approval 17 ). In our survey, we elicit support for pro-climate social norms and examine the extent to which such norms have emerged globally.

It is widely recognized that addressing common-good problems effectively necessitates institutions and concerted political action 18 , 19 , 20 . In democracies, the implementation of effective climate policies relies on popular support, and even in non-democratic societies, leaders remain attentive to prevailing political demands. Therefore, we also elicit the demand for political action as a critical input in the fight against climate change 21 .

Previous research in the behavioural sciences has shown that many individuals can be characterized as conditional cooperators 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 . This means that individuals are more likely to contribute to the common good when they believe others also contribute. We test this central psychological mechanism of cooperation using our data on actual and perceived WTC. Moreover, we investigate whether beliefs about others’ WTC are well calibrated or whether they are systematically biased. If beliefs are overly pessimistic, this would imply that the world is in a state of pluralistic ignorance 27 , where systematic misperceptions about others’ WTC hinder cooperation and reinforce further pessimism. In such an equilibrium, correcting beliefs holds tremendous potential for fostering cooperation 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 .

The global survey

To obtain globally representative evidence on the willingness to act against climate change, we designed the Global Climate Change Survey. The survey was administered as part of the Gallup World Poll 2021/2022 in a large and diverse set of countries ( N  = 125) using a common sampling and survey methodology ( Methods ). The countries included in this study account for 96% of the world’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 96% of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 92% of the global population. To ensure national representativeness, each country sample is randomly selected from the resident population aged 15 and above. Interviews were conducted via telephone (common in high-income countries) or face to face (common in low-income countries), with randomly drawn phone numbers or addresses. Most country samples include approximately 1,000 respondents, and the global sample comprises a total of 129,902 individuals.

To assess respondents’ willingness to incur a cost to act against climate change, we elicit their willingness to contribute a fraction of their income to climate action. More specifically, we ask respondents whether they would be ‘willing to contribute 1% of [their] household income every month to fight global warming’ (answered yes or no), and, if not, whether they would be willing to contribute a smaller amount (yes or no). To account for the substantial variation in income levels across countries, the question is framed in relative terms. Respondents’ answers thus reflect how strongly they value climate action relative to alternative uses of their income. The figure of 1% is deliberately chosen as it falls within the range of plausible previously reported estimates of climate change mitigation costs 32 , 33 .

Our WTC measure has been empirically validated and shown to predict incentivized pro-climate donation decisions ( Methods ). In a representative US sample 30 , respondents who state they would be willing to contribute 1% of their monthly income donate 43% more money to a climate charity ( P  < 0.001 for a two-sided t -test, N  = 1,993; Supplementary Fig. 1 ) and are 21–39 percentage points more likely to avoid fossil-fuel-based means of transport (car and plane), restrict their meat consumption, use renewable energy or adapt their shopping behaviour (all P  < 0.001 for two-sided t -tests, N  = 1,996; Supplementary Table 1 ).

To measure respondents’ beliefs about other people’s WTC, we first tell respondents that we are surveying many other individuals in their country about their willingness to contribute 1% of their household income every month to fight global warming. We then ask respondents to estimate how many out of 100 other individuals in their country would be willing to contribute this amount, that is, possible answers range from 0 to 100.

To assess individual approval of pro-climate social norms, we ask respondents to indicate whether they think that people in their country ‘should try to fight global warming’ (answered yes or no). Following recent research on social norms 15 , 34 , the item elicits respondents’ views about what other people should do, that is, what kind of behaviour they consider normatively appropriate (so-called injunctive norms 10 ).

Finally, we measure demand for political action by asking respondents whether they think that their ‘national government should do more to fight global warming’ (answered yes or no). This item assesses the extent to which individuals regard their government’s current efforts as insufficient and sheds light on the potential for increased political action in the future.

The approval of pro-climate norms and the demand for political action are deliberately measured in a general manner to account for the fact that suitable concrete mitigation strategies may differ across countries. Our general measures strongly correlate with the approval of specific pro-climate norms and the demand for concrete policy measures ( Methods ). In a representative US sample, individuals who approve of the general norm to act against climate change are substantially more likely to state that individuals ‘should try to’ avoid fossil-fuel-based means of transport (car and plane), restrict their meat consumption, use renewable energy or adapt their shopping behaviour (correlation coefficients ρ between 0.35 and 0.51, all P  < 0.001 for two-sided t -tests, N  = 1,994; Supplementary Table 2 ). Similarly, the general demand for more political action is strongly correlated with demand for specific climate policies, such as a carbon tax on fossil fuels, regulatory limits on the CO 2 emissions of coal-fired plants, or funding for research on renewable energy ( ρ between 0.49 and 0.59, all P  < 0.001 for two-sided t -tests, N  = 1,996; Supplementary Table 3 ).

To ensure comparability across countries and cultures, professional translators translated the survey into the local languages following best practices in survey translation by using an elaborate multi-step translation procedure. The survey was extensively pre-tested in multiple countries of diverse cultural heritage to ensure that respondents with different cultural, economic and educational backgrounds could comprehend the questions in a comparable way. We deliberately refer to ‘global warming’ rather than ‘climate change’ throughout the survey to prevent confusion with seasonal changes in weather 35 , 36 , and provide all respondents with a brief definition of global warming to ensure a common understanding of the term.

A list of variables, definitions and sources is available in Methods . In all analyses, we use Gallup’s sampling weights, which were calculated by Gallup in multiple stages. A probability weight factor (base weight) was constructed to correct for unequal selection probabilities resulting from the stratified random sampling procedure. At the next step, the base weights were post-stratified to adjust for non-response and to match the weighted sample totals to known population statistics. The standard demographic variables used for post-stratification are age, gender, education and region. When describing the data at the supranational level, we also weight each country sample by its share of the world population.

Widespread global support for climate action

The globally representative data reveal strong support for climate action around the world. First, a large majority of individuals—69%—state they would be willing to contribute 1% of their household income every month to fight global warming (Fig. 1a ). An additional 6% report they would be willing to contribute a smaller fraction of their income, and 26% state they would not be willing to contribute any amount. The proportion of respondents willing to contribute 1% of their income varies considerably across countries (Fig. 1b ), ranging from 30% to 93%. In the vast majority of countries (114 of 125) the proportion is greater than 50%, and in a large number of countries (81 of 125) the proportion is greater than two-thirds.

figure 1

a , c , e , The global average proportions of respondents willing to contribute income ( a ), approving of pro-climate social norms ( c ) and demanding political action ( e ). Population-adjusted weights are used to ensure representativeness at the global level. b , d , f , World maps in which each country is coloured according to its proportion of respondents willing to contribute 1% of income ( b ), approving of pro-climate social norms ( d ) and demanding political action ( f ). Sampling weights are used to account for the stratified sampling procedure. Supplementary Table 4 presents the data. GW, global warming.

Second, we document widespread approval of pro-climate social norms in almost all countries. Overall, 86% of respondents state that people in their country should try to fight global warming (Fig. 1c ). In 119 of 125 countries, the proportion of supporters exceeds two-thirds (Fig. 1d ).

Third, we identify an almost universal global demand for intensified political action. Across the globe, 89% of respondents state that their national government should do more to fight global warming (Fig. 1e ). In more than half the countries in our sample, the demand for more government action exceeds 90% (Fig. 1f ).

Stronger willingness to contribute in vulnerable countries

Although the approval of pro-climate social norms and the demand for intensified political action is substantial in almost all countries (Fig. 1d,f ), there is considerable variation in the proportion of individuals willing to contribute 1% across countries (Fig. 1b ) and world regions (Supplementary Tables 4 and 5) . What explains the cross-country variation in individual WTC? Two patterns stand out.

First, there is a negative relationship between country-level WTC and (log) GDP per capita ( ρ  = −0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), [−0.60, −0.32]; P  < 0.001 for a two-sided t -test; N  = 125; Fig. 2a ). To illustrate, in the wealthiest quintile of countries, the average proportion of people willing to contribute 1% is 62%, whereas it is 78% in the least wealthy quintile of countries. A country’s GDP per capita reflects its resilience, that is, its economic capacity to cope with climate change. Put differently, in countries that are most resilient, individuals are least willing to contribute 1% of their income to climate action. At the same time, a country’s GDP is strongly related to its current dependence on GHG emissions 37 . For the countries studied here, the correlation coefficient between log GDP and log GHG emissions is 0.87. From a behavioural science perspective, this pattern is consistent with the interpretation that individuals are less willing to contribute if they perceive the adaptation costs as too high, that is, when the required lifestyle changes are perceived as too drastic.

figure 2

a – c , Binned scatter plots of the country-level proportion of individuals willing to contribute 1% of their income and log average GDP (per capita, purchasing power parity (PPP) adjusted) for 2010–2019 ( a ), annual average temperature (°C) for 2010–2019 ( b ) and the vulnerability index used in the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) ( c ) 41 , 42 . The vulnerability index ranges from 0 to 100, with higher values indicating higher vulnerability. Correlation coefficients are calculated from the unbinned country-level data. We use sampling weights to derive the country-level WTC. Number of bins, 20; 6–7 countries per bin; derived from x axis. The red line represents linear regression.

Second, we find a positive relationship between country-level WTC and country-level annual average temperature ( ρ  = 0.35; 95% CI, [0.18, 0.49]; P  < 0.001 for a two-sided t -test, N  = 125; Fig. 2b ). The average proportion of people who are willing to contribute increases from 64% among the coldest quintile of countries to 77% among the warmest quintile of countries. Average annual temperature captures how exposed a country is to global warming risks 38 , 39 . Countries with higher annual temperatures have already experienced greater damage due to global warming, potentially making future threats from climate change more salient to their residents 40 .

Both results replicate in a joint multivariate regression and are robust to the inclusion of continent fixed effects and other economic, political, cultural or geographic factors (Supplementary Tables 6 – 9 ). Focusing on North America, we also find a significantly positive association between WTC and average temperature on the subnational level (Supplementary Fig. 2 ). Moreover, as low GDP and high temperatures constitute two important aspects of vulnerability to climate change, we also draw on a more comprehensive summary measure of vulnerability, derived for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report 41 , 42 . In addition to national income and poverty levels, the index also takes into account non-economic factors, such as the quality of public infrastructure, health services and governance. It captures a country’s general lack of resilience and adaptive capacity, and it is highly correlated with log GDP ( ρ  = −0.93) and temperature ( ρ  = 0.62). Figure 2c confirms that people living in more vulnerable countries report a stronger WTC.

