rubric summarizing and paraphrasing

Rubric trait: Paraphrasing

This rubric trait describes the skills students should gain during the paraphrasing exercises.

Turnitin Teaching and Learning Innovations Team

Use this handout with the Paraphrasing Practice resource. Provide students with this handout in order to participate in the exercises presented in the practice presentation.

rubric summarizing and paraphrasing

This presentation may be presented as a game or guided practice.

rubric summarizing and paraphrasing

Provide this resource to students as a self-checklist to review upon completing a paraphrased passage.

Singular rubric trait suitable for formative and summative assignments that involve the paraphrasing of evidence or ideas. Add this rubric trait to an existing rubric or use it as is when asking students to paraphrase in their writing .

Download this .rbc file and then import it to your Feedback Studio account. You can then use this rubric as is or customize its content to suit your needs.

rubric summarizing and paraphrasing

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iRubric: Summarizing and Paraphrasing Rubric

rubric summarizing and paraphrasing


  • Library Guides
  • IRWC Interactive Rubric for Written Communication
  • Interactive Rubric for Written Communication
  • 5.6.5. Paraphrasing & Plagiarism

Interactive Rubric for Written Communication: 5.6.5. Paraphrasing & Plagiarism

  • Introduction
  • 1.2. Thesis
  • 1.3. Context
  • 1.4. Audience
  • 2.1. Information & Data
  • 2.2. Conceptual Knowledge
  • 2.3. Examples & Illustrations
  • 2.4. Sources
  • 2.4.1. Relevance
  • 2.4.2. Authority
  • 3.2. Evidence
  • 3.3. Specificity
  • 3.4. Creativity
  • 3.5. Criticality
  • 3.6. Reflexivity
  • 3.7. Evaluation
  • 4.1. Section
  • 4.2. Paragraph
  • 4.3. Sequence
  • 4.4. Cohesive Ties
  • 5.1. Clarity
  • 5.2.1. Mood
  • 5.2.2. Mode
  • 5.2.3. Narrative Form
  • 5.2.4. Voice (Active/Passive)
  • 5.4. Vocabulary
  • 5.4.1. Academic Vocabulary
  • 5.4.2. Technical Vocabulary
  • 5.4.3. Inclusive Language
  • 5.5. Literary Devices
  • 5.6. Referencing
  • 5.6.1. Citations
  • 5.6.2. Reference List
  • 5.6.3. Quotations
  • 5.6.4. Application
  • 5.7. Formatting
  • 5.7.1. Font
  • 5.7.2. Spacing
  • 5.8. Length
  • 6.1. Sentences
  • 6.1.1. Fragments
  • 6.1.2. Run-on Sentences
  • 6.1.3. Agreement
  • 6.2. Word Classes
  • 6.2.1. Pronouns
  • 6.2.2. Prepositions
  • 6.2.3. Articles
  • 6.2.4. Conjunctions
  • 7.1. Spelling
  • 7.2. Punctuation
  • 7.2.1. Apostrophes
  • 7.2.2. Full Stops
  • 7.2.3. Capitalisation
  • 7.2.4. Quotation Marks
  • 7.2.5. Commas & Colons
  • 7.2.6. Abbreviations
  • 7.2.7. Other (e.g., Hyphens)
  • 7.3. Editing
  • Persuasive Essay
  • Reflective Essay
  • For Lecturers

Definition (formal)

Paraphrasing is the re-writing of someone else’s content, idea or concepts in your own words. Plagiarism is the direct copying of someone else’s content, ideas or concepts without changing the original words or acknowledging the source.

Paraphrasing : Did you get the gist of it?

Plagiarising : Did you copy it?

For example, the Persuasive Essay Example avoids plagiarising Weinberg’s idea by using quotation marks and a citation to acknowledge the source of the quote:

 " Genes do not fix behaviour . . . they establish a range of possible reactions to the range of possible experiences that the environment can provide" (Weinberg, 1989, p. 101).

The direct quote could have been paraphrased as follows:

Weinberg, (1989) suggests that the expression of genes is influenced by environmental factors.


Refer to the  textbook pages and sections to improve your knowledge and understanding of the criterion.

rubric summarizing and paraphrasing

Resources (web)

Click on the links to access online resources to improve your knowledge and understanding of the criterion.

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Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

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This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills.

What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.

Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.

Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.

Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.

Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?

Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use them to:

  • Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
  • Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
  • Give examples of several points of view on a subject
  • Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with
  • Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original
  • Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own
  • Expand the breadth or depth of your writing

Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and quotations. As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a writer might include paraphrases of various key points blended with quotations of striking or suggestive phrases as in the following example:

In his famous and influential work The Interpretation of Dreams , Sigmund Freud argues that dreams are the "royal road to the unconscious" (page #), expressing in coded imagery the dreamer's unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the "dream-work" (page #). According to Freud, actual but unacceptable desires are censored internally and subjected to coding through layers of condensation and displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself (page #).

How to use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries

Practice summarizing the essay found here , using paraphrases and quotations as you go. It might be helpful to follow these steps:

  • Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas.
  • Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is.
  • Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay.
  • Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly.

There are several ways to integrate quotations into your text. Often, a short quotation works well when integrated into a sentence. Longer quotations can stand alone. Remember that quoting should be done only sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when you decide to do so. You'll find guidelines for citing sources and punctuating citations at our documentation guide pages.

Developing a comprehensive plagiarism assessment rubric

  • Published: 05 November 2022
  • Volume 28 , pages 5893–5919, ( 2023 )

Cite this article

  • Moohebat Shoyukhi   ORCID: 1 ,
  • Paul Hubert Vossen   ORCID: 2 ,
  • Abdol Hossein Ahmadi   ORCID: 3 ,
  • Reza Kafipour   ORCID: 4 &
  • Kyle Albert Beattie   ORCID: 5  

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Developing a Comprehensive Plagiarism Assessment Rubric: Defining “plagiarism” is not simple, and its complexity is too seldom appreciated. This article offers a comprehensive plagiarism assessment rubric from a four-year study of analyzing students’ plagiarism. From qualitative analyses of 120 students’ paraphrase samples, we identified seven plagiarism dimensions and employed a five-point Likert-scale to rank each dimension’s severity. Then, we enlisted editors, reviewers, and research supervisors to refine the severity of the plagiarism dimensions to articulate a plagiarism spectrum. We produced a Plagiarism Scoring Rubric to categorize 127 plagiarism combinations out of the seven plagiarism dimensions’ composites. Finally, we described how the Plagiarism Scoring Rubric, accompanied by the severity indices, supports instructors in scoring students’ plagiarism and enables students to understand proper crediting of prior work better when citing and paraphrasing.

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rubric summarizing and paraphrasing

Data availability

1. Appendix A:

2. Appendix B:

3. Appendix C:

4. Appendix D:

5. Plagiarism Composite Severity Calculation

6. A Model of Plagiarism based on Corpus Severities and Probabilities

While our research applies to both students’ and researchers’ textual plagiarism, this paper focuses on student plagiarism because that is the source at which the plagiarism that editors and reviewers encounter ultimately begins.

In linguistic studies, L1 and L2 respectively refer to first and second language learners.

English as a Foreign Language

In this section, Student refers to “student participants” who voluntarily took part in three task cycles and produced writing or paraphrasing corpora. Reviewers, editors, and research supervisors refer to “reviewer participants” who took the survey. “Expert reviewers” refers to those outside the study who provided feedback on the survey without taking the survey to be counted as a data point.


in linguistic studies, L1 and L2 respectively refer to the first and second language learners

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We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Edward Nuhfer, who served as an experienced reviewer, provided perceptive comments, and strengthened efforts at paper quality assurance. We would also like to show our gratitude to Dr. Ian Geoffrey Kennedy for sharing his pearls of wisdom with us during the course of this research. We thank Dr. Abdorreza Tahriri and Hamed Delam for their timely insights. We would like to offer our deep appreciation to all the “Student Participants” and “Reviewer Participants,” who so generously took part in this project. We are also immensely grateful to ResearchGate members for answering researchers’ questions and shedding lights on the way of project progress.

This work was partially supported by Larestan University of Medical Sciences (Grant Number: 1399-69).

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Larestan University of Medical Sciences, Larestan, Iran

Moohebat Shoyukhi

Edumetrics R&D, Niederstetten, Germany

Paul Hubert Vossen

Department of English Language and Literature, Larestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Larestan, Iran

Abdol Hossein Ahmadi

Department of English Language, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Reza Kafipour

Department of Political Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

Kyle Albert Beattie

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Moohebat administered the paraphrasing tasks, extracted the plagiarism dimensions, designed and distributed the plagiarism assessment survey, analyzed the data, calibrated the severity indices for the plagiarism dimensions, produced the plagiarism-scoring rubric, and wrote the research project and the manuscript drafts. Paul designed “Plagiarism Composite Severity Calculation" and "A Model of Plagiarism based on Corpus Severities and Probabilities,” and was a major contributor in designing the plagiarism assessment survey and study concepts and theories. Abdol Hossein designed the quasi-experimental study of assessing student paraphrase and was a major contributor in designing the course-teaching schedule and qualitative scheme of plagiarism. Reza was a major contributor in survey scaling and proofreading the manuscript. Kyle was a major contributor in forming research questions and study concepts, proofread and edited the primary and final drafts, and produced the final report in LaTeX to submit for final publication. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kyle Albert Beattie .

