Detailed resources for pre-university Geography students

Case study: Ecotourism in Kenya

By Matt Burdett, 27 January 2018

On this page, we look at ecotourism in Kenya as one case study of sustainable tourism in one low-income country.

Ecotourism in Kenya

Kenya has a wide range of ecotourism activities, including cultural (indigenous peoples) and environmental (hiking and adventure tourism, and wildlife safaris). For example (Kenya Travel Tips, 2018):

  • About 7.5% of the country is designated for wildlife conservation
  • There are 23 National Parks and 28 National Reserves, plus six marine reserves
  • Wide range of wildlife including lions, elephants, zebras and over 1070 bird species
  • 536 kilometers of coastline, which is largely sandy beaches
  • Six World Heritage Sites

Tourism is a major industry in Kenya. However, it is very difficult to ascertain detailed figures on ecotourism, although there are some figures about tourism in general. The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics collects detailed information about tourism. The number of international visitors has been largely stable for several years there has been a slight decrease:

sustainable tourism in kenya case study

  • Reported Visitor Departures by Purpose, 2009 – 2016. Source: Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2017.

The number of tourists visiting the Game Parks and National Reserves actually decreased during the same period, as shown below. This corresponds with the slight decrease in overall holiday visitors during the same period, but it is not evenly distributed among the parks with some, such as the Nairobi National Park, experiencing an increase.

sustainable tourism in kenya case study

These visitors contribute an estimated US$1 billion per year to the Kenyan economy, which is roughly 10% of gross domestic product. Tourism is the biggest industry in Kenya, employing 9.3% of workers (Kenya Tourism Board, 2016).

National scale ecotourism

Responsibility for tourism in Kenya is under the Kenya Tourist Board. It has a sustainability committee which works on four principles (Kenya Tourism Board, 2016):

  • Environmental conservation
  • Education and empowerment
  • Social responsibility
  • Culture and heritage preservation

The Kenya Tourist Board introduced an ‘Eco-rating Scheme’ in 2002 for accommodation providers (such as hotels) and in 2015 this was expanded to tour operators with the ‘Travel Life’ rating scheme. There are now over 100 eco-rated facilities in Kenya. There are also annual awards given for the most sustainable practices.

These advances are in line with Vision 2030, Kenya’s national development plan. Tourism is the lead sector in the plan to achieve a transformation of the national economy (Kenya Tourism Board, 2016).

Kenya’s plans for tourism rely on five pillars to avoid greenwashing . ‘Greenwashing’ is a term “used to describe the act of misleading consumers regarding the environmental practices of a company or the environmental benefits of a product or service” (Greenpeace, n.d.). The five pillars are:

  • Pillar 1 – Leveraging the Might of Giants / Benchmarking. This means that Kenya looks abroad at similar policies to learn lessons, such as looking at Ecotourism Australia, and CAST in the Caribbean
  • Pillar 2 – Broad & Inclusive Sustainability Guidelines. Reference to the Sustainable Development Goals.
  • Pillar 3 – Education & Specialization. Includes support for three major tourism conferences held annually in Kenya.
  • Pillar 4 – Recognition of Champions. Eco-rating Schemes and other awards.
  • Pillar 5- Partnership / Integration. Includes stakeholder agreement and recognition.

Local scale sustainable tourism: The Maasai Mara National Reserve

sustainable tourism in kenya case study

  • Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. Source: Key45, 2003.

The Maasai Mara National Reserve was first established in 1961. Since then it has earned a reputation as one of the best ecotourism destinations in the world. Ecotourism is encouraged by tour companies and accommodation providers.

Cottars Safari Service

Cottars is one of the oldest tourism companies in Kenya, having been first registered in 1919. It is an award winning ecotourism company that makes efforts to be sustainable. It operates in the area around the Maasai Mara National Reserve.

  • When visitors come to the area and use Cottars, they are expressly charged a lease fee for wildlife conservation. Some of this revenue is shared with local communities and also used to help develop the 6,000 acre Olderikesi Wildlife Conservancy on the edge of the Reserve as a way to expand the area under conservation.
  • Cottars employs accredited guides to ensure they are in harmony with the environment and culture of the area; many of these guides are from the local area.
  • Tourists are encouraged to bring a few items with them from their home country that can support local people, such as school supplies for the Olpalagilagi Primary School for a total of 200 students.
  • Cottars takes tourists to visit the local Maasai villages which helps to provide a market for traditional products such as beads, which helps local people economically.
  • Financial and legal support was provided to local communities to fight for land rights, resulting in the legal ownership of the Olderkesi Group Ranch in 2010.
  • Combines with groups such as Bridging the Gap; a bridge was built across the Sand River, preventing an average of six deaths per year and allowing local people to access social amenities.

