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[ an - uh -tey-tid ]

an annotated edition of Milton's poetry.

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Other words from.

  • un·anno·tated adjective
  • well-anno·tated adjective

Word History and Origins

Origin of annotated 1

Example Sentences

He also included a link to an annotated list of what he considered David Allan Coe’s 50 best songs.

We created an annotated Google Colab notebook that will install Senta, download our dataset, and assign a sentiment score to each row.

The annotated topics are surfaced on the page and contribute to SEO.

For those unfamiliar with Michals, an annotated biography and useful essays are included.

Reprinted from George Orwell: A Life in Letters, selected and annotated by Peter Davison.

The resulting text is both social commentary and annotated memoir—equal parts enlightening and enjoyable but sharp throughout.

Among the materials was an annotated cartoon booklet given to my father on his 22 birthday.

Many of the objects in the show are personal notes, annotated scripts, and letters.

Signed and annotated, you will see, by her Highness's own hand.

The protest of the German professors against the alleged Allied calumnies was printed in full and annotated with sympathy.

You are quite aware of this, and those who are not, may be convinced of it by opening any page of the annotated editions.

An annotated checklist and key to the reptiles of Mexico exclusive of the snakes.

He always has a special library on some particular subject, with the books all annotated.

More About Annotated

What does  annotated mean.

The adjective annotated is used to describe a text or similar thing to which notes or comments have been added to provide explanation or criticism about a particular part of it.

Such notes or comments are called annotations , and to add them is to annotate (the adjective annotated comes from the past tense of this verb). Annotation can also refer to the act of annotating.

Annotations are often added to scholarly articles or to literary works that are being analyzed, and it’s these types of things that are most commonly described as annotated. But annotations can be added to any text. For example, a note that you scribble in the margin of your textbook is an annotation, as is an explanatory comment that you add to a list of tasks at work.

The word annotated is sometimes abbreviated as annot. (which can also mean annotation or annotator ).

Example: The annotated edition of the book really helped me to understand the historical context and the meanings of some obscure words.

Where does  annotated come from?

The first records of the word annotated as an adjective come from the 1800s. Its base word, the verb annotate, derives from the Latin annotātus, which means “noted down” and comes from the Latin verb annotāre. At the root of the word is the Latin nota, which means “mark” and is also the basis of the English word note.

Annotated texts provide explanation, criticism, analysis, or historical perspective that wasn’t originally there. Annotated editions of books typically aim to answer questions that the reader might have while trying to understand the text. In an annotated bibliography , an annotation is added to each citation to provide a summary or other information.

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What are some other forms related to annotated?

  • unannotated (adjective)
  • well-annotated (adjective)
  • annotate (verb)

What are some synonyms for annotated ?

What are some words that share a root or word element with annotated ? 

What are some words that often get used in discussing annotated ?

  • bibliography
  • explanation

How is  annotated used in real life?

The word annotated is most commonly used to describe academic and literary works to which additional comments have been added.

Finishing Uncle Tom's Cabin for my Slavery/Serfdom course. Could not have done it without the annotated edition by @HenryLouisGates . pic.twitter.com/odChYqjORS — Jenny from the bloc (@JenLouiseWilson) December 1, 2016
If you want some insight on what's in the notebook, I'm including details in the annotated edition offered up for those pre-ordering. pic.twitter.com/10dc2xWSBu — ADAM (@AdamSilvera) September 4, 2017
i just want an annotated copy of your favourite book. with pages highlighted from top to bottom, little notes that remind you of me, tear stains, creases and bookmarks, doodles in the margin and quotes rewritten because you fell in love with the words. — Mini🦋 (@chonklatjoos) July 26, 2020

Try using  annotated !

Which of the following things can be described as annotated ?

A. a classic novel with comments about historical context B. a scholarly article with explanatory notes C. a bibliography with notes for each citation D. all of the above

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Definition of annotation noun from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

  • It will be published with annotations and an index.
  • The new edition is based on previously unpublished manuscripts with full annotation.
  • The software allows annotation of photos for telling stories.

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Look up any word in the dictionary offline, anytime, anywhere with the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary app.

not annotated definition

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not annotated definition

A Definition of Antisemitism, While Helpful, Is Not a Cure | Opinion

As far as I'm concerned, the ongoing debate over how—and if—to formally define antisemitism largely misses the point.