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate.

For the ethics approval of the task study, “student participants” signed a consent form.

The research ethics committee of Larestan University of Medical Sciences certified the survey study.

Research Ethics Committees Certificate

Additional Files

Plagiarism Assessment Survey Data This file contains all of the Plagiarism Assessment Survey Data for this project.

Table 6 This file contains the Plagiarism Scoring Rubric.

The Project Procedure This file contains the Procedure of Developing the Plagiarism Assessment Rubric.  https:///

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The authors declared no competing interest.

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“Developing a Comprehensive Plagiarism Assessment Rubric” contributes to the advancement of a new approach to plagiarism assessment in higher education and is a candidate for publication in the Education and Information Technologies.

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Table 2 . Rubric for Assessing Summary Writing

rubric summarizing and paraphrasing

Download Table | Rubric for Assessing Summary Writing from publication: What’s the Gist? Summary Writing for Struggling Adolescent Writers | T he ability to write a tight, concise, accurate summary of information is an essential entry point to other writing genres, especially analytical and technical writing. The purpose of a sum-mary, after all, is to convey correct infor-mation in an efficient manner so that the… | Writing, Adolescents and Technical Writing | ResearchGate, the professional n

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Introduction To Technical Writing

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Emily's Enrichment Corner

Sunday, January 22, 2012

Summarizing rubrics, 2 comments:.

rubric summarizing and paraphrasing

Emily - I truly believe I could sit at my computer all day and still not soak up all that you share on here for reading! Your activities and lessons you've created are AMAZING! Thank you so much for sharing! Do you have a curriculum you are working off of? Do you have a map of where, when, and how long you stay on topics? I would love to pick your brain (maybe through email?) about what/how you do reading!

rubric summarizing and paraphrasing

Thank you so much for the compliments--you're too kind. :) I'm in a small district, one of 6 fourth grade teachers, and we've been working on curriculum mapping for the past four years. Write to me at elkissn at and I'll talk with you more!

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  1. iRubric: Summarizing and Paraphrasing rubric

    iRubric: Summarizing and Paraphrasing rubric find rubric (draft) edit print share Copy to my rubrics Bookmark test run assess... delete Do more... Summarizing and Paraphrasing Summarizing and Paraphrasing Rubric Code: B22BW7 By renaprice Draft Public Rubric Subject: English Type: Writing Grade Levels: (none) Subjects: English Types: Writing

  2. Rubric trait: Paraphrasing

    Singular rubric trait suitable for formative and summative assignments that involve the paraphrasing of evidence or ideas. Add this rubric trait to an existing rubric or use it as is when asking students to paraphrase in their writing. Download this .rbc file and then import it to your Feedback Studio account.

  3. PDF Principles of Paraphrasing

    Module 1 Defining Correct Paraphrasing What Exactly Does "Paraphrase" Mean? • The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines the noun "paraphrase" as "a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form." Paraphrase. (2010). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary.

  4. PDF Scoring Open-Ended Items in Reading

    Literary Text Literary summaries can be scored following the steps outlined below: 1. Has the student clearly stated the overall plot of the story? (If the response to this question is yes, then the teacher can consider a score of 3 or 4 as outlined by the rubric.) 2. Has the student selected essential events from the text?

  5. iRubric: Paraphrasing and Summarizing rubric

    Paraphrasing and Summarizing Paraphrasing and Summarizing Students should be able to define concepts and demonstrate knowledge in paraphrasing. Summarizing is a form of pre'cis writing. Students will be able to analyze material and paraphrase ideas for inclusion in the pre'cis. Rubric Code: W99A32 By DianaSadowski Ready to use Public Rubric

  6. PDF Rubric for a Summary

    3 points: My summary includes main ideas and relevant details, briefly stated in my own words. 2 points: My summary includes main ideas and relevant details, but uses the exact language of the text. 1 point: My summary includes main ideas and relevant details, but also has elaborative details. It uses the exact language of the text.

  7. PDF Effective Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing allows you to summarize and synthesize information from one or more sources, focus on significant information, and compare and contrast relevant details."1* "Paraphrase when the...