(Sources: Cottars, 2015;, 2012)

Olarro Lodge

sustainable tourism in kenya case study

  • Olarro Lodge, Kenya. Source:

Olarro Lodge is a rural hotel about halfway between Nairobi and Lake Victoria, near the border with Tanzania. In January 2015, it won the coveted Gold Eco-rating Certification from Ecotourism Kenya. It is about 5 km from the Maasai Mara nature reserve, and is within the Olarro Conservancy. The conservancy is a 7,500 acre area which is owned by around 150 local Maasai landowners. To ensure the principles of ecotourism are successfully implemented, the Lodge has made several alterations to be more sustainable.

  • Solar power is produced on-site with 150 solar panels
  • Two wind turbines add to the electrical supply
  • Water is heated with 17 solar water heaters, which can heat around 600 liters of water each
  • Signage encourages visitors to save electricity
  • Energy saving light bulbs are found throughout the hotel
  • Water is sourced from a natural spring within the conservancy, and rainwater is harvested from rooftops of the buildings and stored in three 100,000 litre underground tanks
  • Waste water is treated on-site and used to provide irrigation for the hotel’s lawns
  • Guests are encouraged to behave more sustainably by being educated about these features on their arrival

sustainable tourism in kenya case study

  • Olarro Lodge, Kenya. Source: Karanja and Shabanji, 2015.

Cottars, C., 2015. Cottars Strive for Excellence in Sustainable Tourism. In Naturals Magazine number 06. Accessed 27 January 2018., 2012. Cottar’s Conservation, Community, Culture & Commerce. Accessed 27 January 2018.

Greenpeace, n.d. Greenwashing. Accessed 27 January 2018.

Karanja and Shabanji, 2015. Replicable Best Practices At Olarro Lodge. In Naturals Magazine number 06. Accessed 27 January 2018.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2017. Statistical Abstract 2017. Accessed 27 January 2018.

Kenya Tourism Board, 2016. Sustainable Tourism Report 2016 Accessed 27 January 2018.

Kenya Travel Tips, 2018. Tourism in Kenya. Accessed 27 January 2018.

Key45, 2003. Gnus and zebras in the Maasai Mara park reserve in Kenya. Wildebeest and zebra migration in Maasai Mara. Sourced from Accessed 27 January 2018., n.d. Accessed 27 January 2018.

Case study: Ecotourism in Kenya: Learning activities

  • Why is Kenya a suitable destination for ecotourism? [4]
  • Outline the changes in tourism numbers in Kenya in recent years. [3]
  • Outline the national approach taken to ecotourism in Kenya. [5]
  • Suggest how the Maasai Mara National Reserve can be considered in keeping with ecotourism principles. [6]
  • Do you consider tourists to the Olarro Lodge are ecotourists? Explain your answer. [4]
  • Overall, do you think ecotourism can bring benefits to people in Kenya? Why? [8]

Other tasks

Conduct research into another remote tourist destination that offers ecotourism, such as the Kuna Yala of Panama. Compare the efforts made by both destinations and suggest which is the more sustainable form of ecotourism.

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Please note you do not have access to teaching notes, promoting sustainable festival events tourism: a case study of lamu kenya.

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Tourism has been a key force in promoting festival growth and expansion. Towns, villages and cities are increasingly keen to share their culture, environment and spending opportunities with visitors by the promotion of festivals. One such festival is held annually in Lamu Old Town, a world heritage site in Kenya. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance of hosting sustainable events in Kenya.


The subject scope is on maintaining sustainable events within local communities with an aim of improving the local economy.

Results suggest that although festivals may have the potential to provide opportunities for sustainable local economic development, such opportunities frequently remain unexploited. For these reasons, festivals' engagement with tourism forces in Lamu need to be carefully managed, both in the interests of sustaining festivals and of promoting sustainable approaches to tourism development.

Practical implications

In addition to their cultural and social values, cultural festivals have emerged as an instrument for tourism development, tourism seasonality expansion, city image improvement and boosting regional economies. Therefore, the implications will be to invest in festivals development and community engagement and present the tourist with authentic experiences.


This article is valuable to policy makers as not enough research has been done on the importance of this festival and the need to provide a significant role to the local people in Lamu in communicating their identity, history and cultural practices.

