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APA Style Help & Tools

{{page_title}}, best bet: apa's academic writer.

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Academic Writer is the only authoritative and complete online environment for teaching, writing, and publishing in APA Style®, now updated to the 7th Edition. Designed to help users develop their writing and professional research skills, Academic Writer combines sophisticated learning and teaching tools, advanced writing and content management technology, and full integration of APA’s best-selling Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association® to create an unparalleled web-based suite of integrated services and tools.

Access Academic Writer anytime with this link:

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Academic Writer Documentation & Tips

The below links lead to more information, tips, and training about the basics of using Academic Writer.

  • Library Guide to Academic Writer
  • Getting Started Guide (PDF)
  • Creating Academic Writer Accounts (PDF)
  • Accessing the Publication Manual (PDF)
  • Technical Requirements

Using Academic Writer's Writing Tools

Academic Writer contains a Writing section where you can create and write a full APA-formatted paper.  You can write the entire paper in Academic Writer or just use it to setup the title page, headings, and references.  Export your work at any time to a Microsoft Word document.  Below are documents from Academic Writer about the essential features of their Writing tools.  

  • Setting up the Title Page
  • Adding References to Papers (PDF)
  • Adding In-Text Citations (PDF)
  • Adding Tables (PDF)
  • Exporting Papers (PDF)

Featured Items from Academic Writer

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Basics of APA Style

Learn the basics of APA Style, including how to format a manuscript, understand the form and function of common manuscript parts, organize and express your thoughts clearly and precisely, employ the mechanics of style, use graphic elements effectively, credit sources and acknowledge the contributions of others, and construct a comprehensive and reliable reference list.

Academic Writer

© 2020 American Psychological Association.

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How to Avoid Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism

Learn how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism, including how to identify plagiarism, understand its risks and consequences, cite sources properly, and develop sound writing practices.

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Learn how to set up the title page of an APA Style paper, including the page header and running head, title, author name and affiliation, and author note.

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Paper Template: ("Merenda" Sample Student Paper)

This sample response paper presents a university student's personal reaction to an article about whether medication is prescribed too often to young children to treat psychological disorders. The title page demonstrates the simple default layout for a student paper. The paper has a simple setup with only a title page, body of text, and references. No "running head"! Response papers typically do not include author notes or abstracts, though this may vary by assignment.

Visit the Writing Center

Need writing help?  Visit the Writing Center to contact a tutor, submit your paper for review and feedback, or ask APA Style-related questions, as well as access dozens of writing tutorials, videos, webinars, and other instructional resources.

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PG Writing Center's Top APA Links

  • Common Citations in APA Format
  • APA Title Page and Running Head Video
  • APA (7th Edition) Demystified in 5 Minutes Video
  • Formatting an APA Style (7th Edition) Reference List Video
  • Writing With Integrity (APA Style 7th Ed.)

eBook on APA Style 7th Edition

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Zotero: Free Reference Management Tool

Zotero [zoh-TAIR-oh] is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources. This tool is especially popular for heavy researchers at the grad level and above.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

In-Text Citations: The Basics

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

Reference citations in text are covered on pages 261-268 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.

Note:  On pages 117-118, the Publication Manual suggests that authors of research papers should use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal phrases that occur in the literature review and procedure descriptions (for example, Jones (1998)  found  or Jones (1998)  has found ...). Contexts other than traditionally-structured research writing may permit the simple present tense (for example, Jones (1998)  finds ).

APA Citation Basics

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but  NOT  directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

On the other hand, if you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges. For example, you might write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201). This information is reiterated below.

Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining

  • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
  • If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source:  Permanence and Change . Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs:  Writing New Media ,  There Is Nothing Left to Lose .

( Note:  in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized:  Writing new media .)

  • When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word:  Natural-Born Cyborgs .
  • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's  Vertigo ."
  • If the title of the work is italicized in your reference list, italicize it and use title case capitalization in the text:  The Closing of the American Mind ;  The Wizard of Oz ;  Friends .
  • If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even though the reference list uses sentence case): "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."

Short quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p." for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash).

You can introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

If you do not include the author’s name in the text of the sentence, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

Long quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout, but do not add an extra blank line before or after it. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Because block quotation formatting is difficult for us to replicate in the OWL's content management system, we have simply provided a screenshot of a generic example below.