  8. iRubric: Summarizing and Paraphrasing Rubric

    iRubric B66747: Teacher will give students a short article. Students will be asked to write a paragraph about the article, using the paraphrasing skills they learned during the mini-lesson.. Free rubric builder and assessment tools.

  9. Rubric for Assessing Summary Writing

    The scoring system is based on the rubric for summary writing text by Frey at. al (2003). The rubric consists of 4 categories. The rubric consists of 4 categories. They are lengths, paraphrasing ...

  10. Summarizing

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  11. PDF Developing a scoring rubric for L2 summary writing: a ...

    rubric, (b) the overall quality dimension worked well even if it was used alone, (c) our rubric and the ETS holistic rubric overlapped moderately as L2 summary writing assessments, and (d) the two paraphrasing dimensions covered similar but different aspects of paraphrasing. However, the quantitative analysis using

  12. How to Paraphrase

    Paraphrasing vs. summarizing. A paraphrase puts a specific passage into your own words. It's typically a similar length to the original text, or slightly shorter. When you boil a longer piece of writing down to the key points, so that the result is a lot shorter than the original, this is called summarizing.

  13. 5.6.5. Paraphrasing & Plagiarism

    Interactive Rubric for Written Communication: 5.6.5. Paraphrasing & Plagiarism. This guide will help you understand common conventions of academic writing and the application of marking rubrics. ... Paraphrasing is the re-writing of someone else's content, idea or concepts in your own words.

  14. Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

    What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing? These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word ...

  15. DOC Summary or Paraphrase Rubric

    Summary or Paraphrase Rubric Summary or Paraphrase Rubric Points Description 4 Excellent Summary The main idea is clearly stated in the first sentence. All key details are included. Uses own wording - avoids copying phases and sentences from the text. Has detailed sentences that link to main idea in logical order. No spelling or grammar errors.

  16. PDF Paraphrasing, Summarising & Quoting

    Paraphrasing, Summarising & Quoting This guide will introduce you to some techniques that can be used to make your use of academic ... A summary is a technique used in academic writing that takes a large amount of information, and reduces it to a small number of phrases, to paint a picture of the original text for the reader. ...

  17. PDF Single Paragraph Rubric (Expository)

    Single Paragraph Rubric (Expository) Categories Score5 (Exceptional) 4 (Skilled) 3 (Proficient) 2 (Developing) 1 (Beginning) 0 Topic Sentence Topic Sentence (T.S.) expresses a clear main idea, accurately addresses prompt using a sentence type, an appositive, or a subordinating conjunction. Word choice is precise, sophisticated and powerful.

  18. Developing a comprehensive plagiarism assessment rubric

    This article offers a comprehensive plagiarism assessment rubric from a four-year study of analyzing students' plagiarism. From qualitative analyses of 120 students' paraphrase samples, we identified seven plagiarism dimensions and employed a five-point Likert-scale to rank each dimension's severity. Then, we enlisted editors, reviewers ...

  19. Table 2 . Rubric for Assessing Summary Writing

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  20. Emily's Enrichment Corner: Summarizing Rubrics

    Important Ideas: A good summary should include the important ideas from the text. With this rubric, it's okay for a reader to include a few more details than strictly necessary. Paraphrasing: I like to be able to distinguish between summaries that attempt to paraphrase, but do so inaccurately, and summaries that just copy from the text. Structure of the Text: It's this component that led me to ...

  21. Paraphrase Rubric

    Paraphrase Rubric. Criteria. 4. Advanced. 3. Proficient. 2. Improving. 1. Warning/Failing . Rewording & Rephrasing. Each line of the poem is translated literally using the author's own words; the meanings of all words and ideas are maintained without the addition or omission of any ideas.

  22. Free Text Summarizer

    1. Insert, paste or download your text 2. Pick the way you want to summarize 3. Adjust your summary length 4. Get your summary in seconds!

  23. Text Summarizer

    Summary Length: Short Long Paste Text Summarize 0 sentences 0 words Summarize your content in the following interesting ways Paragraph Bullet Points Paragraph Condense articles, papers, documents, and more down to the key points. You can easily control how long your results are using the length slider. Summary length: Short Long Input

  24. House Bill 1605 and IMRA

    The Relationship Between HQIM and OER. High-quality instructional materials (HQIM) will be defined by the Instructional Materials Review and Approval (IMRA) process set up by House Bill (HB) 1605.All materials will require official review in the IMRA process by the State Board of Education (SBOE) to be approved as HQIM.