  • Sustainability
  • Sustainable development

Okech, R.N. (2011), "Promoting sustainable festival events tourism: a case study of Lamu Kenya", Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes , Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 193-202.

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Case Study 6: Mainstreaming Overtourism Education for Sustainable Behavioral Change in Kenya’s Tourism Industry Context

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This chapter examines Kenya’s tourism management education pedagogies and sustainable tourism curricula design for sustained behavioral change in Kenya’s tourism sector. It also explores how can we mainstream overtourism education and innovative design thinking in the current tourism education pedagogy in Kenya. The tourism sector in Kenya is strategically aligned to achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, tourism management education curricula are not adapted towards addressing the dynamic development needs of the sector. This chapter proposes a standardized national tourism management curriculum and adoption of Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME) that focusses to integrate ethics, innovation and design skills to address the problem of overtourism. Solutions to Overtourism paradox can only be sustained when managers address the problem using a differentiated design thinking strategy.

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Maingi, S.W. (2020). Case Study 6: Mainstreaming Overtourism Education for Sustainable Behavioral Change in Kenya’s Tourism Industry Context. In: Séraphin, H., Gladkikh, T., Vo Thanh, T. (eds) Overtourism. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

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Sustainability Case Studies

Around the world efforts in sustainable tourism are already in action., view a selection of global case studies below., destinations, australia/nz.

New Zealand and sustainable tourism – This video shows what a tourism company can do to run a national park more sustainably in New Zealand.

Byron Bay Sustainable Streets Program  –  works towards fostering community level sustainability. Efforts include rainwater harvesting, using local food, solar power and energy efficiency.

Northern Australia Along with a 5 year strategic plan for sustainable tourism, this destination offers toolkits and educational information to help organizations in the area move forward.

Greening Melbourne’s hotels The City of Melbourne introduced an innovative environmental program to help city hotels to cut energy, water and waste management costs. The Savings in the City program aims to provide leadership, support, recognition and advice to hotels in the municipality. It will help hotels to identify economically viable actions they could take to reduce energy consumption and operating costs.

Hotels are the first sector to be targeted in the Savings in the City program, with 11 being among the top 200 water users in the City of Melbourne. And the hospitality sector – including accommodation and food providers – generates up to 18 per cent of all waste in the municipality, so there’s plenty of scope top make meaningful savings.

Intercity  Transportation in New Zealand is aiming to be more sustainable. New Zealand’s only national public transport network,   InterCity operates New Zealand’s largest passenger transport network with the combined networks of InterCity,  GreatSights  and  Gray Line . Together InterCity and GreatSights connect to more than 600 destinations nationwide, with over 130 services every day.  InterCity Group (NZ) Limited has an active Responsible Tourism programme based on core operating philosophies of Manaakitanga and Kaitiakitanga. In line with these philosophies we have an active programme of engaging in our communities and mitigating the impacts from resource usage. We are proud to be rated as an Enviro Silver rated operator by Qualmark.

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Ljubljana, Slovenia – winner of the European Mobility Week Award twice, first in 2003 and again in 2013. Green capital of Europe for 2016, this city has 46% of it covered by green space. In the past five years, these pedestrian areas have been increased by almost 620%

Barcelona – heritage conservation, sustainable transportation and now bridges that eat pollution

Lake District, UK  – showcasing sustainable tourism initiatives including low carbon cottages, sustainable transportation efforts and footpath erosion

Burren and Cliffs of Moher , Ireland – working with over 45 tourism enterprises to achieve certification, the park is now a recognized tourism destination. Recognized as a geopark the area promotes sustainable tourism, has its own sustainable tourism criteria and strategy working towards conservation and bringing benefits to the community

Sockmob – a unique initiative to see a different side of London, England. A volunteer network brings you walks by professionally coached homeless guides. To date they have been successful in getting some people off the street and introducing a new social consciousness into commercial walking tours.

Southwest tourism

Ecocomptor – a Finnish initiative to help hotels communicate their sustainability initiatives. As an average hotel room in a midrange hotel produces between 5-20 kg of CO2 per room, there is a need to reduce emissions. Based on a French word ‘to count’ the idea is to save on operating costs, reduce the impact on climate change and manage consumption with reporting.

Green Tourism Finland Green Tourism Finland is a network of companies who are dedicated to sustainable development. They have an accreditation program whereby they grade each business. Members include transportation, accommodation, food and tours.

Sustainable Tourism - beach view

For information on a participating hotel, please see Hotel Câe Adrean located in Manarola at /for more information.