The country-level variation in pro-climate norms and demand for intensified political action is much smaller than that for the WTC. Nevertheless, we find that higher temperature predicts stronger norms and support for more political action. We do not detect a significant relationship with GDP (Supplementary Table 10 ).

Beliefs and systematic misperceptions

In line with previous research 11 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , our data support the importance of conditional cooperation at the global level. Figure 3a shows a strong and positive correlation between the country-level proportions of individuals willing to contribute 1% and the corresponding average perceived proportions of fellow citizens willing to contribute 1% ( ρ  = 0.73; 95% CI, [0.64, 0.81]; P  < 0.001 for a two-sided t -test; N  = 125).

figure 3

a , Binned scatter plots of the country-level proportions of individuals willing to contribute 1% of their income and the average perceived proportions of others who are willing to contribute 1% of their income. We use sampling weights to derive the country-level WTC and perceived WTC. Number of bins, 20; 6–7 countries per bin; derived from x axis. The red line shows the linear regression. b , Gap between the global and country proportions of respondents who are willing to contribute 1% of their income (circles) and the global and country average perceived proportions of others willing to contribute (triangles). The reported significance levels result from two-sided t -tests testing whether the proportion of individuals who are willing to contribute is equal to the average perceived proportion. We use population-adjusted weights to derive the global averages and the standard sampling weights otherwise. We derive the averages based on all available data, that is, we exclude missing responses separately for each question. See Supplementary Figure 4 for additional descriptive statistics for the perceived WTC (median, 25–75% quartile range).

We document the same pattern at the individual level. In a univariate linear regression analysis, a 1-percentage-point increase in the perceived proportion of others’ WTC is associated with a 0.46-percentage-point increase in one’s own probability of contributing (95% CI, [0.41, 0.50]; P  < 0.001; N  = 111,134; Supplementary Table 11 ). This effect size aligns closely with the degree of conditional cooperation that has been documented in the laboratory 26 .

The critical role of beliefs raises the question of whether beliefs are well calibrated. In fact, Fig. 3b reveals sizeable and systematic global misperceptions. At the global level, there is a 26-percentage-point gap (95% CI, [25.6, 26.0]; P  < 0.001 for a two-sided t -test; N  = 125; Supplementary Table 4 ) between the actual proportion of respondents who report being willing to contribute 1% of their income towards climate action (69%) and the average perceived proportion (43%). Put differently, individuals around the globe strongly underestimate their fellow citizens’ actual WTC to the common good. At the country level, the vast majority of respondents underestimate the actual proportion in their country (81%), and a large proportion of respondents underestimate the proportion by more than 10 percentage points (73%). This pattern holds for each country in our sample (Fig. 3b ). In all 125 countries, the average perceived proportion is lower than the actual proportion, significantly so in all but one country (two-sided t -tests, actual versus perceived WTC). If we limit the analysis to those respondents for whom we have non-missing data for both the actual and the perceived WTC, the global perception gap is estimated to be 29 percentage points (95% CI, [27.2, 30.0]; P  < 0.001 for a two-sided t -test; N  = 125; Supplementary Table 12 ), and the average perceived proportion is estimated to be significantly lower than the actual proportion in all 125 countries (Supplementary Fig. 3 ).

Although the perception gap is positive in all countries, we note that the size of the perception gap varies across countries (s.d. = 8.7 percentage points). Examining the same country-level characteristics as before, we find that the gap is significantly larger in countries with higher annual temperatures and significantly smaller in countries with high GDP (Supplementary Table 13 ). These results are largely robust to the inclusion of other economic, political or cultural factors, which we do not find to be significantly related to the perception gap. These findings are robust to only using respondents for whom we have non-missing data for both the actual and perceived WTC.

Climate scientists have stressed that immediate, concerted and determined action against climate change is necessary 32 , 41 , 43 , 44 . Against this backdrop, our study sheds light on people’s willingness to contribute to climate action around the world. What sets our study apart from existing cross-cultural studies on climate change perceptions 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 and policy views 4 , 5 , 6 is its globally representative coverage and its behavioural science perspective.

The results are encouraging. About two-thirds of the global population report being willing to incur a personal cost to fight climate change, and the overwhelming majority demands political action and supports pro-climate norms. This indicates that the world is united in its normative judgement about climate change and the need to act.

The four aspects of cooperation discussed in this article are likely to interact with one another. For example, consensus on pro-climate norms is likely to strengthen individuals’ WTC and vice versa 13 . Similarly, the enactment of climate policies is likely to strengthen climate norms and vice versa 45 . We find a strong positive correlation between the WTC, pro-climate norms, policy support and beliefs about others’ WTC across countries (Supplementary Table 14 ). Moreover, countries with a stronger approval of pro-climate social norms have passed significantly more climate-change-related laws and policies ( ρ  = 0.20; 95% CI, [0.02, 0.36]; P  = 0.028 for a two-sided t -test; N  = 122). These positive interactions suggest that a change in one factor can unlock potent, self-reinforcing feedback cycles, triggering social-tipping dynamics 46 , 47 . Our findings can inform system dynamics models and social climate models that explicitly take into account the interaction of human behaviour with natural, physical systems 48 , 49 .

The widespread willingness to act against climate change stands in contrast to the prevailing global pessimism regarding others’ willingness to act. The world is in a state of pluralistic ignorance, which occurs when people systematically misperceive the beliefs or attitudes held by others 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 50 . The reasons underlying this perception gap are probably multifaceted, encompassing factors such as media and public debates disproportionately emphasizing climate-sceptical minority opinions 51 , and the influence of interest groups’ campaigning efforts 52 , 53 . Moreover, during periods of transition, individuals may erroneously attribute the inadequate progress in addressing climate change to a persistent lack of individual support for climate-friendly actions 54 .

Importantly, these systematic perception gaps can form an obstacle to climate action. The prevailing pessimism regarding others’ support for climate action can deter individuals from engaging in climate action, thereby confirming the negative beliefs held by others. Therefore, our results suggest a potentially powerful intervention, that is, a concerted political and communicative effort to correct these misperceptions. In light of a global perception gap of 26 percentage points (Fig. 3b ) and the observation that a 1-percentage-point increase in the perceived proportion of others willing to contribute 1% is associated with a 0.46-percentage-point increase in one’s own probability to contribute (Supplementary Table 11 ), such an intervention may yield quantitatively large, positive effects. Rather than echoing the concerns of a vocal minority that opposes any form of climate action, we need to effectively communicate that the vast majority of people around the world are willing to act against climate change and expect their national government to act.

Sampling approach

The survey was carried out as part of the Gallup World Poll 2021/2022 in 125 countries, with a median total response duration of 30 min. The four questions were included towards the end of the Gallup World Poll survey and were timed to take about 1.5 min.

Each country sample is designed to be representative of the resident population aged 15 and above. The geographic coverage area from which the samples are drawn generally includes the entire country. Exceptions relate to areas where the safety of the surveyors could not be guaranteed or—in some countries—islands with a very small population.

Interviews are conducted in one of two modes: computer-assisted telephone interviews via landline or mobile phone or face to face (mostly computer assisted). Telephone interviews were used in countries with high telephone coverage, countries in which it is the customary survey methodology and countries in which the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic ruled out a face-to-face approach. There is one exception: paper-and-pencil interviews had to be used in Afghanistan for 73% of respondents to minimize security concerns.

The selection of respondents is probability based. The concrete procedure depends on the survey mode. More details are available in the documentation of the Gallup World Poll ( https://news.gallup.com/poll/165404/world-poll-methodology.aspx ) 55 .

Telephone interviews involved random-digit dialling or sampling from nationally representative lists of phone numbers. If contacted via landline, one household member aged 15 or older is randomly selected. In countries with a landline or mobile telephone coverage of less than 80%, this procedure is also adopted for mobile telephone calls to improve coverage.

For face-to-face interviews, primary sampling units are identified (cluster of households, stratified by population size or geography). Within those units, a random-route strategy is used to select households. Within the chosen households, respondents are randomly selected.

Each potential respondent is contacted at least three (for face-to-face interviews) or five (telephone) times. If the initially sampled respondent can not be interviewed, a substitution method is used. The median country-level response rate corresponds to 65% for face-to-face interviews and 9% for telephone interviews. These response rates are comparatively high considering that survey participants are not offered financial incentives for participating in the Gallup World Poll. For telephone interviews, the Pew Research Center reports a response rate of 6% in the United States in 2019 ( https://pewrsr.ch/2XqxgTT ). For face-to-face interviews, ref. 56 found a non-response rate of 23.7% even in a country with very high levels of trust, such as Denmark.

The median and most common sample size is 1,000 respondents. An overview of survey modes and sample sizes can be found in Supplementary Table 15 .

Sampling weights

Although the sampling approach is probability based, some groups of respondents are more likely to be sampled by the sampling procedure. For instance, residents in larger households are less likely to be selected than residents in smaller households because both small and large households have an equal chance of being chosen. For this reason, Gallup constructs a probability weight factor (base weight) to correct for unequal selection probabilities. In a second step, the base weights are post-stratified to adjust for non-response and to match known population statistics. The standard demographic variables used for post-stratification are age, gender, education and region. In some countries, additional demographic information is used based on availability (for example, ethnicity or race in the United States). The weights range from 0.12 to 6.23, with a 10–90% quantile range of 0.28 to 2.10, ensuring that no observation is given an excessively disproportionate weight. Of all weights, 93% are between 0.25 and 4. More details are available in the documentation of the Gallup World Poll ( https://news.gallup.com/poll/165404/world-poll-methodology.aspx ) 55 .

We use these weights in our main analyses in two ways: first, when deriving national averages, we weight individual responses with Gallup’s sampling weights; and, second, when conducting individual-level regression analyses, we weight respondents with Gallup’s sampling weights.

We note that this weighting approach does not take into account the fact that some countries have a larger population than others. At the global level, the approach would effectively weight countries by their sample size and not their population size. Therefore, we also derive population-adjusted weights that render the data representative of the global population (aged ≥15) that is covered by our survey. The population-adjusted weight of individual i in country c is derived as

where w i c denotes the original Gallup sampling weight, I c the set of all respondents in country c , s c the country’s share of the global population aged ≥15 and n the total sample size of 129,902 respondents. Division by \({\sum }_{{I}_{c}}{w}_{ic}\) ensures that countries with a larger sample size (Supplementary Table 15 ) do not receive a larger weight. Multiplication with s c ensures that the total weight of a country sample is proportional to its population share. Multiplication with the constant n ensures that the total sum of the population-adjusted weights equals n , but is inconsequential for the results.

