November 2022 examination session
Examination paper and markscheme pack, individuals and societies (english).
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IB HL Paper3 Case Study 2022 Genetic Algorithms
Case study 2020 block chain, about paper 3.
The paper is normally written on the same day as paper 2 and has a duration of 1 hour , with a maximum mark of 30 , counting for 20% of the total subject grade . Every year, it is a based on a case study or scenario that changes.
The CASE STUDY
IB_HL_Paper3_CaseStudy_2022 by Tiberius Hodoroabă - Simion
Genetic Algorithms by 1balamanian
CASE STUDY Questions
Case study student notes.
Write Notes under the following headings
CASE Study Knowledge and understanding:
Brute force approach Combinatorial optimization Computational intractability Convergence Crossover / crossover operator Elitism Exploration vs exploitation Fitness / fitness function / fitness landscape Heuristic Hill climbing Initialization parameters Local extrema Mating pool Mutation / mutation rate Novelty search Offspring Optimization Population Premature convergence Problem space Ranking Roulette wheel selection Selection strategy Simulated annealing Stochastic universal sampling Termination condition Tour Tournament selection Truncation selection
Lesson One - Homework
Read the Case Study and summarize the introduction section
In your research so far have you come across any protocols ?
What is Section
What is a hashing function.
Hashing functions are mathematical algorithms that take inputs and generate unique outputs.
- Hash functions turn an arbitrarily-large piece of data into a fixed-length hash output
- They are one-to-one: the same input will always provide the same hash output
- They are one-way functions: it's impossible to "work backwards", and reconstruct the input given a hash output.
What is a Good Hashing Function
“The essential characteristics of good hashing algorithms are determinism, noninvertibility and collision resistance.” A good cryptographic hash function is non-invertible, meaning it cannot be reverse engineered.
What is SHA256 Hash Generator
What is sha256 hash generator.
he SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is one of a number of cryptographic hash functions. A cryptographic hash is like a signature for a data set. If you would like to compare two sets of raw data (source of the file, text or similar) it is always better to hash it and compare SHA256 values. It is like the fingerprints of the data. Even if only one symbol is changed the algorithm will produce different hash value. SHA256 algorithm generates an almost-unique, fixed size 256-bit (32-byte) hash. Hash is so called a one way function. This makes it suitable for checking integrity of your data, challenge hash authentication, anti-tamper, digital signatures, blockchain. With the newest hardware (CPU and GPU) improvements it is become possible to decrypt SHA256 algorithm back. So it is no longer recommended to use it for password protection or other similar use cases. Some years ago you would protect your passwords from hackers by storing SHA256 encrypted password in the your data base. This is no longer a case. SHA256 algorithm can be still used for making sure you acquired the same data as the original one. For example if you download something you can easily check if data has not changed due to network errors or malware injection. You can compare hashes of your file and original one which is usually provided in the website you are getting data or the file from. SHA-256 is one of the successor hash functions to SHA-1,and is one of the strongest hash functions available.
Online Tool Click Here
what is Immutable transaction
What is an immutable transaction.
Immutability is used to denote something which can never be modified or deleted. In a blockchain, it refers to the logs of transactions, which is created by consensus among the chain’s participants. The basic notion is this: once a blockchain transaction has received a sufficient level of validation it can never be replaced or reversed or edited.
Now let us see how blockchain attains immutability.
If a miner tries to change a transaction from history, he will have to re-mine all the blocks from that block till the current block and this will have to be reflected in every copy of the ledger in the network. Miners will have to rebuild the merkle tree of the block in which the transaction is present and redo all the proof of work for that block.
Now, since the next block stores the hash of this block, the next block will also have to be re-mined. This is because the next block will have to be edited with the new “previous block hash”. This change will result in a different block hash. The new block hash might result in a hash that does not match the set difficulty level. Thus, this block will also have to be re-mined.
What about the new blocks being added every 10 minutes?
The computing power required to achieve this is enormous and probably only theoretical.
what is a trapdoor function
What is a merkle tree ( also known as a binary hash tree ), what is a merkle tree.