On the one hand, I fully agree that one first needs to be able to define a problem in order to be able to deal with it if not resolve it, and antisemitism is beyond question a problem of increasingly dire dimensions. At the same time, however, fixed definitions, like most dogma, far too often are an impediment to intelligent thought.

I am sympathetic to Columbia University's task force on antisemitism which is trying to address the surging Jew-hatred—for that's what antisemitism is—on its campus without being forced to adopt one of several battling definitions. In the interest of full disclosure, I am a lecturer-in-law at Columbia Law School as well as an adjunct professor at Cornell Law School where I teach a course on antisemitism in the courts and in jurisprudence.

I confess that I am by nature skeptical and suspicious of imposed definitions of amorphous terms that are held forth as exclusive, probably for the same reason that I am skeptical and suspicious of dogma generally.

Antisemitism is one such term. Over the years, various definitions of what does and what does not constitute hatred of or antagonism toward Jews have been put forward by well-meaning individuals and organizations, only to be refuted and challenged, if not rejected outright, by other well-meaning individuals and organizations. In one instance, Kenneth Stern, one of the principal drafters of one such definition of antisemitism—the working definition adopted in 2016 by the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, or IHRA—turned around and became one of the leading critics of the very definition he helped bring into the world.

The crux of the controversy over the IHRA definition is that its examples include instances where criticism of Israel can mask antisemitic animus. Two of these examples are "holding Jews collectively responsible for actions of the state of Israel" and "denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination," such as by claiming that the existence of the State of Israel is a racist endeavor. Never mind that this definition affirmatively notes that "criticism of Israel similar to that leveled against any other country cannot be regarded as antisemitic." Never mind further that the IHRA definition is not meant to be legally binding, or that its accompanying illustrative examples are just that: examples. Because it embraces certain types of criticisms of or attacks on Israel as antisemitic per se , as it were, its critics repudiate it as an impermissible attempt to stifle dissent.

Counter-definitions, such as the Jerusalem Declaration on Antisemitism or the Nexus Document , to name the two most prominent ones, are rejected by IHRA definition proponents as, broadly speaking, defining antisemitism so as to defend antisemitic rhetoric or behavior and, in the case of the Nexus Document in particular, focusing on intent as opposed to impact.

One significant consideration weighing in favor of the IHRA definition is the fact that it has by now been adopted by 43 member states of the United Nations as well as a wide range of international NGOs, states, municipalities, and other institutions. This, for better or worse, has made it an international standard.

Still, the fact is that the IHRA definition and its examples were never meant to be, and should not be regarded as, sacrosanct revelation. Robert Williams and Mark Weitzman, both past chairs of IHRA's Committee on Antisemitism and Holocaust Denial, have emphasized that "While the examples are not a rigid taxonomy allowing for the identification of every type of antisemitism, they are an internationally accepted baseline that can allow us to shine a light on places where antisemitism might exist."

We all know that there have been instances—and there are certain to be more in the future—when an example that made perfect sense in 2016 becomes murkier in relation to behavior or rhetoric occurring in 2024 under circumstances that were not contemplated eight years earlier.

For example, one example of antisemitism in the IHRA framework is "Drawing comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis." I understand precisely what the drafters of this example had in mind, namely comparing Israel and Israelis to the Nazi perpetrators of the Holocaust, and I agree that doing so is indeed antisemitic. But then you have extremist far-right ministers of the present Israel government engaging in hateful rhetoric toward the Palestinians, something most probably not anticipated by the drafters of the definition eight years ago. At this time, we can still finesse this particular issue by arguing that such rhetoric does not represent Israel government policy, which it doesn't. But what if it does so at some point in the future? What if today's outliers somehow become part of tomorrow's mainstream?

With respect to Zionism as an ideology, I agree in principle with Kenneth Stern, the aforementioned critic of the IHRA definition, who argues that "on a college campus, where the purpose is to explore ideas, anti-Zionists have a right to free expression."

What such anti-Zionists do not have, however, is the right to engage in hate speech or physical violence against Jews who support and identify with Israel or, it should be obvious, against Jews generally.

It's not holding or voicing anti-Zionist views that's the problem, it's vilifying and demonizing Zionism as an ideology and Zionists both as individuals and as a collective. And when Jewish students are called upon to repudiate Zionism or support for Israel in order not to be ostracized by their peers, the antisemitic trajectory is complete.