Although the two approaches yield very similar results (Supplementary Table 16 ), we use these population-adjusted weights wherever we present global statistics or statistics for supranational world regions. Supplementary Table 16 also shows that we obtain almost identical results if we do not use weights at all.

Global pre-test

A preliminary version of the survey was extensively pre-tested in 2020 in six countries of diverse cultural heritage—Colombia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Kenya and Ukraine—to ensure that subjects from different cultural and economic backgrounds interpret the questions adequately. In each country, cognitive interviews were conducted by trained interviewers in local languages. The objectives of the pre-test were threefold, that is, to collect feedback, test whether the survey questions were understandable and check whether they were interpreted homogeneously across cultures. Each survey question was followed by additional probing questions that investigated respondents’ understanding of central terms and the overall logic of the question. Moreover, respondents were invited to express any comprehension difficulties. In response to the feedback, several minor adjustments to the survey were made. Most importantly, we switched to the term global warming instead of climate change to prevent confusion with seasonal changes in weather.

Survey items

The US English version of the questionnaire can be found below. Square brackets indicate information that is adjusted to each country. Parentheses indicate that a response option was available to the interviewer but not read aloud to the interviewee. The frequencies of missing data are summarized in Supplementary Table 17 .

Introduction to global warming

Now, on a different topic… The following questions are about global warming. Global warming means that the world’s average temperature has considerably increased over the past 150 years and may increase more in the future.

Willingness to contribute

Question 1 : Would you be willing to contribute 1% of your household income every month to fight global warming? This would mean that you would contribute [$1] for every [$100] of this income.

Responses : Yes, No, (DK), (Refused)

Coding : Binary dummy for Yes. (DK) and (Refused) are coded as missing data.

Question 2 (asked only if ‘No’ was selected in Question 1) : Would you be willing to contribute a smaller amount than 1% of your household income every month to fight global warming?

Responses : Yes, No, I would not contribute any income, (DK), (Refused)

Coding : We classify respondents into three categories based on their responses to both questions. Willing to contribute (at least) 1%, willing to contribute between 0% and 1%, not willing to contribute. We conservatively code (DK) and (Refused) in Question 2 as ‘Not willing to contribute’.

Beliefs about others’ willingness to contribute

Question : We are asking these questions to 100 other respondents in [the United States]. How many do you think are willing to contribute at least 1% of their household income every month to fight global warming?

Responses : 0–100, (DK), (Refused)

Coding : 0–100, (DK) and (Refused) are coded as missing data.

Social norms

Question : Do you think that people in [the United States] should try to fight global warming?

Demand for political action

Question : Do you think the national government should do more to fight global warming?

Note : We were not allowed to field this question in Myanmar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

Implementation errors

In two countries, an implementation error was made for the question on WTC a proportion of income.

In Kyrgyzstan, 4 of 1,001 respondents answered the survey in the language Uzbek. To these four respondents, the second sentence of question 1 was not read. The other respondents in Kyrgyzstan were interviewed in a different language and were not affected.

In Mongolia, respondents were asked whether they are willing to contribute less than 1% in question 1. Of these respondents, 93.1% answered yes. We approximate the proportion of Mongolian respondents who are willing to contribute 1% as follows. The implementation error should not affect the proportion of respondents who answer no to both questions (4.4%). Moreover, we know that in most countries 5–6% of respondents are not willing to contribute 1% but are willing to contribute a positive amount smaller than 1%. This is also true in neighbouring countries of Mongolia (China, 6.0%; Kazakhstan, 4.9%; Russia, 5.6%). Therefore, we derive the proportion of Mongolian respondents who are willing to contribute 1% as 100% − 4.4% − 6% = 89.6%, which is close to the uncorrected proportion of 93.1%. Results are virtually unchanged if we exclude observations from Mongolia.

Translation

The translation process of the US English original version into other languages followed the TRAPD model, first developed for the European Social Survey 57 . The acronym TRAPD stands for translation, review, adjudication, pre-testing and documentation. It is a team-based approach to translation and has been found to provide more reliable results than alternative procedures, such as back-translation. The following procedure is implemented:

Translation: a local professional translator conducts the first translation.

Review: the translation is reviewed by another professional translator from an independent company. The reviewer identifies any issues, suggests alternative wordings and explains their comments in English.

Adjudication: the original translator receives this feedback and can accept or reject the suggestions. In the latter case, he provides an English explanation for his decision and a third expert adjudicates the disputed translation, which often involves further exchange with the translators.

Pre-testing: a pilot test with at least ten respondents per language is conducted.

Documentation: translations and commentary (Gallup internal) are documented.

The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Gallup World Poll. Informed consent was obtained from all human research participants.

Our main measures of support for climate action are deliberately measured in a general manner to account for the fact that suitable concrete strategies to act against climate change can differ widely across the globe. However, in previous work, we collected both the general measures and additional specific measures for the different facets of climate cooperation. We conducted a survey with a diverse sample of respondents that is representative of the US population in terms of the sociodemographic characteristics of age, gender, education and region 30 . Specifically, we first elicit respondents’ WTC, demand for political action and approval of pro-climate change norms. In a second step, respondents can allocate money between themselves and a pro-climate charity (incentivized). We also elicit whether respondents have engaged in a set of specific climate-friendly behaviours in the previous 12 months (answered yes or no). We further elicit whether they think that people in the United States should engage in these specific climate-friendly behaviours (yes or no). Finally, we measure support for specific climate-change-related policies and regulations using a four-point Likert scale. Supplementary Tables 1 – 3 show that our general measures are strongly correlated with concrete climate-friendly behaviours, concrete climate-friendly norms and support for specific climate-change-related policies and regulation. More details on these data can be found in ref. 30 .

The data in ref. 30 also allow us to investigate whether we obtain similar results using two different survey methodologies. The Gallup World Poll relies on computer-assisted telephone interviews (landline and mobile) and random sampling via random-digit dialling. In ref. 30 , an online survey was conducted and quota-based sampling was used. Reassuringly, we obtain very similar results for the proportion of the population willing to contribute 1% of their household income, supporting pro-climate norms and demanding more political action (Table 1 ).

Additional data sources

Annual temperature.

This is the annual average temperature (in degrees Celsius) from 2010 to 2019. The data are available from the World Bank Group’s Climate Change Knowledge Portal ( https://climateknowledgeportal.worldbank.org/download-data ) and derived from the CRU TS v.4.05 data ( https://crudata.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg/ ).

A set of indicators for whether a country belongs to one of the following five continents: (1) Africa, (2) Americas, (3) Asia, (4) Europe and (5) Oceania.

Economic growth

The average GDP growth rate between 2000 and 2019, obtained by averaging the year-on-year change in real GDP per capita (in constant US dollars) across years (World Bank WDI database, https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators/Series/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.KD ).

The average national GDP per capita from 2010 to 2019 in constant US dollars, adjusted for differences in purchasing power. To derive the percentage of world GDP that our survey represents, we take national GDP data from 2019. The data for each country are available from the World Bank WDI database ( https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators/Series/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.KD ). For Taiwan and Venezuela, the World Bank does not provide GDP estimates. Instead, we use data from the International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook Database ( https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2022/October ).

GHG emissions

The per-capita GHG emissions expressed in equivalent metric tons of CO 2 averaged from 2010 to 2019. To derive the percentage of world GHG emissions that our survey represents, we take national GHG data from 2019. GHGs include CO 2 (fossil only), CH 4 , N 2 O and F gases. Data are obtained from EDGAR v.7.0 (ref. 58 ).

Individualism–collectivism

This refers to a country’s location on the individualism–collectivism spectrum, which we standardize 59 .

Kinship tightness

This refers to the extent to which people are embedded in large, interconnected extended family networks. The measure is derived from the data of the Ethnographic Atlas in ref. 60 and is available at https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataset.xhtml?persistentId=doi:10.7910/DVN/JX1OIU .

Regional temperature

The population-weighted regional mean temperature in degrees Celsius (between 2010 and 2019). Regions are defined by Gallup and often coincide with the first administrative unit below the national level. We use temperature data from the Climatic Research Unit ( https://crudata.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg/ ) and population data from the LandScan database ( https://www.ornl.gov/project/landscan ) to construct this variable.

Scientific articles

The average number of scientific articles (per capita) from 2009 to 2018. The annual data for each country are available from the World Bank WDI database and normalized with annual population data from the Maddison Project Database 2020 ( https://www.rug.nl/ggdc/historicaldevelopment/maddison/releases/maddison-project-database-2020 ).

Secondary and tertiary education

This refers to the proportion of the population with secondary or tertiary education as the highest level of education. The Gallup World Poll includes respondent-level information on whether the highest level of educational attainment is secondary and tertiary education, which we aggregate to national proportion by using Gallup’s sampling weights.

Survival versus self-expression values

The extent to which people in a country hold survival versus self-expression values, which we standardize. We obtain the data from the axes of the Inglehart–Welzel Cultural Map ( https://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSNewsShow.jsp?ID=467 ) 61 .

Traditional versus secular values

The extent to which people in a country hold traditional versus secular values, which we standardize. We obtain the data from the axes of the Inglehart–Welzel Cultural Map ( https://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSNewsShow.jsp?ID=467 ) 61 .

Vulnerability index

This measure captures a country’s vulnerability as defined in the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report 41 , 42 . Specifically, the measure is the average of the vulnerability subcomponent of the INFORM Risk Index and the WorldRiskIndex. The INFORM Risk Index consists of 32 indicators related to vulnerability and coping capacity. The vulnerability component of the WorldRiskIndex encompasses 23 indicators, which cover susceptibility, absence of coping ability and lack of adaptive capability. For example, the subcomponents include indicators of extreme poverty, food security, access to basic infrastructure, access to health care, health status and governance. The data and documentation are available at https://ipcc-browser.ipcc-data.org/browser/dataset?id=3736 .

Quality of governance standard data set 2021

The following variables are compiled from the Quality of Governance Standard Data Set 2021 ( https://www.gu.se/en/quality-government ) 62 .