Kolarbyn Ecolodge, Sweden   Sometimes called Sweden’s most primitive hotel, the lodge works to protect endangered species in Scandinavia. There is no electricity and all water comes from a local spring. Working to offer a unique ecotourism experience, it is not for the lighthearted.

Sunart Oakwoods Initiative This initiative aims to create and re-establish 2500 square miles of native woodlands. The woodlands will provide ecotourism type activities (walking, cycling, wildlife hides, canoeing, etc.) and will train, employ and house local people. The site will also be managed by local people in collaboration with the Forestry Commission, Scottish Natural Heritage, Highland Council, Lochaber Enterprise and special interest groups. Ten years since the initiative started, it plays a large tourism role. Over 10,000 m of new paths have been constructed, new interpretive panels and Gaelic trails have been established and an integrated tourism strategy set out.

Old Church in Europe - Sustaining Tourism

Chumbe Island Coral Park, Tanzania Chumbe Island is the first privately established and managed marine park in the world and takes serious note in its sustainability operations. Its income from eco-friendly visitors finances conservation and environmental education programs for local schools and other groups. The 7 palm thatched bungalows, while comfortable and beautifully unique, are also built entirely out of local material and designed with solar lights, rainwater catchment, solar-heating of shower water and composting toilets. Chumbe has won the 2000 UNEP 500 Roll of Honour Award, 2004 TODO socially responsible tourism award and 2004 Responsible Tourism Award in addition to many others. For more information, check out

Vamizi Island  Offering luxurious eco-lodges in Mozambique, made up of ten low-impact beach houses. The lodge tries to sustain livelihoods by providing a boat for islanders to patrol the waters for illegal fishing, and steps are being taken to manage the elephant population so that human and pachyderm can coexist The construction uses almost entirely local materials – timber, thatch and stone all come from the mainland or the islands themselves – thus providing help to the local economy. Although not yet off the grid, the property is working towards being truly sustainable.

Three Camel Lodge  Rated by National Geographic as one of the top 50 lodges worldwide, this accommodation offers environmental and social sensitivity. Powered mainly by wind and solar, it serves as a base for scientifc and wildlife research and is the first-of-its-kind cooperative agreement with the Bulgan Sum Township and Gobi-Gurvansaikhan National Park authorities.

Sources: World Resources Institute Reefs at Risk, 2013,  WTO, 2000, & 2002, UNWTO, 2015, NCDC, 2015,, 2004, UN, 2003, Gov’t of Canada, 2005, Tourism Concern, 2011, Green Car Reports, 2014, Science Museum, 2010)

Giraffe - Africa Sustainable Tourism Practices


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Few empirical studies on sustainable tourism take into account the perspective of developing countries’ actors. This is even the case in debates about the need to adapt sustainability’s definitions to the context of developing countries. The present study aims at giving a voice to developing countries’ actors by describing how inbound tour operators (ITOs) in Kenya conceive sustainable tourism and their role in promoting it. ITOs were reached through the two official Kenyan category associations for tour operators and through Ecotourism Kenya. Both a survey and in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Results suggest that Kenyan ITOs are familiar with the current definition of sustainability as being constituted of an economic, a social and an environmental dimension. Contrary to expectations, respondents weight their responsibility towards the natural environment at least as highly as their social responsibility. In the end, it is the business long-term survival that dictates this choice: respondents are aware that tourists expect to find in Kenya a flourishing natural environment. Kenyan ITOs are on the whole keenly aware of their role in promoting sustainability to tourist, staff and the community. They experience as a major challenge the lack of institutional pressure from the government. Though this is a common complaint of organisations in developing countries, it is interesting in a Kenyan context where the Government has deployed several policy initiatives on sustainable tourism. A major limitation of this study is the limited sample. Only category associations’ members were sampled, leaving ITOs that operate in the informal economy unheard.

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While to some extent there is disharmony in defining the term ecotourism, most tourism research agrees that the eco prefix is a definite pointer to environmental or natural resource management as a core value to the concept. However, the inherent gap between theoretical conceptualization of ecotourism as ‘green practice expected to address adverse outcomes of conventional tourism’ and actual environmental impacts of this form of tourism raises the question of whether or not ecotourism in practice complies more closely with its defining criteria. In this regard, this paper explores the term ecotourism as a metaphor for pro environmental behavior, uncovering its derivatives as constructed by tourism players in Kenya. The study covered five focal areas for ecotourism identified by the Ecotourism Society of Kenya, analyzing excerpts from hypertexts that operate at the supply side of tourism to read motivations for references to the term. The readings were then compared to The International Ecotourism Society definition of ecotourism which was taken as a neutral position. The findings revealed that environmental sustainability was an insignificant concern, as compared to product promotion and corporate image in informing the concept of ecotourism in focal areas. Consequently, the “eco prefix” metaphor in tourism is informed by economic and social logics, serving stakeholders other interests. The authors recommend a revisit to the practical basis of the concept for actors in ecotourism focal areas, with keen considerations to linguistic adequacies of the term’s use.