Those university and college activists who vilify Jewish students for supporting or identifying with Israel are antisemitic. This does not mean that pro-Palestinian or even anti-Israel demonstrators do not have the right to protest. The issue is the tenor of such protest.

When demonstrators demonize Israel and call for its eradication as a nation state while screaming "Death to Israel" or "Death to the Jews," that is antisemitism on steroids with or without a definition.

My own approach is that I consider the IHRA definition to be an important educational resource and believe that the examples accompanying it should be regarded as persuasive but not exclusive or exhaustive guidelines. These examples should also at all times be subject to rational critical examination as well as to a reasonableness and common sense test in considering whether an action or statement is antisemitic. Accordingly, rather than formally adopting the IHRA definition, a university or college can and probably should follow the lead of the Biden administration's National Strategy to Counter Antisemitism and acknowledge it as the "most prominent" among a number of definitions "which serve as valuable tools to raise awareness and increase understanding of antisemitism."

Far more important, I would think, is for the said universities and colleges to do their utmost to enable highly charged issues to be discussed in an atmosphere of mutual respect and tolerance.

My point is that nuance is important, even with respect to—perhaps especially with respect to—a highly charged issues such as antisemitism. And nuance may elude definitions.

In the context of the ongoing Israel-Hamas war which has brought much of present-day antisemitism to a boiling pitch, we must be able to appreciate that one can mourn the Israeli victims of the terrorist attack on Oct. 7, and be distressed by the subsequent intense suffering of Palestinian civilians in Gaza. One can vehemently condemn Hamas terrorism and just as forcefully support Palestinian rights. One can and should be equally dismayed and appalled by a Jewish college student being vilified and physically threatened in a bar by a fellow student because of her support for Israel and by a Muslim student being spat on for wearing a hijab. On occasion, one must even be able to understand the pain of those on the other side of the barricades.

While a definition of antisemitism can be a useful starting point, it does not provide an antidote to hatred. Simply put, it's not productive only to look backwards and analyze what went wrong, which is essentially what a definition accomplishes. Our task going forward—on university and college campuses as well as in society at large—must be to work together to stem the tides of antisemitism, Islamophobia, racism, homophobia, and other bigotries before they turn into a tsunami beyond our control.

Menachem Z. Rosensaft is adjunct professor of law at Cornell Law School, lecturer-in-law at Columbia Law School, and General Counsel Emeritus of the World Jewish Congress. He is the author of Poems Born in Bergen-Belsen (Kelsay Books, 2021) and of the forthcoming Burning Psalms (Ben Yehuda Press, 2025).

The views expressed in this article are the writer's own.

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People attend the the Anti-Defamation League’s (ADL) annual conference on fighting antisemitism on March 7, in New York City.

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Fleet services newsletter, may 2024, wex card’s expire on 5/31 – time to pick-up your new card .

WEX fuel credit card swaps have been slow so far, we still have a lot of new cards to give out. If you have not yet picked up your new card please make a plan to do so. All you need to do is bring your old card to our office and we will swap it out. The current cards expire at the end of May. Cards can be exchanged Monday through Friday from 7:00 AM to 6:00 PM.

New Decals for University Healthcare Vehicles

As part of the  new branding initiative of UI Healthcare, Fleet Services will be updating the decals of all healthcare vehicles. The process began on May 6 th , is ongoing, and should be complete in the next 6 months. The plan is to swap for the new branded decals at each vehicle’s next service appointment. 

Who is Considered a Pedestrian in Iowa?

Current law in Iowa defines a pedestrian as a person specifically on foot and does not include people in wheelchairs, riding scooters/skateboarding, or cyclists. Lobbyists and advocacy groups like, AARP Iowa, and the University of Iowa Injury Prevention Research Center pushed to make the language of the law more inclusive. Late last week Governor Kim Reynolds signed a new law that changes the meaning of a pedestrian. The new definition adds some language and now includes “ a person using a pedestrian conveyance”   in addition to a pedestrian on   foot. A pedestrian conveyance is any human-powered device a pedestrian may use to move or move another person. It also includes electric motored devices as long as they produce less than 750 watts. The bill goes into effect on July 1st.  Check out the full article from CBS .