Concentration of political power

This variable is based on the Political Constraints Index III from the Political Constraint Index (POLCON) Dataset ( https://mgmt.wharton.upenn.edu/faculty/heniszpolcon/polcondataset/ ), which we standardize.

A binary measure of democracy, obtained from ref. 63 .

Electricity from fossil fuels

The proportion of electricity produced from oil or coal (World Bank WDI database).

Perceived corruption

We use the Corruption Perception Index (0–100) from Transparency International ( https://www.transparency.org/en/cpi/ ), which we standardize.

The size of the population aged 15 or higher in 2019. The data are taken from the World Bank WDI database.

Property rights

The standardized score of the degree to which a country’s laws protect private property rights and the degree to which those laws are enforced (Heritage Foundation’s Index of Economic Freedom dataset; http://www.heritage.org/index/explore ).

Quality of Governance Environmental Indicators Dataset 2021

The following variables are compiled from the Quality of Governance Environmental Indicators Dataset 2021 ( https://www.gu.se/en/quality-government ) 64 .

Annual precipitation

The long-run average of annual precipitation (in mm per year) (World Bank WDI database).

Climate change executive policies

The cumulative number of climate-change-related policies or other executive provisions (from 1946 until 2020), which were published or decreed by the government, president or an equivalent executive authority ( https://climate-laws.org/ ) 65 .

Climate change laws and legislations

The cumulative number of climate-change-related laws and legislations (from 1946 until 2020) that were passed by the parliament or an equivalent legislative authority 65 .

Distance to coast

The average distance to the nearest ice-free coast (in 1,000 km) 66 .

Terrain ruggedness index

An index of the terrain ruggedness (as of 2012) originally developed to measure topographic variation 67 and modified by ref. 66 .

Reporting summary

Further information on research design is available in the Nature Portfolio Reporting Summary linked to this article.

Data availability

The data of the Global Climate Change Survey are available at https://doi.org/10.15185/gccs.1 . References to and the documentation of external and proprietary data, such as the Gallup World Poll data, are available in the Supplementary Information .

Code availability

The analysis code is available at https://doi.org/10.15185/gccs.1 .

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Acknowledgements

We thank S. Gächter, I. Haaland, L. Henkel, A. Oswald, C. Roth, E. Weber and J. Wohlfart for valuable comments. We thank M. Antony for his support in collecting and managing the Global Climate Change Survey data, and J. König, L. Michels, T. Reinheimer and U. Zamindii for excellent research assistance. Funding by the Institute on Behavior and Inequality (briq) (A.F.) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; through Excellence Strategy EXC 2126/1 390838866 (P.A., T.B. and A.F.) and through CRC TR 224) is gratefully acknowledged (P.A. and A.F.). The activities of the Center for Economic Behavior and Inequality (CEBI) are financed by the Danish National Research Foundation, grant DNRF134 (F.C.). We gratefully acknowledge research support from the Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE (P.A.).

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Andre, P., Boneva, T., Chopra, F. et al. Globally representative evidence on the actual and perceived support for climate action. Nat. Clim. Chang. (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-024-01925-3

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Literature review on aligning climate change adaptation (cca) and disaster risk reduction (drr), attachments.

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INTRODUCTION

Resolutions and reports adopted at the international level in the last few years provide that a more consistent and sustainable alignment between climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) is today considered a global priority. The present review offers a comprehensive and up-todate overview of existing knowledge on the topic and looks into an array of potential avenues for solutions from the literature that could be relevant for law and policy at the national and sub-national level, as reported in the literature.

As commonly stated in the literature, the basic connection between CCA and DRR lies in the overarching goals of both sectors, namely reduction of losses due to climate-related hazards (including both slow-onset and extreme events) and the improvement of communities’ resilience (i.e. their capacity to regain equilibrium after critical system disruptions). In that perspective, several implementing actions could indistinguishably relate to DRR and CCA and can, therefore, be mutually beneficial.

Furthermore, both sectors can have direct and intertwined implications in the adoption of sustainable development measures, as well as in other fields of action (e.g. food security; reduction of social inequalities; protection of vulnerable groups; and safety of ecosystems). The two sectors also recognize that the impact of hydrometeorological and climate-related hazards is felt most intensely by the poorest and more marginalised sectors of populations. Further, the humanitarian “cost” of the lack of integrated and effective strategies to prevent climate-related disasters could almost double by 2050.

For all these reasons, the literature widely acknowledges that a comprehensive understanding of the two sectors within national and sub-national institutions, normative frameworks and implementation mechanisms would allow for: greater impact by law and policies; more efficient use of available resources (both human and material); and more effective action in reducing vulnerabilities. This appears as pivotal for the improvement of governmental and societal responses against climate risks that threaten human beings and ecosystems all around the globe.

However, while the conceptual boundaries in normative development, policymaking and programming have progressively lessened in the past few years, a sustainable and practical approach to integrating CCA and DRR appears to still be “in its infancy”. The most emblematic evidence of the persistence of these gaps at the national level is the lack of a clear understanding of how existing climate risks relate to the sector of disaster risk management (DRM),11 and how DRR norms, policies and actions systematically considers future climate change patterns.

Indeed, the literature suggests the way in which the different disaster management phases (preparation, response, recovery and mitigation) are designed, incorporate new or predicted impacts and accommodate changes in the frequency and magnitude of climate-related events over time, indicates how (and if) CCA-DRR combination is taking place

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Plant adaptation to climate change — Where are we?

Jill anderson.

1 Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA

Bao-Hua Song

2 Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA

Climate change poses critical challenges for population persistence in natural communities, agriculture and environmental sustainability, and food security. In this review, we discuss recent progress in climatic adaptation in plants. We evaluate whether climate change exerts novel selection and disrupts local adaptation, whether gene flow can facilitate adaptive responses to climate change, and if adaptive phenotypic plasticity could sustain populations in the short term. Furthermore, we discuss how climate change influences species interactions. Through a more in-depth understanding of these eco-evolutionary dynamics, we will increase our capacity to predict the adaptive potential of plants under climate change. In addition, we review studies that dissect the genetic basis of plant adaptation to climate change. Finally, we highlight key research gaps, ranging from validating gene function, to elucidating molecular mechanisms, expanding research systems from model species to other natural species, testing the fitness consequences of alleles in natural environments, and designing multifactorial studies that more closely reflect the complex and interactive effects of multiple climate change factors. By leveraging interdisciplinary tools (e.g., cutting-edge omics toolkits, novel ecological strategies, newly-developed genome editing technology), researchers can more accurately predict the probability that species can persist through this rapid and intense period of environmental change, as well as cultivate crops to withstand climate change, and conserve biodiversity in natural systems.

1. Introduction

The capacity of plants to adapt to the direct and indirect consequences of climate change will influence plant survival, extinction risks, agricultural and environmental sustainability, and food security. In the face of persistent and worsening climate change, it has become crucial to investigate how natural populations and communities respond to novel environments. Several clear patterns have emerged in studies of global change biology. For one, it is clear that the distributions of many species have shifted to historically cooler regions in poleward and upslope directions ( Parmesan et al., 1999 ; Walther et al., 2002 ; Parmesan & Yohe, 2003 ; Parmesan, 2006 ; Kelly & Goulden, 2008 ; Poloczanska et al., 2013 ; Burrows et al., 2014 ; Fadrique et al., 2018 ). These shifts have involved local extinctions and population contractions at the warmer range edges as well as range expansions into historically cooler regions at poleward latitudes and upslope elevations ( Angert et al., 2011 ; Chuang & Peterson, 2016 ; Sheth & Angert, 2018 ; Anderson & Wadgymar, 2020 ). Additionally, many species now emerge and reproduce significantly earlier in the year, which is likely a biological response to shortened winters, earlier onset of the growing season, and prolonged droughts ( Cook et al., 2012 ; CaraDonna et al., 2014 ; Hamann et al., 2018 ; Wadgymar et al., 2018 ; Dickman et al., 2019 ).

Despite these advances, the answers to several key eco-evolutionary questions remain elusive. For one, it remains challenging to assess how climate change will disrupt species interactions ( Gilman et al., 2010 ; Gilman et al., 2012 ; Angert et al., 2013 ; Parida et al., 2015 ; Pauchard et al., 2015 ). The ecological consequences of climate change have received extensive investigation, yet fewer studies have tackled the evolutionary consequences of climate change (but see e.g., Franks et al., 2007 ; Thompson et al., 2013 ; Wilczek et al., 2014 ; Franks et al., 2016 ; O’Hara et al., 2016 ; Peterson et al., 2018 ; Anderson & Wadgymar, 2020 ). Novel climatic conditions could impose strong selection on natural populations ( Bemmels & Anderson, 2019 ; Exposito-Alonso et al., 2019 ). Populations risk declines if they do not have enough genetic variation to adapt to these new pressures and if immigration is insufficient to introduce alleles adapted to warmer conditions in lower latitude or elevation sites ( Carlson et al., 2014 ; Bemmels & Anderson, 2019 ; Carja & Plotkin, 2019 ; Kelly, 2019 ; Razgour et al., 2019 ). In addition, genetic tradeoffs across traits could constrain adaptive evolution, even under high quantitative genetic variation in functional traits ( Etterson & Shaw, 2001 ). Many species will fail to migrate fast enough through highly fragmented landscapes to keep pace with climate change ( Loarie et al., 2009 ; Kremer et al., 2012 ). Furthermore, species that can successfully extend their ranges into previously unoccupied habitats will experience novel selective pressures to which they are not currently adapted ( Brown & Vellend, 2014 ). We still have a limited understanding of how adaptive evolution, phenotypic plasticity, and gene flow will interact to influence population persistence under climate change. By identifying the evolutionary consequences of climate change, we can generate more robust predictions about extinction risks while identifying populations to prioritize for conservation actions.