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Tourism Case Study: Kenya

Tourism in kenya.

Kenya is in East Africa. In 2000, its GNI per capita was $800. In 2019, it was $1,200. Kenya used tourism to help grow it to develop.

Illustrative background for How did the Kenyan government boost tourism?

How did the Kenyan government boost tourism?

  • The Kenya Tourist Board created a website and campaign called 'Magical Kenya', which advertises Kenya's beaches, safari parks, golf, and white water rafting internationlly.
  • In 2009, the Kenyan Minister for Tourism halved visa fees for adults and removed them for children.

Illustrative background for Advantages of Kenya's growth in tourism

Advantages of Kenya's growth in tourism

  • Tourism is now 15% of Kenya's exports and has created 1.1 million jobs in Kenya.
  • Tourism is worth 8.8% of Kenya's GNI.
  • Sustainable hunting and sustainable forestry can be supported by the fees that tourists pay to enter Kenyan national parks, like the Maasai Mara National Park.
  • Kenya's HDI has risen from 0.467 in 1990 to 0.579 in 2018.

Illustrative background for Disadvantages of Kenya's growth in tourism

Disadvantages of Kenya's growth in tourism

  • Although tourism accounts for 8.8% of Kenya's GNI, this has been falling since 2015.
  • Tourists' preferences can be very short-term. Investing in manufacturing is more likely to be certain and long-lasting than investing in tourism. There is almost a fashion element to people's travel preferences.
  • The awareness campaigns about Kenya's wildlife may have led to increases in poaching. In 2018, the Kenyan government proposed imposing the death penalty for poachers.