This image shows how to format a long quotation in an APA seventh edition paper.

Formatting example for block quotations in APA 7 style.

Quotations from sources without pages

Direct quotations from sources that do not contain pages should not reference a page number. Instead, you may reference another logical identifying element: a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else. Older works (like religious texts) can also incorporate special location identifiers like verse numbers. In short: pick a substitute for page numbers that makes sense for your source.

Summary or paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and may omit the page numbers. APA guidelines, however, do encourage including a page range for a summary or paraphrase when it will help the reader find the information in a longer work. 

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Purdue OWL: APA

  • APA Guidlines
  • Videos on the Basics of APA
  • General Format
  • In-Text Citations: The Basics
  • Reference List: The Basics
  • Types of APA Papers
  • APA Changes 6th Edition
  • General APA Facts
  • APA Sample Paper
  • APA Formatting - The Basics
  • APA Formatting: Reference List Basics
  • APA References List: Complex Authors
  • APA References: Periodicals
  • APA References Entries for Books

Purdue OWL: Writing Tips

Choosing a Topic

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Developing Strong Thesis Statements

Writing a Research Paper

Citation Management

  • Citation Management Tools
  • Quick Reference Generators

Citation management tools help you track and organize the articles you are gathering for your research.  Citation management tools also generate in-text citations, import records from databases, and reference pages.   NOTE : Errors do occasionally occur with citation managers, so always check your citations and references.

  • Zotero by Michael Witt
  • Endnote Desktop by Robert Freeman
  • Endnote Basic by Jerilyn Tinio
  • Endnote Web vs. Zotero
  • Citation Machine
  • NoodleToole Express (my favorite for difficult references)
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  • Last Edited: Apr 1, 2024 3:32 PM
  • URL: https://guides.lib.purdue.edu/mset

purdue apa format

  • Using Sources & APA Style

The Purdue Global Writing Center supports writers in college composition and across the curriculum with resources that cover a range of topics on using sources and APA Style from documentation guidelines and videos on formatting a title page and reference list to writing with integrity and avoiding plagiarism. Browse the collection below or use the search tool to locate topics on using sources, APA Style, and more.

USING SOURCES

purdue apa format

Basic Documentation Guidelines

How to write effectively when using sources

purdue apa format

Writing With Integrity

Expectations for academic research and professional writing and how to avoid plagiarism

purdue apa format

Podcasts on Using Sources

Find podcasts on a variety of topics covering using sources, APA Style, conducting research, analyzing articles, and avoiding plagiarism.

APA STYLE DOCUMENTATION & FORMATTING

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APA Common Citations and References

Locate clear examples of in-text citations and reference list entry formats for common types of digital and print sources.

purdue apa format

APA Demystified in Five Minutes

Understand the basics of APA Style by watching this 5-minute video.

purdue apa format

Formatting an APA Style Paper and Title Page

Follow the guidance in this video tutorial when formatting an APA Style title page in Microsoft Word.

purdue apa format

Formatting an APA Style Reference List

Follow the guidance in this video tutorial when formatting an APA Style reference list in Microsoft Word.

purdue apa format

Formatting Graphics and Visuals

Learn how to format tables and figures such as images in APA Style.

purdue apa format

Formatting an APA Style PowerPoint Presentation

Learn how to format a PowerPoint following APA Style guidelines for lists, citations and references, tables, figures, and images.

  • PLAGIARISM INFORMATION

purdue apa format

Plagiarism FAQ

Find answers to frequently asked questions about plagiarism.

Understand the expectations for academic research and professional writing and how to avoid plagiarism

purdue apa format

Internet Research: Avoiding Plagiarism

Learn about internet research, common knowledge, and how to avoid plagiarism when using online sources.