Common garden and provenance experiments have yielded insights into whether adaptation could lag behind climate change in natural plant populations ( Wang et al., 2010 ; Anderson & Wadgymar, 2020 ). For example, climate change has already induced local maladaptation in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) ( Wilczek et al., 2014 ) and its confamilial Boechera stricta ( Anderson & Wadgymar, 2020 ). Indeed, under climate change, local maladaptation may become more pronounced, with accessions from historically warmer and more arid environments having a fitness advantage over local accessions ( Anderson, 2016 ; Anderson & Wadgymar, 2020 ). One outstanding question is whether populations are able to adapt to ongoing climate change from standing genetic variation ( Sheth et al., 2018 ; Bemmels et al., 2019 ), introgression via gene flow ( Bontrager & Angert, 2019 ), or novel mutations. Indeed, we must achieve a greater understanding of how these sources of adaptive genetic variation will contribute to climate change responses in a diversity of species that vary in geographic distribution and life history strategies. For example, Qian et al., (2019) estimated the strength of selection acting on standing genetic variations by quantifying changes in allele frequencies of flowering time genes over 28 years in wild barley populations, a timeframe in which flowering time was shortened by 10 days ( Nevo et al., 2012 ). A. thaliana harbors standing genetic variation in complex traits like adaptation to drought stress; however, the alleles that confer survival under drought are not uniformly distributed across natural populations ( Exposito-Alonso et al., 2017 ). Instead, drought tolerant alleles currently exist predominantly in arid regions ( Exposito-Alonso et al., 2017 ), raising the question of whether gene flow could spread these alleles rapidly enough to confront projected worsening drought across the native range of the species. Thus, it is critical to investigate how genetic variation is distributed across the landscape, and whether gene flow will be rapid enough to redistribute existing genetic variation, or if conservation practices like assisted gene flow will be necessary to reduce the risk of population decline ( Aitken & Whitlock, 2013 ).

In this review, we seek to evaluate recent progress toward understanding the evolutionary consequences of climate change, while emphasizing how interdisciplinary collaborations could fill critical research gaps. We encourage additional applications of emerging genomic tools, along with interdisciplinary investigations, to enhance our ability to predict the adaptive potential of plants under climate change and to elucidate the genetic basis of complex trait variation ( Figure 1 ). These integrative approaches could improve conservation outcomes and facilitate the development of crops that can withstand climate change.

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Integration of methods from multiple disciplines enables us to predict plant climate change adaptive potential and dissect molecular mechanisms of plant climate adaptation. Red: Prediction of plant climate adaptative potential using advanced large-scale field experiments and simulated climate conditions in the lab; Blue: candidate gene identification employing diverse omics strategies; Purple: illustration of research gaps: Gene function validation, molecular mechanisms dissection, and field test of fitness consequences of climate-adapted molecular variation. Dark red: real-world applications in plant conservation and climate-resilient crop development. GWAS: Genome-Wide Association Study; NIL: Near-Isogenic Line; RIL: Recombinant Inbred Line; NAM: Nested Association Mapping; QTL: Quantitative Trait Locus

2. Recent progress—cross-disciplinary integration

2.1. assessing climatic agents of selection to evaluate whether climate change exerts novel selection and disrupts local adaptation.

Field studies hold great promise for identifying the traits and genomic regions associated with climatic adaptation, especially when experimental gardens are arrayed across climatic gradients ( Etterson & Shaw, 2001 ; Fournier-Level et al., 2011 ; Hancock et al., 2011 ; Wilczek et al., 2014 ; Exposito-Alonso et al., 2017 ; Sork, 2018 ; Exposito-Alonso et al., 2019 ; Anderson & Wadgymar, 2020 ). However, such experiments cannot readily disentangle the specific agents of selection that have caused adaptive population divergence ( Wadgymar et al., 2017 ). Only experimental manipulations of key climatic factors can test the causal role of these factors in local adaptation ( Wadgymar et al., 2017 ; Anderson & Wadgymar, 2020 ). For example, in high elevation and high latitude systems, climate change is rapidly reducing winter snowpack and accelerating spring snowmelt (e.g., Fyfe et al., 2017 ), which can expose plants to spring frost that they would not have experienced historically ( Inouye, 2008 ) and contribute to the decline of native plant species ( Campbell, 2019 ). Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) is a perennial forb native to the Rocky Mountains, where local populations are adapted to historical snowpack levels ( Anderson & Wadgymar, 2020 ). In common garden experiments low elevation genotypes adapted to hot and dry conditions outperformed local genotypes under both contemporary snowpack and snow removal, which simulates climate change ( Anderson & Wadgymar, 2020 ). In contrast, local genotypes had enhanced fitness under snow addition treatments (reflecting historical climates) ( Anderson & Wadgymar, 2020 ). Additionally, by leveraging data from field manipulations of precipitation in common gardens in Spain and Germany in concert with the rich genomic resources available for Arabidopsis thaliana , Exposito-Aloso and colleagues (2019) evaluated climate-driven selection across the genome of this model organism in its native range. They predict that intensification of climate change could increase the vulnerability of natural populations to decline by 2050 ( Exposito-Alonso et al., 2019 ). Thus, experimental manipulations of key agents of selection in the field can reveal the extent to which climate change has already disrupted local adaptation.

Field manipulations have demonstrated that climate change can alter ecological processes ( Elmendorf et al., 2012 ; Rudgers et al., 2014 ; Anderson & Gezon, 2015 ; Hänel & Tielbörger, 2015 ; Harte et al., 2015 ; Smith et al., 2015 ; Wertin et al., 2015 ). Recent analyses suggest that experimental warming causes shifts in plant communities that resemble those observed in longitudinal studies ( Elmendorf et al., 2015 ), demonstrating the ecological relevance of experimentally manipulating climatic factors. Nevertheless, field manipulations of abiotic agents of selection have rarely been applied in reciprocal transplant and common garden experiments ( Pfeifer-Meister et al., 2013 ), perhaps because of the large sample sizes needed to estimate quantitative genetic parameters accurately. Studies of only a few traits can overestimate the potential for adaptation to novel conditions because of genetic constraints ( Etterson & Shaw, 2001 ). Nevertheless, the adaptive potential of populations is proportional to additive genetic variation in fitness; studies that examine quantitative genetic variation in fitness components in conditions relevant to climate change could generate robust predictions about the adaptive potential of natural populations ( Sheth et al., 2018 ; Bemmels & Anderson, 2019 ). Owing to the complex nature of global change, we encourage future multifactorial studies that evaluate the interactive effects of climatic change factors (like temperature and atmospheric [CO 2 ]) on fitness and adaptive evolution ( Matesanz et al., 2009 ; Eller et al., 2011 ).

2.2. Investigating whether gene flow can facilitate adaptive responses to climate change

Under rapid environmental change, gene flow could spread beneficial mutations, enhance genetic variation, and introduce pre-adapted genotypes ( Bell & Gonzalez, 2011 ; Kremer et al., 2012 ; Aitken & Whitlock, 2013 ; Bontrager & Angert, 2019 ). In spatially heterogeneous landscapes, species are often mosaics of populations that have adapted to local biotic and abiotic conditions (e.g., Savolainen et al., 2007 ; Leimu & Fischer, 2008 ; Hereford, 2009 ; Wang et al., 2010 ; Alberto et al., 2013 ). If populations have diverged genetically in response to climatic variation ( De Kort et al., 2014 ), then genetic variation may already exist within meta-populations that would enable continued adaptation to climate change. Gene flow could promote adaptation to novel suites of environments if alleles adapted to elevated temperatures, drought, reduced snowpack, or other climate change factors become introgressed into locally-adapted populations in upslope or poleward locations ( Aitken & Whitlock, 2013 ; Franks et al., 2014 ).

Extensive research has documented range shifts in a diverse array of species in response to rapid climate change ( Parmesan, 2006 ; Angert et al., 2011 ; Chen et al., 2011 ). These studies typically focus on the movement of individual animals or seeds into new areas at the cooler edge of the range, and population declines in the warmer edge of the range. However, there have been fewer attempts to investigate how gene flow into established populations within species’ current ranges contributes to climate change responses ( Bontrager & Angert, 2019 ). Theoretical and review papers have highlighted the potential advantages and disadvantages of gene flow in changing environments ( Kremer et al., 2012 ; Norberg et al., 2012 ; Aitken & Whitlock, 2013 ; Schiffers et al., 2013 ; Franks et al., 2014 ), and yeast lab studies have revealed that extensive dispersal across meta-populations enables evolutionary response to stressful environments ( Bell & Gonzalez, 2011 ). Gene flow from populations adapted to hot and dry climates into populations that historically experienced cooler conditions could facilitate adaptation to changing climates. Alternatively, gene flow could counteract local selection, and constrain adaptation to climate change if gene flow occurs in the opposite direction (e.g., from high to low elevation populations). When will gene flow promote vs. restrict adaptive responses to climate change? How much gene flow is needed and from which populations? Will natural levels of gene flow be sufficient, or will conservationists need to adopt practices such as assisted gene flow ( Aitken & Whitlock, 2013 )? Can we reduce the risk of unforeseen consequences of assisted gene flow? These questions remain vitally underexplored ( Etterson, 2008 ; Sexton et al., 2011 ; Bontrager & Angert, 2019 ).

2.3. Evaluating the contribution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity to the maintenance of population growth rate

Many species display phenotypic plasticity, such that individuals can alter their phenotypes in response to the environment they encounter ( Murren et al., 2015 ) Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive and maximize fitness in heterogeneous landscapes when individuals change their phenotypes across environments in the direction of selection ( Dudley & Schmitt, 1996 ; van Tienderen, 1997 ; Baythavong, 2011 ). Numerous species exhibit plasticity in response to environmental stimuli ( Valladares et al., 2007 ; Matesanz et al., 2010 ). Adaptive plasticity can evolve under fine-grained temporal or spatial environmental variation, if individuals experience temporal variation in conditions during their lifetimes, or if propagules (seeds or pollen) establish in non-parental habitat types ( Alpert & Simms, 2002 ; Sultan & Spencer, 2002 ; Baythavong, 2011 ).

Increased climatic variation associated with global change could favor phenotypic plasticity ( Crozier et al., 2008 ; Nicotra et al., 2010 ), and adaptive plasticity could promote population persistence in situ or establishment in new habitats in upslope or poleward locations ( Chevin et al., 2013 ; Frei et al., 2014 ; Anderson & Gezon, 2015 ). Indeed, studies have uncovered extensive plasticity to changing climates for some animals and plants ( Réale et al., 2003 ; Bradshaw & Holzapfel, 2006 ; Teplitsky et al., 2008 ; Ozgul et al., 2009 ; Matesanz et al., 2010 ; Anderson et al., 2012 ). In most cases, however, we do not know if these plastic shifts can confer a fitness advantage under changing climates, or are maladaptive. One notable exception comes from studies of reproductive phenology in the great tit ( Parus major ) ( Charmantier et al., 2008 ; Vedder et al., 2013 ). Plastic shifts in breeding time in this bird over five decades have been sufficient to track climate-mediated changes in the availability of an important food resource (caterpillars) for P. major chicks ( Charmantier et al., 2008 ). Models suggest that adaptive behavioral plasticity in breeding phenology will promote long-term population persistence, and that populations would be much more vulnerable to climate change in the absence of plasticity ( Vedder et al., 2013 ).