1 Geography Skills

1.1 Mapping

1.1.1 Map Making

1.1.2 OS Maps

1.1.3 Grid References

1.1.4 Contour Lines

1.1.5 Symbols, Scale and Distance

1.1.6 Directions on Maps

1.1.7 Describing Routes

1.1.8 Map Projections

1.1.9 Aerial & Satellite Images

1.1.10 Using Maps to Make Decisions

1.2 Geographical Information Systems

1.2.1 Geographical Information Systems

1.2.2 How do Geographical Information Systems Work?

1.2.3 Using Geographical Information Systems

1.2.4 End of Topic Test - Geography Skills

2 Geology of the UK

2.1 The UK's Rocks

2.1.1 The UK's Main Rock Types

2.1.2 The UK's Landscape

2.1.3 Using Rocks

2.1.4 Weathering

2.2 Case Study: The Peak District

2.2.1 The Peak District

2.2.2 Limestone Landforms

2.2.3 Quarrying

3 Geography of the World

3.1 Geography of America & Europe

3.1.1 North America

3.1.2 South America

3.1.3 Europe

3.1.4 The European Union

3.1.5 The Continents

3.1.6 The Oceans

3.1.7 Longitude

3.1.8 Latitude

3.1.9 End of Topic Test - Geography of the World

4 Development

4.1 Development

4.1.1 Classifying Development

4.1.3 Evaluation of GDP

4.1.4 The Human Development Index

4.1.5 Population Structure

4.1.6 Developing Countries

4.1.7 Emerging Countries

4.1.8 Developed Countries

4.1.9 Comparing Development

4.2 Uneven Development

4.2.1 Consequences of Uneven Development

4.2.2 Physical Factors Affecting Development

4.2.3 Historic Factors Affecting Development

4.2.4 Human & Social Factors Affecting Development

4.2.5 Breaking Out of the Poverty Cycle

4.3 Case Study: Democratic Republic of Congo

4.3.1 The DRC: An Overview

4.3.2 Political & Social Factors Affecting Development

4.3.3 Environmental Factors Affecting the DRC

4.3.4 The DRC: Aid

4.3.5 The Pros & Cons of Aid in DRC

4.3.6 Top-Down vs Bottom-Up in DRC

4.3.7 The DRC: Comparison with the UK

4.3.8 The DRC: Against Malaria Foundation

4.4 Case Study: Nigeria

4.4.1 The Importance & Development of Nigeria

4.4.2 Nigeria's Relationships with the Rest of the World

4.4.3 Urban Growth in Lagos

4.4.4 Population Growth in Lagos

4.4.5 Factors influencing Nigeria's Growth

4.4.6 Nigeria: Comparison with the UK

5 Weather & Climate

5.1 Weather

5.1.1 Weather & Climate

5.1.2 Components of Weather

5.1.3 Temperature

5.1.4 Sunshine, Humidity & Air Pressure

5.1.5 Cloud Cover

5.1.6 Precipitation

5.1.7 Convectional Precipitation

5.1.8 Frontal Precipitation

5.1.9 Relief or Orographic Precipitation

5.1.10 Wind

5.1.11 Extreme Wind

5.1.12 Recording the Weather

5.1.13 Extreme Weather

5.2 Climate

5.2.1 Climate of the British Isles

5.2.2 Comparing Weather & Climate London

5.2.3 Climate of the Tropical Rainforest

5.2.4 End of Topic Test - Weather & Climate

5.3 Tropical Storms

5.3.1 Formation of Tropical Storms

5.3.2 Features of Tropical Storms

5.3.3 The Structure of Tropical Storms

5.3.4 Tropical Storms Case Study: Katrina Effects

5.3.5 Tropical Storms Case Study: Katrina Responses

6 The World of Work

6.1 Tourism

6.1.1 Landscapes

6.1.2 The Growth of Tourism

6.1.3 Benefits of Tourism

6.1.4 Economic Costs of Tourism

6.1.5 Social, Cultural & Environmental Costs of Tourism

6.1.6 Tourism Case Study: Blackpool

6.1.7 Ecotourism

6.1.8 Tourism Case Study: Kenya

7 Natural Resources

7.1.1 What are Rocks?

7.1.2 Types of Rock

7.1.4 The Rock Cycle - Weathering

7.1.5 The Rock Cycle - Erosion

7.1.6 What is Soil?

7.1.7 Soil Profiles

7.1.8 Water

7.1.9 Global Water Demand

7.2 Fossil Fuels

7.2.1 Introduction to Fossil Fuels

7.2.2 Fossil Fuels

7.2.3 The Global Energy Supply

7.2.5 What is Peak Oil?

7.2.6 End of Topic Test - Natural Resources

8.1 River Processes & Landforms

8.1.1 Overview of Rivers

8.1.2 The Bradshaw Model

8.1.3 Erosion

8.1.4 Sediment Transport

8.1.5 River Deposition

8.1.6 River Profiles: Long Profiles

8.1.7 River Profiles: Cross Profiles

8.1.8 Waterfalls & Gorges

8.1.9 Interlocking Spurs

8.1.10 Meanders

8.1.11 Floodplains

8.1.12 Levees

8.1.13 Case Study: River Tees

8.2 Rivers & Flooding

8.2.1 Flood Risk Factors

8.2.2 Flood Management: Hard Engineering

8.2.3 Flood Management: Soft Engineering

8.2.4 Flooding Case Study: Boscastle

8.2.5 Flooding Case Study: Consequences of Boscastle

8.2.6 Flooding Case Study: Responses to Boscastle

8.2.7 Flooding Case Study: Bangladesh

8.2.8 End of Topic Test - Rivers

8.2.9 Rivers Case Study: The Nile

8.2.10 Rivers Case Study: The Mississippi

9.1 Formation of Coastal Landforms

9.1.1 Weathering

9.1.2 Erosion

9.1.3 Headlands & Bays

9.1.4 Caves, Arches & Stacks

9.1.5 Wave-Cut Platforms & Cliffs

9.1.6 Waves

9.1.7 Longshore Drift