Driving in a Tornado – How to Stay Safe

Never try to outrun a tornado. According to AccuWeather, tornados can travel very quickly and do not follow road patterns. If you are driving and a tornado develops it is best to try to find shelter in a sturdy building. When there is no shelter nearby, experts recommend staying in your car, secured using your seat belt, putting your head down below the window, and covering your head with your hands or a blanket if you have one. If you can safely get to a low-lying area such as a ditch or ravine, basically lower than the roadway, then exit the car and lie down in the area and cover your head with your hands or use a protective covering like a blanket or tarp. Also avoid taking shelter under an overpass. The winds are higher in these openings and flying debris can still get to you. Check out the full article on tornado safety . 

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Fleet Services Severe Weather Protocol

When severe weather pops up and the sirens go off, we lock our doors and evacuate to the CAMBUS Maintenance Facility until we get the all-clear. If you have a reservation scheduled to pick up during a severe weather event, please call our office ahead of time. Our phones will be forwarded to a manager’s cell phone, and they will give you instructions to get your vehicle. We will also leave a sign on our door, so you know where we are.

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According to Consumer Affairs, Louisiana is the state with the most incidents of road rage. To come up with their ranking, CA analyzed data on aggressive driving, rates of speeding/careless driving, tickets, accidents, fatalities, and traffic incidents involving gun violence, and assigned each state a “Road Rage” score. Iowa was ranked 39 th and New Hampshire was 50 th , having the nicest drivers. Check out the full article from Consumer Affairs . 

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How to Define ‘Antisemitism’ Is a Subject of Bitter Debate.

Activists, university officials and political leaders are deeply divided over what, precisely, constitutes antisemitism.

not annotated definition

By Vimal Patel

  • May 8, 2024

Many donors, politicians and Jewish students have pressured their colleges to confront antisemitism more forcefully. But one challenge can make the whole exercise feel like quicksilver.

There’s no consensus about what, precisely, constitutes antisemitism.

University administrators and federal bureaucrats alike have considered one contentious definition that has gained traction in recent years, put forward by the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance.

The definition itself is vague and uncontroversial, stating that antisemitism is a “certain perception of Jews that may be expressed as hatred” toward them. But the I.H.R.A. also includes with the definition a series of examples that alarm many supporters of free expression. They include holding Israel to a “double standard” and claiming Israel’s existence is a “racist endeavor.”

Supporters of the alliance’s definition say that it helps press colleges to stop tolerating behavior against Jews that would be unacceptable if it were directed at racial minority groups or L.G.B.T.Q. students.

But supporters of the Palestinian cause say those examples conflate antisemitism with anti-Zionism and are intended to protect Israel from criticism.

Debates over how to define antisemitism have been a flashpoint on several of the university task forces that have been created in response to student protests over the Israel-Hamas war.

At Harvard and Stanford, task force members have faced harsh criticism for not supporting the I.H.R.A. definition; a co-leader of the Stanford task force resigned , in part over that conflict.

A similar committee at Columbia University has avoided settling on a definition of antisemitism — a decision that has also led to criticism .

The Trump administration gave supporters of the I.H.R.A. definition a major boost in 2018 by issuing a sweeping executive order that instructed all agencies to consider the I.H.R.A. definition when examining civil rights complaints.

Political support for that definition gained further momentum this month , when the House overwhelmingly passed the Antisemitism Awareness Act, which would mandate that the Education Department consider the I.H.R.A. definition in civil rights cases. The bill would enshrine Mr. Trump’s executive order into federal law.

“Today, university leaders tend to disregard the executive order because it was issued by the prior administration,” said Kenneth Marcus, Mr. Trump’s civil rights chief, in an email, adding, “If this bill is passed, college administrators will need to take antisemitism seriously even when it is disguised as anti-Israel activism.”

The definition has been invoked in debates over whether to cancel controversial speakers, events and panels on the ground that they are antisemitic.

Mr. Trump’s executive order remains in effect, and the Biden administration is considering issuing a regulation based on it.

Vimal Patel writes about higher education with a focus on speech and campus culture. More about Vimal Patel

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What is climate change mitigation and why is it urgent?

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What is climate change mitigation and why is it urgent?

  • Climate change mitigation involves actions to reduce or prevent greenhouse gas emissions from human activities.
  • Mitigation efforts include transitioning to renewable energy sources, enhancing energy efficiency, adopting regenerative agricultural practices and protecting and restoring forests and critical ecosystems.
  • Effective mitigation requires a whole-of-society approach and structural transformations to reduce emissions and limit global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
  • International cooperation, for example through the Paris Agreement, is crucial in guiding and achieving global and national mitigation goals.
  • Mitigation efforts face challenges such as the world's deep-rooted dependency on fossil fuels, the increased demand for new mineral resources and the difficulties in revamping our food systems.
  • These challenges also offer opportunities to improve resilience and contribute to sustainable development.