BLOG ARTICLES ON APA STYLE

Teaching Inclusive Communication and Evolving Language as a Professional Skill

Teaching Inclusive Communication and Evolving Language as a Professional Skill

“Oh TK, that’s just politically correct BS!” “Let me guess, we’re ‘woke’ in this class?” “I always use that word. It’s not a slur.” “Am I going to be ‘cancelled’ now?” “What about my First Amendment rights to say what I want?” Hello everyone! This is Teresa Kelly–TK–from the Department of Composition and WAC. Whenever…

APA Style 2020 Posts You Don’t Want to Miss

APA Style 2020 Posts You Don’t Want to Miss

Now that 2020 is in our rearview mirror (thank goodness!), I thought it appropriate to usher in the New Year with a recap of not-to-miss Writing Center blogcasts that concern APA Style as we transition fully to the 7th edition. As those of you who subscribe to the blog know, since the blog began its…

A “We” Problem

A “We” Problem

In informal writing, the use of the first-person plural pronoun “we” is commonplace, as in, We tend to use language willy-nilly when writing informally. Some of you might not think twice about my use of “we” in that last statement (which is fine), but some of you might be saying, “Wait a minute. Hold on.…

Formal vs. Informal Writing

Formal vs. Informal Writing

Writing to many is about dos and don’ts, especially don’ts–don’t use first person, don’t use second person, don’t use slang, don’t use contractions, don’t use hyperbole. Don’t, don’t, don’t. And of course these “don’ts” are usually couched within the context of formal vs. informal writing in that the don’ts apply to formal writing and what…

Documenting Sources Made Easy

Documenting Sources Made Easy

Many who are not familiar with the basics of APA Style documentation become confused, frustrated, and sometimes even stressed when they need to document a source that may not be typical or contains missing information, but the reality is that with a few deep breaths and a pragmatic approach, most can resolve any documentation challenge…

Top Seven Common User Errors in APA Style 7th Edition

Top Seven Common User Errors in APA Style 7th Edition

Everyone likes lists. The 100 greatest movies of all time. The top ten gourmet meals in under twenty minutes as selected by gourmet chefs. And now that the 7th edition of APA Style’s Publication Manual has been out for over a year, the recurring errors people are making transitioning to the 7th edition have surfaced…

More Writing Resources

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  1. APA 7th Edition: References Lists

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COMMENTS

  1. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) - Purdue OWL®">APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) - Purdue OWL®

    Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats. Basic Rules Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper Author/Authors

  2. Format - Purdue OWL® - Purdue University">General Format - Purdue OWL® - Purdue University

    You can also watch our APA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel. General APA Guidelines Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11"), with 1" margins on all sides.

  3. APA Style Introduction - Purdue OWL® - Purdue University">APA Style Introduction - Purdue OWL® - Purdue University

    APA Style Introduction. These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

  4. APA Sample Paper - Purdue OWL® - Purdue University">APA Sample Paper - Purdue OWL® - Purdue University

    APA Sample Paper. Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Media Files: APA Sample Student Paper , APA Sample Professional Paper.

  5. Purdue Global Library: APA Style Help & Tools">Library: Purdue Global Library: APA Style Help & Tools

    Learn the basics of APA Style, including how to format a manuscript, understand the form and function of common manuscript parts, organize and express your thoughts clearly and precisely, employ the mechanics of style, use graphic elements effectively, credit sources and acknowledge the contributions of others, and construct a comprehensive and ...

  6. Purdue OWL®">In-Text Citations: The Basics - Purdue OWL®

    APA Citation Basics. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  7. APA Style Guide - Library Guides at Purdue University Libraries">APA Style Guide - Library Guides at Purdue University Libraries

    APA 7th Edition. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition is the official source for APA Style. Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Lab) provides instruction on how to use APA 7th. Below are a few topics covered by the OWL.

  8. APA - Master of Science Engineering Technology (MSET ... - Purdue ...">APA - Master of Science Engineering Technology (MSET ... - Purdue...

    Purdue OWL: APA. APA Guidlines. Videos on the Basics of APA. General Format. In-Text Citations: The Basics. Reference List: The Basics. Types of APA Papers. APA Changes 6th Edition. General APA Facts.

  9. APA Style">APA Style

    Learn More About JARS. The authority on APA Style and the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual. Find tutorials, the APA Style Blog, how to format papers in APA Style, and other resources to help you improve your writing, master APA Style, and learn the conventions of scholarly publishing.

  10. Using Sources & APA Style – Purdue Global Academic Success and Writing ...">Using Sources & APA StylePurdue Global Academic Success and...

    The Purdue Global Writing Center supports writers in college composition and across the curriculum with resources that cover a range of topics on using sources and APA Style from documentation guidelines and videos on formatting a title page and reference list to writing with integrity and avoiding plagiarism.