In the short-term, natural populations could cope with changing conditions via existing plasticity ( Teplitsky et al., 2008 ; Nicotra et al., 2010 ), but this plasticity could be insufficient when individuals confront future climates outside the range of current environmental variability ( Anderson et al., 2012 ; Kelly et al., 2012 ). Do populations maintain enough genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity to adapt to increasingly variable conditions ( Chevin et al., 2013 )? The evolution of adaptive plasticity requires that individuals can sense and respond to reliable cues of changing environments, and overcome the costs of plasticity ( Via & Lande, 1985 ; van Tienderen, 1997 ; DeWitt et al., 1998 ; Sultan & Spencer, 2002 ; Auld et al., 2010 ). Could reduced reliability of environmental cues under climate change constrain the ongoing evolution of plasticity ( Chevin et al., 2013 )? Future studies that evaluate plasticity in functional traits under simulated climate change, ideally in the field, will generate answers to these questions.

Plasticity may be adaptive in portions of the range subject to temporal variation in environmental conditions, and maladaptive or nonexistent where conditions are less variable ( Valladares et al., 2014 ; Duputie et al., 2015 ). Few studies have evaluated the extent to which plasticity varies intraspecifically across the landscape (but see Baythavong & Stanton, 2010 ; Baythavong, 2011 ). Are populations from more climatically variable environments more plastic? Are those populations less vulnerable to climate change? Temporal variation in climate increases from equatorial to poleward latitudes; this observation led to the prediction that thermal tolerances and plasticity should be greater at higher latitudes ( Janzen, 1967 ; Ghalambor et al., 2006 ). Indeed, this pattern holds for many species, and high latitude species often inhabit locations with temperatures below their physiological tolerances, suggesting that these high latitude species may thrive under warmer climates ( Deutsch et al., 2008 ; Araújo et al., 2013 ). However, we know very little about the extent to which climatic variability across elevations influences the evolution of plasticity ( Vitasse et al., 2013 ). In mountainous regions with complex terrain, temperatures typically decline with elevation; however, dense cold air settles in valleys and local depressions at night and in the winter, resulting in increased diurnal and seasonal temperature variation at lower elevations relative to exposed mountaintops ( Lundquist et al., 2008 ; Dobrowski, 2011 ). By testing if plasticity increases with temporal climatic variation, future studies may be able to identify populations that are most susceptible to climate change. Results could be generalizable across systems if populations in climatically-variable sites have the highest plasticity.

2.4. Leveraging herbarium and museum collections to evaluate biological responses to climate change

Herbarium and museum collections represent an invaluable resource for characterizing historical distributions, phenologies, and trait values of many plant and animal species. By comparing historical collections to contemporary records, Parmesan (1996) documented the first evidence of range shifts in response to climate change in Edith’s checkerspot butterfly, with contractions in low latitude and low elevation populations. Other studies have leveraged herbarium records to demonstrate changes in geographic ranges in response to climate change ( Feeley, 2012 ). These historical records can also quantify phenotypic changes through time. For example, DeLeo and colleagues (2019) used herbarium sheets to monitor shifts in physiology and collection dates of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana across its native range over the course of 200 years. These collections also enable researchers to readily compare how different species have responded to anthropogenic climate change. By extracting data on flowering time from herbarium sheets for 141 species, Calinger et al. (2013) found that many plant species have advanced the timing of flowering, but that species differ in the magnitude and direction of phenological shifts. Their results corroborated previous findings that species that flower in the spring are highly responsive to changes in temperature ( Fitter & Fitter, 2002 ; Calinger et al., 2013 ). The digitization of museum and herbarium collections can facilitate research into biological responses to climate change ( Meineke et al., 2019 ), with the caveat that biases in the extent of collections across time and space can make it inadvisable to track abundance with these historical collections ( Wepprich, 2019 ). We encourage future research to capitalize on existing collections to test for phenotypic and genetic changes through time and to evaluate geographic contractions and expansions in response to climate change.

2.5. Testing how climate change will influence species interactions

Given the complexity of natural communities, it is challenging to predict how climate change will alter species interactions. Interacting species will differ in their migratory, phenological and fitness responses to climate change, which could cause mismatches in distribution, abundance and timing of interactions ( Gilman et al., 2010 ; Gilman et al., 2012 ; Forrest, 2015 ). By transplanting entire communities across climatic gradients, researchers can examine how climate change will influence species interactions ( Alexander et al., 2015 ). In some cases, the direct abiotic effects of climate change, such as elevated temperature, will strongly affect eco-evolutionary dynamics and population persistence through climate change. In other cases, indirect effects mediated through biotic interactions will be more consequential, leading to increased competition ( Alexander et al., 2015 ), predation and herbivory ( Brodie et al., 2012 ; Rasmann et al., 2014 ; Romero et al., 2018 ), as well as disrupted mutualistic interactions ( Forrest, 2015 ). For example, plant populations and their herbivores can be reciprocally locally adapted ( Garrido et al., 2012 ). Climate change has altered fitness and phenotypes for both plants and herbivores (e.g., Stiling & Cornelissen, 2007 ; Anderson et al., 2012 ; Robinson et al., 2012 ). Under global warming in the geological record, herbivores consumed more plant tissue and fossilized leaves show high rates of damage from herbivory ( Currano et al., 2008 ). Herbivores exposed to elevated temperatures and [CO 2 ] in contemporary studies also show greater consumption rates of plant tissues ( Stiling & Cornelissen, 2007 ; Robinson et al., 2012 ), which could depress plant fitness, especially in populations adapted to historically low levels of herbivory (e.g., high elevation Boechera stricta populations ( Anderson et al., 2015 ). Evaluating how climate change will alter biotic interactions is crucial for generating robust predictions of population persistence. In addition to predicting species interactions in facing climate change (e.g., Romero et al., 2018 ; Ohler et al., 2020 ), scientists can protect against biodiversity loss due to climate change by identifying and preserving species that enhance local diversity, such as keystone species and ecosystem engineers ( Bulleri et al., 2018 ).

2.6. Predicting the adaptive potential of plants under climate change

To prioritize populations and species for conservation, it is critical that we generate reliable predictions about the adaptive potential of species to climate change. The availability of large data from genome-wide genotyping and whole genome sequencing, as well as germplasm collection, has enabled researchers to begin making such predictions. Recently, Exposito-Alonso et al. (2019) planted over 500 ecotypes of A. thaliana , collected across the range of the species, into common gardens in Spain and Germany to investigate how unique combinations of alleles influence climatic adaptation. Some alleles showed clear fitness trade-offs across environments, with positive selection in one environment being counteracted by negative selection in another environment ( Exposito-Alonso et al., 2019 ). Fournier-Level et al (2016) studied seasonal adaptation of A. thaliana under four climate scenarios with advanced generation intercross lines developed from multiple parents. The results indicated that, in Arabidopsis, and likely other species, the maintenance of sufficient standing genetic variation is essential for adaptation to rapid climate change ( Fournier-Level et al., 2016 ), which corroborats previous results ( Fournier-Level et al., 2011 ). Recently, spatial modelling of biodiversity has been applied to map the geographic distribution of genomic variation in response to current and future environmental adaptation (e.g., Gugger et al., 2013 ; Fitzpatrick & Keller, 2015 ). For example, Jia et al., (2020) employed gradient forest modeling, integrating geographic, environmental, and genomic data, to investigate the climate adaptive potential of Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae), an ecologically and medicinally important conifer species. The results suggested that factors associated with temperature best explained the distribution of genomic diversity. The model also predicted that the northern and southern margins of the species distribution are high-risk in facing climate change ( Jia et al., 2020 ). Future studies that investigate adaptive potential to climate change in diverse species will enable researchers to detect more generalized patterns. By quantifying the fitness of specific alleles, and combinations of alleles across loci, researchers will be able to test the extent to which populations could adapt. A multidisciplinary approach integrating ecology, genetics and genomics, and computational approaches will elucidate species’ response to climate change (e.g., Exposito-Alonso, 2020 ; Segar et al., 2020 ; Waldvogel et al., 2020 ). We summarize a schematic of how to investigate thoroughly the adaptive potential of plants by integrating these diverse fields in Figure 1 (red color).

2.7. Dissecting the genetic basis of plant climate change adaptation

The surge of omics technologies, databases and newly-developed genome editing tools have facilitated the dissection of the genetic basis of complex traits associated with climatic adaptation in natural populations for better militating the negative consequences of climate change and developing climate adaptive crops (e.g., Sork, 2018 ; Ogura et al., 2019 ; Zaidem et al., 2019 ). These approaches include quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), landscape genomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics, among others. By approaching the same question using multiple complementary methods, researchers can gain a more complete understanding of the genes underlying adaptation to climate. For example, GWAS use hundreds of ecotypes from natural populations to examine associations between genome-wide molecular markers (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) and ecologically-important phenotypes. These ecotypes from natural populations have experienced many recombination events, often resulting in low levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) (high resolution); however, GWAS results can be confounded by population structure (e.g., Frichot et al., 2013 ; Zhang et al., 2016 ; Kofsky et al., 2020 ; Pais et al., 2020 ). In contrast, cross-based QTL mapping studies use mapping populations developed from crosses among individuals with contrasting traits (often from different populations, or even from different species). QTL mapping studies are not confounded by population structure; however, QTL approaches are not applicable for most natural systems, especially for woody plants, which comprise ~45–48% of plant species globally ( FitzJohn et al., 2014 ). Additionally, QTL studies suffer from low resolution due to fewer recombination events (e.g. Mitchell-Olds, 2010 ; Zaidem et al., 2019 ). Both QTL mapping and GWAS can be done using populations exposed to climate change factors, such as elevated temperature or drought stress, either in the field or in the lab. These experiments will reveal which regions of the genome - and ultimately candidate genes - are involved in climate change responses.