What is climate change mitigation?

Climate change mitigation refers to any action taken by governments, businesses or people to reduce or prevent greenhouse gases, or to enhance carbon sinks that remove them from the atmosphere. These gases trap heat from the sun in our planet’s atmosphere, keeping it warm. 

Since the industrial era began, human activities have led to the release of dangerous levels of greenhouse gases, causing global warming and climate change. However, despite unequivocal research about the impact of our activities on the planet’s climate and growing awareness of the severe danger climate change poses to our societies, greenhouse gas emissions keep rising. If we can slow down the rise in greenhouse gases, we can slow down the pace of climate change and avoid its worst consequences.

Reducing greenhouse gases can be achieved by:

  • Shifting away from fossil fuels : Fossil fuels are the biggest source of greenhouse gases, so transitioning to modern renewable energy sources like solar, wind and geothermal power, and advancing sustainable modes of transportation, is crucial.
  • Improving energy efficiency : Using less energy overall – in buildings, industries, public and private spaces, energy generation and transmission, and transportation – helps reduce emissions. This can be achieved by using thermal comfort standards, better insulation and energy efficient appliances, and by improving building design, energy transmission systems and vehicles.
  • Changing agricultural practices : Certain farming methods release high amounts of methane and nitrous oxide, which are potent greenhouse gases. Regenerative agricultural practices – including enhancing soil health, reducing livestock-related emissions, direct seeding techniques and using cover crops – support mitigation, improve resilience and decrease the cost burden on farmers.
  • The sustainable management and conservation of forests : Forests act as carbon sinks , absorbing carbon dioxide and reducing the overall concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Measures to reduce deforestation and forest degradation are key for climate mitigation and generate multiple additional benefits such as biodiversity conservation and improved water cycles.
  • Restoring and conserving critical ecosystems : In addition to forests, ecosystems such as wetlands, peatlands, and grasslands, as well as coastal biomes such as mangrove forests, also contribute significantly to carbon sequestration, while supporting biodiversity and enhancing climate resilience.
  • Creating a supportive environment : Investments, policies and regulations that encourage emission reductions, such as incentives, carbon pricing and limits on emissions from key sectors are crucial to driving climate change mitigation.

Photo: Stephane Bellerose/UNDP Mauritius

Photo: Stephane Bellerose/UNDP Mauritius

Photo: La Incre and Lizeth Jurado/PROAmazonia

Photo: La Incre and Lizeth Jurado/PROAmazonia

What is the 1.5°C goal and why do we need to stick to it?

In 2015, 196 Parties to the UN Climate Convention in Paris adopted the Paris Agreement , a landmark international treaty, aimed at curbing global warming and addressing the effects of climate change. Its core ambition is to cap the rise in global average temperatures to well below 2°C above levels observed prior to the industrial era, while pursuing efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C.

The 1.5°C goal is extremely important, especially for vulnerable communities already experiencing severe climate change impacts. Limiting warming below 1.5°C will translate into less extreme weather events and sea level rise, less stress on food production and water access, less biodiversity and ecosystem loss, and a lower chance of irreversible climate consequences.

To limit global warming to the critical threshold of 1.5°C, it is imperative for the world to undertake significant mitigation action. This requires a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 45 percent before 2030 and achieving net-zero emissions by mid-century.

What are the policy instruments that countries can use to drive mitigation?

Everyone has a role to play in climate change mitigation, from individuals adopting sustainable habits and advocating for change to governments implementing regulations, providing incentives and facilitating investments. The private sector, particularly those businesses and companies responsible for causing high emissions, should take a leading role in innovating, funding and driving climate change mitigation solutions. 

International collaboration and technology transfer is also crucial given the global nature and size of the challenge. As the main platform for international cooperation on climate action, the Paris Agreement has set forth a series of responsibilities and policy tools for its signatories. One of the primary instruments for achieving the goals of the treaty is Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) . These are the national climate pledges that each Party is required to develop and update every five years. NDCs articulate how each country will contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and enhance climate resilience.   While NDCs include short- to medium-term targets, long-term low emission development strategies (LT-LEDS) are policy tools under the Paris Agreement through which countries must show how they plan to achieve carbon neutrality by mid-century. These strategies define a long-term vision that gives coherence and direction to shorter-term national climate targets.