9.1.8 Coastal Deposition

9.1.9 Spits, Bars & Sand Dunes

9.2 Coast Management

9.2.1 Management Strategies for Coastal Erosion

9.2.2 Case Study: The Holderness Coast

9.2.3 Case Study: Lyme Regis

9.2.4 End of Topic Test - Coasts

10 Glaciers

10.1 Overview of Glaciers & How They Work

10.1.1 Distribution of Glaciers

10.1.2 Types of Glaciers

10.1.3 The Last Ice Age

10.1.4 Formation & Movement of Glaciers

10.1.5 Shaping of Landscapes by Glaciers

10.1.6 Glacial Landforms Created by Erosion

10.1.7 Glacial Till & Outwash Plain

10.1.8 Moraines

10.1.9 Drumlins & Erratics

10.1.10 End of Topic Tests - Glaciers

10.1.11 Tourism in Glacial Landscapes

10.1.12 Strategies for Coping with Tourists

10.1.13 Case Study - Lake District: Tourism

10.1.14 Case Study - Lake District: Management

11 Tectonics

11.1 Continental Drift & Plate Tectonics

11.1.1 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

11.1.2 The Structure of the Earth

11.1.3 Tectonic Plates

11.1.4 Plate Margins

11.2 Volcanoes

11.2.1 Volcanoes & Their Products

11.2.2 The Development of Volcanoes

11.2.3 Living Near Volcanoes

11.3 Earthquakes

11.3.1 Overview of Earthquakes

11.3.2 Consequences of Earthquakes

11.3.3 Case Study: Christchurch, New Zealand Earthquake

11.4 Tsunamis

11.4.1 Formation of Tsunamis

11.4.2 Case Study: Japan 2010 Tsunami

11.5 Managing the Risk of Volcanoes & Earthquakes

11.5.1 Coping With Earthquakes & Volcanoes

11.5.2 End of Topic Test - Tectonics

12 Climate Change

12.1 The Causes & Consequences of Climate Change

12.1.1 Evidence for Climate Change

12.1.2 Natural Causes of Climate Change

12.1.3 Human Causes of Climate Change

12.1.4 The Greenhouse Effect

12.1.5 Effects of Climate Change on the Environment

12.1.6 Effects of Climate Change on People

12.1.7 Climate Change Predictions

12.1.8 Uncertainty About Future Climate Change

12.1.9 Mitigating Against Climate Change

12.1.10 Adapting to Climate Change

12.1.11 Case Study: Bangladesh

13 Global Population & Inequality

13.1 Global Populations

13.1.1 World Population

13.1.2 Population Structure

13.1.3 Ageing Populations

13.1.4 Youthful Populations

13.1.5 Population Control

13.1.6 Mexico to USA Migration

13.1.7 End of Topic Test - Development & Population

14 Urbanisation

14.1 Urbanisation

14.1.1 Rural Characterisitcs

14.1.2 Urban Characteristics

14.1.3 Urbanisation Growth

14.1.4 The Land Use Model

14.1.5 Rural-Urban Pull Factors

14.1.6 Rural-Urban Push Factors

14.1.7 The Impacts of Migration

14.1.8 Challenges of Urban Areas in Developed Countries

14.1.9 Challenges of Urban Areas in Developing Countries

14.1.10 Urban Sustainability

14.1.11 Case Study: China's Urbanisation

14.1.12 Major UK Cities

14.1.13 Urbanisation in the UK

14.1.14 End of Topic Test- Urbanisation

14.1.15 End of Topic Test - Urban Issues

15 Ecosystems

15.1 The Major Biomes

15.1.1 Distribution of Major Biomes

15.1.2 What Affects the Distribution of Biomes?

15.1.3 Biome Features: Tropical Forests

15.1.4 Biome Features: Temperate Forests

15.1.5 Biome Features: Tundra

15.1.6 Biome Features: Deserts

15.1.7 Biome Features: Tropical Grasslands

15.1.8 Biome Features: Temperate Grasslands

15.2 Case Study: The Amazon Rainforest

15.2.1 Interdependence of Rainforest Ecosystems

15.2.2 Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Rainforests

15.2.3 Deforestation in the Amazon

15.2.4 Impacts of Deforestation in the Amazon

15.2.5 Protecting the Amazon

15.2.6 Adaptations of Plants to Rainforests

15.2.7 Adaptations of Animals to Rainforests

16 Life in an Emerging Country

16.1 Case Studies

16.1.1 Mumbai: Opportunities

16.1.2 Mumbai: Challenges

17 Analysis of Africa

17.1 Africa

17.1.1 Desert Biomes in Africa

17.1.2 The Semi-Desert Biome

17.1.3 The Savanna Biome

17.1.4 Overview of Tropical Rainforests

17.1.5 Colonisation History

17.1.6 Population Distribution in Africa

17.1.7 Economic Resources in Africa

17.1.8 Urbanisation in Africa

17.1.9 Africa's Location

17.1.10 Physical Geography of Africa

17.1.11 Desertification in Africa

17.1.12 Reducing the Risk of Desertification

17.1.13 Case Study: The Sahara Desert - Opportunities

17.1.14 Case Study: The Sahara Desert - Development

18 Analysis of India

18.1 India - Physical Geography

18.1.1 Geographical Location of India

18.1.2 Physical Geography of India

18.1.3 India's Climate

18.1.4 Natural Disasters in India

18.1.5 Case Study: The Thar Desert

18.1.6 Case Study: The Thar Desert - Challenges

18.2 India - Human Geography

18.2.1 Population Distribution in India

18.2.2 Urabinsation in India

18.2.3 The History of India