In very simple terms, a Merkle Tree is a way of structuring data that allows a large body of information to be verified for accuracy both extremely efficiently and quickly. They have become a crucial component of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency,
The Merkle Tree has been around since 1979, when a man named Ralph Merkle was at Stanford University. Merkle wrote a paper titled “A Certified Digital Signature” during his time at Stanford, and unknowingly created a major component of blockchain. In his paper, Merkle described a brand new method of creating proofs. Essentially, Merkle designed a process for verifying data that would allow computers to work much faster than before
A Merkle Tree Example
Let’s imagine that there were four transactions performed on one block: A, B, C, and D. Each transaction is then hashed, leaving us with:
The hashes are paired together resulting in:
These two hashes are hashed together to give us our Merkle Root: Hash ABCD. In reality, a Merkle Tree is far more complicated than this (especially when you consider that each transaction ID is 64 characters long) but this should give you an idea as to how the algorithms work and why it is so effective.
The implementation of Merkle trees in blockchains has multiple effects. It allows them to scale while also providing the hash-based architecture for them to maintain data integrity and a trivial way to verify the integrity of data .
Slide Shows & Lessons
Paper 3 long question.
Paper 3 always ends with a long discussion question. The time is one hour so allow 2 minutes per point, for example if the Long question is for 12 points allocate 23 minutes. If short question is for 4 mark allocate 8 minutes. This will help ensure you spend the correct amount of time on each question.
=== Long Question (12 marks) ===
- Suggestions for the responses --- … USE TECHNICAL VOCABULARY whenever possible and sensible. … Your response to this question(s) should be 1-2 pages long, depending on the size of your writing. … and it must be completed within 20-30 minutes, as there are other questions on the exam. … Hence, you may only give partial responses to each part of the question. … Be sure to address ALL parts of the question(s), albeit briefly, rather than one part in depth. … Keep in mind that there are no "RIGHT" answers, but there are better and worse answers.
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About the influence of deflected wing surfaces on flow parameters in the tail area
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N. N. Bragin , M. F. Garifullin , D. B. Korneeva , S. I. Skomorokhov , A. Yu. Slitinskaia; About the influence of deflected wing surfaces on flow parameters in the tail area. AIP Conf. Proc. 24 May 2021; 2351 (1): 030034. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0052086
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This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the unsteady flow characteristics in the neigborhood of horizontal tail on the model of a medium-haul aircraft. The measurement was done by five-point probe equipped with Kulite unsteady pressure sensors. The model was tested in the TsAGI’ T-103 wind tunnel (WT) at a flow velocity of V = 50 m/s, which corresponds to the Mach number M = 0.15, and the Reynolds number Re MAC = 0.65·10 6 . In the cruise and take-off/landing modes the deflection of the interceptor sections was considered, corresponding to the following maneuvers: to create an additional roll moment, to reduce speed and to reduce lift when main landing gears touch the runway. The influence of the separate deflection of each section of the interceptor in the landing configuration on the flow parameters near the horizontal tail is studied.
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- Published: 24 June 2022
Hysteresis of the aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 0018 airfoil at low subsonic speeds
- D. A. Alieva 1 ,
- K. A. Kolinko 1 &
- A. N. Khrabrov 1
Thermophysics and Aeromechanics volume 29 , pages 43–57 ( 2022 ) Cite this article
Results of an experimental study of the hysteresis of aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 0018 airfoil in the T-124 low-turbulent wind tunnel of low subsonic speeds of TsAGI are reported. The experiments were carried out on the OVP-124 dynamic setup under steady-state conditions, under quasi-static (continuous) increase and decrease of the angle of attack, and with forced oscillations of the model over pitch with different amplitudes and frequencies relative to various set angles of attack. In all cases, measured aerodynamic characteristics exhibits a hysteresis related with the presence of a range of attack angles in which stable, non-unique separated-flow structures are observed. On the basis of experimental data obtained, a new approach to the mathematical modeling of the phenomenon of static and dynamic hysteresis of aerodynamic characteristics is developed for use in dynamics problems.
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Authors and affiliations.
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, Zhukovsky, Moscow region, Russia
D. A. Alieva, K. A. Kolinko & A. N. Khrabrov
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Correspondence to A. N. Khrabrov .
The mathematical modeling of the hysteresis phenomenon (Section 5) was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Grant No. 21-19-00659).
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Alieva, D.A., Kolinko, K.A. & Khrabrov, A.N. Hysteresis of the aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 0018 airfoil at low subsonic speeds. Thermophys. Aeromech. 29 , 43–57 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0869864322010036
Received : 08 July 2021
Revised : 25 September 2021
Accepted : 20 October 2021
Published : 24 June 2022
Issue Date : January 2022
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1134/S0869864322010036
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- aerodynamic experiment
- NACA 0018 airfoil
- flow separation
- hysteresis of aerodynamic characteristics
- phenomenological mathematical model
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