Photo: Mucyo Serge/UNDP Rwanda

Photo: Mucyo Serge/UNDP Rwanda

Photo: William Seal/UNDP Sudan

Photo: William Seal/UNDP Sudan

At the same time, the call for climate change mitigation has evolved into a call for reparative action, where high-income countries are urged to rectify past and ongoing contributions to the climate crisis. This approach reflects the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which advocates for climate justice, recognizing the unequal historical responsibility for the climate crisis, emphasizing that wealthier countries, having profited from high-emission activities, bear a greater obligation to lead in mitigating these impacts. This includes not only reducing their own emissions, but also supporting vulnerable countries in their transition to low-emission development pathways.

Another critical aspect is ensuring a just transition for workers and communities that depend on the fossil fuel industry and its many connected industries. This process must prioritize social equity and create alternative employment opportunities as part of the shift towards renewable energy and more sustainable practices.

For emerging economies, innovation and advancements in technology have now demonstrated that robust economic growth can be achieved with clean, sustainable energy sources. By integrating renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind and geothermal power into their growth strategies, these economies can reduce their emissions, enhance energy security and create new economic opportunities and jobs. This shift not only contributes to global mitigation efforts but also sets a precedent for sustainable development.

What are some of the challenges slowing down climate change mitigation efforts?

Mitigating climate change is fraught with complexities, including the global economy's deep-rooted dependency on fossil fuels and the accompanying challenge of eliminating fossil fuel subsidies. This reliance – and the vested interests that have a stake in maintaining it – presents a significant barrier to transitioning to sustainable energy sources.

The shift towards decarbonization and renewable energy is driving increased demand for critical minerals such as copper, lithium, nickel, cobalt, and rare earth metals. Since new mining projects can take up to 15 years to yield output, mineral supply chains could become a bottleneck for decarbonization efforts. In addition, these minerals are predominantly found in a few, mostly low-income countries, which could heighten supply chain vulnerabilities and geopolitical tensions.

Furthermore, due to the significant demand for these minerals and the urgency of the energy transition, the scaled-up investment in the sector has the potential to exacerbate environmental degradation, economic and governance risks, and social inequalities, affecting the rights of Indigenous Peoples, local communities, and workers. Addressing these concerns necessitates implementing social and environmental safeguards, embracing circular economy principles, and establishing and enforcing responsible policies and regulations .

Agriculture is currently the largest driver of deforestation worldwide. A transformation in our food systems to reverse the impact that agriculture has on forests and biodiversity is undoubtedly a complex challenge. But it is also an important opportunity. The latest IPCC report highlights that adaptation and mitigation options related to land, water and food offer the greatest potential in responding to the climate crisis. Shifting to regenerative agricultural practices will not only ensure a healthy, fair and stable food supply for the world’s population, but also help to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  

Photo: UNDP India

Photo: UNDP India

Photo: Nino Zedginidze/UNDP Georgia

Photo: Nino Zedginidze/UNDP Georgia

What are some examples of climate change mitigation?

In Mauritius , UNDP, with funding from the Green Climate Fund, has supported the government to install battery energy storage capacity that has enabled 50 MW of intermittent renewable energy to be connected to the grid, helping to avoid 81,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide annually. 

In Indonesia , UNDP has been working with the government for over a decade to support sustainable palm oil production. In 2019, the country adopted a National Action Plan on Sustainable Palm Oil, which was collaboratively developed by government, industry and civil society representatives. The plan increased the adoption of practices to minimize the adverse social and environmental effects of palm oil production and to protect forests. Since 2015, 37 million tonnes of direct greenhouse gas emissions have been avoided and 824,000 hectares of land with high conservation value have been protected.

In Moldova and Paraguay , UNDP has helped set up Green City Labs that are helping build more sustainable cities. This is achieved by implementing urban land use and mobility planning, prioritizing energy efficiency in residential buildings, introducing low-carbon public transport, implementing resource-efficient waste management, and switching to renewable energy sources. 

UNDP has supported the governments of Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Indonesia to implement results-based payments through the REDD+ (Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries) framework. These include payments for environmental services and community forest management programmes that channel international climate finance resources to local actors on the ground, specifically forest communities and Indigenous Peoples. 

UNDP is also supporting small island developing states like the Comoros to invest in renewable energy and sustainable infrastructure. Through the Africa Minigrids Program , solar minigrids will be installed in two priority communities, Grand Comore and Moheli, providing energy access through distributed renewable energy solutions to those hardest to reach.