18.2.4 Economic Resources in India

19 Analysis of the Middle East

19.1 The Middle East

19.1.1 Physical Geography of the Middle East

19.1.2 Human Geography of the Middle East

19.1.3 Climate Zones in the Middle East

19.1.4 Climate Comparison with the UK

19.1.5 Oil & Natural Gas in the Middle East

19.1.6 Water in the Middle East

19.1.7 Population of the Middle East

19.1.8 Development Case Studies: The UAE

19.1.9 Development Case Studies: Yemen

19.1.10 Supporting Development in Yemen

19.1.11 Connection to the UK

19.1.12 Importance of Oil

19.1.13 Oil & Tourism in the UAE

20 Analysis of Bangladesh

20.1 Bangladesh Physical Geography

20.1.1 Location of Bangladesh

20.1.2 Climate of Bangladesh

20.1.3 Rivers in Bangladesh

20.1.4 Flooding in Bangladesh

20.2 Bangladesh Human Geography

20.2.1 Population Structure in Bangladesh

20.2.2 Urbanisation in Bangladesh

20.2.3 Bangladesh's Economy

20.2.4 Energy & Sustainability in Bangladesh

21 Analysis of Russia

21.1 Russia's Physical Geography

21.1.1 Russia's Climate

21.1.2 Russia's Landscape

21.2 Russia's Human Geography

21.2.1 Population of Russia

21.2.2 Russia's Economy

21.2.3 Energy & Sustainability in Russia

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What are Rocks?

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    Few empirical studies on sustainable tourism take into account the perspective of developing countries' actors. This is even the case in debates about the need to adapt sustainability's definitions to the context of developing countries. ... SETTING UP A CASE STUDY OF INBOUND TOUR OPERATORS IN KENYA Fiona Ngesa, BA Stenden University ...

  18. Alternative Tourism and Sustainable Development in Kenya

    It also considers community participation in ecotourism, the Kenya government policy on ecotourism, and the initiatives to yield sustainable development in the country. The findings show that biodiversity conservation encourages and supports tourism which, in turn, provides money for conservation efforts and local development programmes.

  19. Tourism and Socio-economic Development in Developing Countries: A Case

    This paper looks at issues surrounding sustainable tourism as a tool for local socio-economic development in Kenya, using the case study of Mombasa Resort Town. Illustrated by primary data from field interviews and surveys in Mombasa, backed by secondary data, it finds that due to the nature of the Kenyan tourism industry (external control and management of tourism establishments, limited ...

  20. Tourism policies and inclusive development: the case of Kenya and

    Abstract. Drawing on the inclusive development conceptual framework, this study utilizes textual analysis to interrogate the development policies for two African nations, Kenya and Rwanda. Composed of three tenets, social inclusiveness, ecological inclusiveness and relational inclusiveness, this framework is rooted in theories of social justice and sustainable development.

  21. Sustainable Tourism Case Study Kenya Moore

    This paper looks at issues surrounding sustainable tourism as a tool for local socio-economic development in Kenya. using the case study of Mombasa Resort Town. Illustrated by primary data from field interviews and surveys in Mombasa. backed by secondary data. it finds that due to the nature of the Kenyan tourism industry (external control and ...

  22. Tourism Case Study: Kenya

    Advantages of Kenya's growth in tourism. Tourism is now 15% of Kenya's exports and has created 1.1 million jobs in Kenya. Tourism is worth 8.8% of Kenya's GNI. Sustainable hunting and sustainable forestry can be supported by the fees that tourists pay to enter Kenyan national parks, like the Maasai Mara National Park.

  23. Sustainability

    This study investigates potential financing and management strategies that the Energy Corporation, a Chinese renewable energy company, could adopt in order to expand its green development projects. While China has made significant advancements in renewable energy, its heavy reliance on fossil fuels necessitates a shift towards a more sustainable energy system. To analyze the factors driving ...

  24. Tourism and socio-economic development in developing countries: A case

    This paper looks at issues surrounding sustainable tourism as a tool for local socioeconomic development in Kenya, using the case study of Mombasa Resort Town. Illustrated by primary data from field interviews and surveys in Mombasa, backed by secondary data, it finds that due to the nature of the Kenyan tourism industry ...