Landscape genomics has emerged as a powerful approach for testing the relationship between genomic variation and environmental heterogeneity among natural populations (e.g., Rellstab et al., 2015 ; Li et al., 2017 ; Pais et al., 2017 ; Dalongeville et al., 2018 ; Pais et al., 2018 ; Pais et al., 2020 ). Two strategies have been widely used to identify candidate genes involved in environmental adaptation in landscape genomic studies. One involves scanning the genome of two or many populations in different habitats to detect outlier loci showing excess of population differentiation ( F ST ) (genome scan method) (e.g., Storz, 2005 ; Foll & Gaggiotti, 2008 ; Excoffier et al., 2009 ; Wittkopp & Kalay, 2011 ; Pais et al., 2017 ; Gould et al., 2018 ; Pais et al., 2018 ; Pais et al., 2020 ), and the other is genome-wide association study between molecular markers and environmental variables, which are treated as phenotypes (GWAS method) (e.g., Rellstab et al., 2015 ; Li et al., 2017 ; Frachon et al., 2018 ; Razgour et al., 2019 ). These two methods require different sampling strategies. The former requires population samples from populations growing in distinct environments, while the latter requires hundreds or thousands of genotypes across the range of a species with only one individual per location ( Yoder et al., 2014 ; Anderson et al., 2016 ; Pais et al., 2020 ). Both methods benefit from the rapid progress of genome-wide genotyping technologies and statistical techniques. The latter (GWAS method) is also facilitated by the accessibility of large-scale climatic data. For example, Yoder et al., (2014) applied the GWAS-method and identified candidate loci responsible for adaptation of Medicago truncatula to different climatic gradients with an association panel of over 202 accessions and almost two million genome wide SNPs. The integration of both methods can be applied to dissect the genetic basis of climate adaptation, especially for the tree species in which QTL mapping and reciprocal transplantation are not applicable due to long life cycles. For example, Pais et al. (2020) employed both genome scan method and GWAS method and identified 72 genetic variants showing signal of local adaptation to biotic or abiotic pressures in an endangered flowering dogwood tree ( Cornus florida L.) in the Cornaceae family.

Systems biology integrating various “omics” technologies has facilitated the discovery of candidate genes conferring complex trait variation (e.g., Civelek & Lusis, 2014 ; Cloney, 2016 ; Palit et al., 2020 ). Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are well suited to handle complex traits by quantitatively and dynamically determining the activities of transcripts, proteins, and metabolites over a time course. Data generated from these approaches may directly support the prediction of candidate genes that underlie significant QTLs, or link proteins, metabolites, and pathways with traits of interest. In Figure 1 (blue), we illustrate how to integrate genomics, landscape genomics, and systems biology in identifying candidate genes involved in plant climate adaptation. Once appropriate genes or pathways are discovered and validated, modern biotechnology, genome editing, and pathway engineering can be applied to develop plants that can withstand climate change ( Figure 1 , purple and dark red color).

Over the past decade, numerous studies have reviewed methods employed in dissecting the genetic basis of climatic adaptation, as well as identified candidate genes involved in environmental adaptation (e.g., Franks & Hoffmann, 2012 ; Sork, 2018 ; Kelly, 2019 ; Zaidem et al., 2019 ; Ding et al., 2020 ; Waldvogel et al., 2020 ). In a comprehensive literature review, Franks and Hoffmann (2012) suggested that candidate genes, genetic regulatory networks, and epigenetic effects are involved in climate change adaption. Recently, Sork (2018) reviewed studies on the genetic architecture of plant environmental adaptation in natural populations, with a focus on model plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana and tree species. Ogura et al. (2019) took a genomic approach (GWAS) to identify an Arabidopsis gene ( EXO70A3 ) that influences drought tolerance, and then used genome editing to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating soil root architecture and depth of the root system by controlling the auxin pathway. This discovery could ultimately enable scientists to develop crops that produce deeper roots. This study highlights the complementary nature of these genomic tools/approaches.

3. Research gaps

3.1. expanding research focus from model species to diverse array of ecologically and agronomically important species.

The majority of studies dissecting the genetic and genomic basis of climate adaptation focus on the model plants, A. thaliana , because of its rich genomic and germplasms resources, short life history, well-developed transformation system, and a large research community. Few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms of climate adaptation of diverse natural species. Climate change can strongly influence some natural populations and may increase the risk of extinction for many native species ( Anderson, 2016 ). Thus, we suggest that future research should apply cross-disciplinary integration to study climate adaptation in a more diverse array of species. One of the priorities should target crop wild relatives (CWR), closely related to domesticated crop species, as climate change can dramatically reduce crop yield production and further lead to food security crisis. Increasing effort is urgently needed to develop climate adaptive crops ( Lobell & Gourdji, 2012 ; Nelson et al., 2014 ; Zhao et al., 2017 ). CWR harbor rich genetic variation and can provide new genetic variation for agriculture sustainability ( Henry, 2014 ; Brozynska et al., 2016 ; Zhang et al., 2017 ; Zhang et al., 2019 ). For example, Henry (2019) highlighted several recently identified wild rice species with most divergent genotypes in northern Australia containing novel alleles for various important traits, which could enhance the capacity of cultivated rice to tolerate climate change. During the past decade, dozens of review/perspectives have been published to highlight the potential and importance of crop wild relatives in meeting global challenges (e.g., Brozynska et al., 2016 ; Zhang et al., 2017 ; Mammadov et al., 2018 ; Fernie & Yan, 2019 ; Henry, 2019 ; Zhang et al., 2019 ). Nevertheless, few climate adaptive casual genes identified in CWR have been applied to the development of crops that can withstand climate change.

3.2. Expanding research focus from the identification of candidate genes to function validation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms

Despite an impressive body of literature identifying candidate genes associated with various traits related to climate conditions, such as drought and thermal stress, few studies have evaluated the function of candidate genes that may influence climatic adaptation. We know very little about the molecular mechanisms involved in climate adaptation. For example, Anderson et al., (2016) used GWAS to identify candidate genes for abiotic stress tolerance in Glycine soja , the wild progenitor of cultivated soybeans. This study identified two significant SNPs associated with mean temperature, which were close to an Arabidopsis ortholog, MYB88 , which encodes a putative transcription factor involved in stomata development in Arabidopsis. Genotypes with nonreference alleles were more prevalent in G. soja than in cultivated soybeans. Another candidate gene, PECT1 , involved in respiration capacity in leaves, was significantly associated with both monthly precipitation and precipitation in the wettest quarter ( Anderson et al., 2016 ). Efficient transformation strategies and emerging genome editing technology are expected to facilitate gene function validation in more diverse species.

3.3. Expanding research focus from identification of casual genes to testing fitness in natural environments

Even when studies detect causal genes associated with an important adaptive phenotype, we typically lack information on the fitness effect of the alleles in natural environments. Prasad et al (2012) identified a gene ( CYP79F ) that controls variation in glucosinolate compounds and insect herbivory in a wild relative of Arabidopsis by mapping QTL and using positional cloning. They then used functional validation and allele-specific fitness testing by planting the near isogenic lines in the environment where the parents were originally collected. One allele at the CYP79F locus showed higher fitness in its native environment, but allelic variation did not affect fitness in the other environment ( Prasad et al., 2012 ).

3.4. Expanding research focus from single environmental stress factor to multiple factors

Most studies evaluate the genetic basis of adaptation to a single stress factor at a time. However, plants face multiple stressors under climate change, from elevated CO 2 concentrations to increased temperatures and disrupted precipitation. A response to a combination stresses cannot be extrapolated from each individual stress alone; rather, plants may show non-additive responses to interacting stresses, including unique expression profiles (e.g., Suzuki et al., 2014 ; Gray et al., 2016 ; Pandey et al., 2017 ). For example, abiotic stress, such as drought, can weaken plant defense mechanisms against pathogens (e.g. Prasch & Sonnewald, 2013 ). Recent work suggests that the response to the combined stress of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and drought is different from each stress alone (Song lab, unpublished data). Identifying the genetic basis of multiple traits relevant to fitness under global change will significantly advance predictions on global change effects ( Reusch & Wood, 2007 ). Thus far, omics strategies, such as, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics, have shed light on plant responses to stress. Future interdisciplinary collaborations hold great promise for predicting plant adaptation to climate change and uncovering pathways and networks that underlie these responses. Particularly, we suggest future research should focus on conditions that mimic the field environment, to develop plants and crops with enhanced tolerance to climate change conditions.

4. Conclusions

Evaluating complex biological responses to climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach that leverages ecological, evolutionary, and genomic tools to test the extent to which climate change disrupts eco-evolutionary processes and to predict whether species can withstand deteriorating conditions. At an evolutionary scale, natural populations respond to climate change through shifts in geographic distributions, adaptation to novel conditions, or a plastic response to changing environments. If climate change severely depresses individual fitness and population growth rates (λ), species risk extinction locally, regionally or globally ( Anderson, 2016 ). Within natural communities, interacting species vary in dispersal capacity, as well as the environmental cues that trigger key life history events, such as reproduction and annual migrations. These species will differ in their spatial and temporal responses to climate change. Thus, at the ecological level, climate change will re-shape communities. Interdisciplinary research will more effectively address critical questions about the biodiversity consequences of climate change, from genetic diversity within and among populations of one species to species diversity within and across communities.

The expanding genomics and statistical toolbox could enable us to generate more robust predictions about plant adaptive potential under climate change. Promising progress has been made, however, we still have many research gaps to fill. For example, we still have an incomplete understanding of the relative role of regulation of gene expression versus gene changes in plants’ responses to climate change, as well as the relative contributions of standing genetic variation vs. novel mutations to climate adaptation. Furthermore, we have very limited understanding of whether common genes and pathways underlie climatic adaptation across plant species and families. A more complete understanding of plant responses to climate change will only emerge through integrative studies and international collaboration that include field fitness tests across diverse environments and countries ( Taylor et al., 2019 ).

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Xiang J. and reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions. We apologize to authors whose work are not cited due to space limitations. We also thank Dr. Kofsky J. for providing the plant image in figure 1 . We thank Kofsky J, Yasmin F, and Hatley M for help with proofreading. JA is supported by the National Science Foundation (DEB‐1553408 and DEB-1655732); B-HS is supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health, Award Number: R15GM122029; North Carolina Biotechnology Center, Award Number: 2019-BIG-6507 and 2020-FLG-3806; the North Carolina Soybean Producers Association, Award Number: Song-19-0230, and University of North Carolina at Charlotte.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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It’s Time for Sustainability to Become a Core Part of MBA Programs

  • Magali Delmas
  • Brad Sparks

literature review on climate change adaptation

There’s an unmet demand from companies for climate-savvy business leaders.

Business schools must adapt their curricula in response to the increasing demand for professionals skilled in sustainability and climate change management. This need is driven by evolving global climate disclosure regulations, such as those proposed by the SEC and implemented in California and the EU, mandating corporations to disclose climate-related financial risks and their carbon emissions, including indirect emissions (Scope 3). Currently, many companies fall short in quality and consistency of sustainability disclosures, highlighting a significant skills gap in the workforce. Business schools must incorporate interdisciplinary approaches in their programs, combining environmental and climate science with traditional business skills like carbon accounting, strategy, and governance. The curriculum should foster a common language between disciplines, such as sustainability and accounting, and include hands-on experiential learning. While some accounting firms and trade associations are offering courses in climate finance, these efforts are insufficient compared to what a comprehensive, climate-focused MBA program could provide. The adaptation of business school curricula is not just a necessity but an opportunity to lead in the training of future leaders in corporate sustainability.

With the advent of stringent climate disclosure regulations, corporations are in urgent need of a workforce equipped with the necessary skills to navigate new demands. Yet few professionals possess the interdisciplinary skills essential for this task. Business schools have a prime opportunity to prepare the next generation for leadership in the carbon transition. However, this task surpasses their current scope. It calls for an interdisciplinary approach, broadening beyond traditional business education.

  • MD Magali Delmas is a professor of management at the Anderson School of Management and at the UCLA Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, and faculty director of the UCLA Center for Impact.
  • BS Brad Sparks is the executive director of the Accounting for Sustainability (A4 S) Foundation (US) Inc. He is also a lecturer at UCLA Anderson School of Management.

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Media boost umaine research on fisherman’s adaptation to climate change.

Sky News , Eurasia Review , Newswise , Phys.org , Scienmag , AZo Cleantech and Mirage News shared a news release from the University of Maine on an international research team led by a Timothy Frawley, postdoctoral researcher affiliated with the Darling Marine Center, studying how fishermen’s operational decisions affect their ability to adapt to climate change. 

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IMAGES

  1. Climate Change Adaptation by Individuals and Households

    literature review on climate change adaptation

  2. Climate Change Adaptation Plan of the U.S. Environmental Protection

    literature review on climate change adaptation

  3. Research Handbook on Climate Change Adaptation Law

    literature review on climate change adaptation

  4. African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation

    literature review on climate change adaptation

  5. Climate change impacts and adaptation

    literature review on climate change adaptation

  6. Canada’s Climate Change Adaptation Platform

    literature review on climate change adaptation

COMMENTS

  1. What makes climate change adaptation effective? A systematic review of

    While the field of climate change adaptation is relatively new, it stems from decades of research about responses to environmental change (Liverman, 2015) ... In the following section, I offer results from the systematic literature review. I focus first on cataloging several types of adaptation activities that were reported as effective.

  2. A review of the global climate change impacts, adaptation, and

    This review is a sectorial assessment of climate change mitigation and adaptation approaches worldwide in the aforementioned sectors and the associated economic costs. ... Cui W, Ouyang T, Qiu Y, Cui D (2021) Literature Review of the Implications of Exercise Rehabilitation Strategies for SARS Patients on the Recovery of COVID-19 Patients. Paper ...

  3. A review of the global climate change impacts, adaptation, and

    This review is a sectorial assessment of climate change mitigation and adaptation approaches worldwide in the aforementioned sectors and the associated economic costs.

  4. A systematic global stocktake of evidence on human adaptation to

    Although the literature on adaptation to climate change is rapidly expanding, little is known about the actual extent of implementation. We systematically screened >48,000 articles using...

  5. Research for climate adaptation

    Adaptation is the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate change and its effects. Regardless of how quickly societies decarbonize, global temperatures are already more than 1 °C above ...

  6. Synergies and trade-offs between climate change adaptation ...

    Synergies and trade-offs between climate change adaptation options and gender equality: a review of the global literature Joyashree Roy, Anjal Prakash, Shreya Some, Chandni Singh, Rachel...

  7. Climate change adaptation in conflict-affected countries: A systematic

    In this study, we carry out a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature, taking from the Global Adaptation Mapping Initiative (GAMI) dataset to documenting climate change adaptation occurring in 15 conflict-affected countries and compare the findings with records of climate adaptation finance flows and climate-related disasters in each country.

  8. Climate change and health in North America: literature review protocol

    Shaugn Coggins, Mauricio Domínguez Aguilar & Carlee J. Wright Systematic Reviews 10, Article number: 3 ( 2021 ) Cite this article 25k Accesses 9 Citations 9 Altmetric Metrics Abstract Background Climate change is a defining issue and grand challenge for the health sector in North America.

  9. Climate

    Climate change adaptation is a critical response to the challenges posed by climate change and is important for building resilience. Progress in adaptation efforts has been made globally, nationally, and locally through international agreements, national plans, and community-based initiatives. However, significant gaps exist in knowledge, capacity, and finance. The Adaptation Gap Report 2023 ...

  10. What makes climate change adaptation effective? A systematic review of

    The act of cataloging adaptation activities produces insights for current and future climate action in two main areas: understanding common attributes of adaptation initiatives reported to be effective in current literature; and identifying gaps in adaptation research and practice that address equality, justice, and power dynamics. Expand Abstract

  11. [PDF] A systematic review of research on climate change adaptation

    Recent Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in the Sahel: A Critical Review Terence Epule Epule A. Chehbouni D. Dhiba Environmental Science, Geography Global Warming and Climate Change [Working Title] 2021 Climate change adaptation continues to be central on the agenda of most African countries.

  12. What makes climate change adaptation effective? A systematic review of

    A systematic review of the literature. Publication Type: Report: Year of Publication: 2020: Authors: Owen, G: Abstract: Increased understanding of global warming and documentation of its observable impacts have led to the development of adaptation responses to climate change around the world. A necessary, but often missing, component of ...

  13. (PDF) The Climate Change Adaptation Literature

    172 land value posits that land will be allocated to its highest use value (Mendelsohn, Nordhaus, and Shaw 1994). Thus, climate change may shift the comparative advantage of different plots of...

  14. Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Their Linkages

    This article reviews the major impacts and challenges of disaster and climate change risks on sustainable development, and summarizes the courses and linkages of disaster risk reduction (DRR), climate change adaptation (CCA), and sustainable development over the past 30 years.

  15. [PDF] A systematic review of observed climate change adaptation in

    We develop and apply a systematic mixed-methods literature review methodology to identify and characterize how climate change adaptation is taking place in developed nations. We find limited evidence of adaptation action. Where interventions are being implemented and reported on, they are typically in sectors that are sensitive to climate impacts, are most common at the municipal level ...

  16. The role of knowledge and power in climate change adaptation governance

    ABSTRACT. The long-term character of climate change and the high costs of adaptation measures, in combination with their uncertain effects, turn climate adaptation governance into a torturous process. We systematically review the literature on climate adaptation governance to analyze the scholarly understanding of these complexities.

  17. Institutional Analysis in Climate Change Adaptation Research: A

    DOI: 10.1016/J.ECOLECON.2018.04.016 Corpus ID: 158431970; Institutional Analysis in Climate Change Adaptation Research: A Systematic Literature Review @article{Bisaro2018InstitutionalAI, title={Institutional Analysis in Climate Change Adaptation Research: A Systematic Literature Review}, author={Alexander Bisaro and Matteo Roggero and Sergio Villamayor-Tomas}, journal={Ecological Economics ...

  18. Public participation, engagement, and climate change adaptation: A

    Using text analysis to produce a corpus of abstracts drawn from Web of Science, a review of literature incorporating public participation and citizen engagement in climate change adaptation since 1992 reveals lexical, temporal, and spatial distribution dynamics of research on the topic.

  19. Adopting Clean Technologies to Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in

    Adaptation to climate change occurs when people perceive changes in climate phenomena, such as prolonged drought (Nhemachena et al. 2014). A large volume of literature reviewed on climate change adaptation cites policy mismatch, as noted in Brown et al. , emphasizing the need for planned adaptation measures across Africa. Emphasis on ...

  20. Literature review on aligning climate change adaptation and disaster

    Number of pages. 28 p. Resolutions and reports adopted at the international level in the last few years provide that a more consistent and sustainable alignment between climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) is today considered a global priority. This literature review offers a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of ...

  21. Insights intended to improve adaptation planning and reduce

    We live in a world of constant change, where multiple factors that generate vulnerability coincide, such as pandemics, climate change, and globalization, among other political and societal concerns.This demands the development of approaches capable of dealing with diverse sources of vulnerability and strategies that enable us to plan for and mitigate harm in the face of uncertainty.Our paper ...

  22. Globally representative evidence on the actual and perceived support

    Mitigating climate change necessitates global cooperation, yet global data on individuals' willingness to act remain scarce. In this study, we conducted a representative survey across 125 ...

  23. What makes climate change adaptation effective? A systematic review of

    We conducted a systematic literature review to document the scientific knowledge about climate change impacts and adaptation in livestock systems, and to identify research gaps. The analysis was … Expand

  24. Farmers' information sharing for climate change adaptation in

    Pedro Zorrilla-Miras: Currently working as Climate change campaigner in Greenpeace Spain.In 2021 he worked for the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in the area of agriculture and climate change (Koronivia Joint work in agriculture), and previously worked for five years in Icatalist, on research and consultancy projects, where he got a Marie Skłodowska ...

  25. Literature Review on Aligning Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and

    The present review offers a comprehensive and up-todate overview of existing knowledge on the topic and looks into an array of potential avenues for solutions from the literature that could be ...

  26. Full article: Climate change mitigation with Eurobonds: an

    Literature review. 2.1. Theoretical justification for the EKC. This study examines the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) ... Projects geared towards climate change mitigation and adaptation are long-term projects that tend to promote economic development in one's nation. Many studies have concentrated on other types of funds in climate change ...

  27. Plant adaptation to climate change

    1. Introduction The capacity of plants to adapt to the direct and indirect consequences of climate change will influence plant survival, extinction risks, agricultural and environmental sustainability, and food security.

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