And in South Africa , a UNDP initative to boost energy efficiency awareness among the general population and improve labelling standards has taken over commercial shopping malls.

What is climate change mitigation and why is it urgent?

What is UNDP’s role in supporting climate change mitigation?

UNDP aims to assist countries with their climate change mitigation efforts, guiding them towards sustainable, low-carbon and climate-resilient development. This support is in line with achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly those related to affordable and clean energy (SDG7), sustainable cities and communities (SDG11), and climate action (SDG13). Specifically, UNDP’s offer of support includes developing and improving legislation and policy, standards and regulations, capacity building, knowledge dissemination, and financial mobilization for countries to pilot and scale-up mitigation solutions such as renewable energy projects, energy efficiency initiatives and sustainable land-use practices. 

With financial support from the Global Environment Facility and the Green Climate Fund, UNDP has an active portfolio of 94 climate change mitigation projects in 69 countries. These initiatives are not only aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but also at contributing to sustainable and resilient development pathways.

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Meaning of annotated in English

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  • The book's annotated bibliography fills 45 pages .
  • You are allowed to bring annotated copies of the novel you have been studying into the exam .
  • Any attached documentation should be annotated with explanatory notes for clarification .
  • Students arrive at the lecture equipped with printed notes : all they have to do is to annotate these printouts .
  • He annotates and indexes a page in his notebook .
  • Typically I use this program to annotate a document with my own structured content .
  • Annotated data has facilitated recent advances in part of speech tagging , parsing , and other language processing issues .
  • dog whistle

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A gay couple is suing NYC for IVF benefits. It could expand coverage for workers nationwide

not annotated definition

A gay couple is suing New York City for denying them in vitro fertilization benefits, claiming the city’s current health care plan discriminates against gay male employees. 

The class action lawsuit was filed Thursday by former New York City assistant district attorney Corey Briskin and his husband, Nicholas Maggipinto. The couple claim the city’s health care plan has “categorically excluded” gay male employees and their partners from receiving IVF benefits, despite offering those same benefits to employees in different-sex relationships, single women and women in same-sex relationships.

This is the first class action lawsuit to argue that employers must provide gay male employees IVF benefits if those same benefits are offered to other employees, according to a press release from the law firm working with the plaintiffs.  

If successful, the law firm representing Briskin and Maggipinto says the case could extend fertility benefits to gay male couples across the country. 

"We're looking to change the entire legal landscape so that gay men are not going to ever be excluded from IVF," Peter Romer-Friedman, the founder of civil rights and class action law firm Peter Romer-Friedman Law PLLC, told USA TODAY.

'Still a lot of hurdles': For LGBTQ+ couples, the path to in vitro fertilization is harder

Plaintiffs say NYC's 'infertility' definition excludes gay male couples

The lawsuit claims that New York City’s health care plan violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act by denying them IVF coverage offered to other employees. 

The issue lies in the city’s definition of “infertile” as the inability to conceive a child through male-female sexual intercourse or through a procedure called intrauterine insemination, or IUI, in which prepared sperm is placed directly in a uterus. 

Under this definition, same-sex couples can be deemed infertile after 12 months of unsuccessful attempts to conceive. Same-sex and single female partners can be deemed infertile if they are unable to get pregnant with IUI. But the lawsuit argues that this leaves no way for men to qualify as infertile, making it “much harder” for gay men to have biological children. 

Plaintiffs estimate that the city's “outdated” definition has deprived of IVF and family-building benefits to “hundreds and possible thousands” of city employees. Without such benefits – which cover 75% of IVF costs, according to the lawsuit – gay couples are left paying more out-of-pocket for the costly procedure.

A single round of IVF ‒ a medical procedure where eggs and sperm are combined in a lab dish and then transferred into a uterus ‒ can cost tens of thousands of dollars. That, combined with surrogacy costs, means gay men can expect to pay more than $177,950 to conceive a biological child, according to estimates from the advocacy group Men Having Babies. 

Instead, the lawsuit points to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine's recently updated definition of infertility, which includes those who cannot achieve a successful pregnancy due to "medical, sexual, and reproductive history, age, physical findings, diagnostic testing, or any combination of those factors."

"(Health care) plans that cover infertility need to stay up-to-date on current medical practices," said Betsy Campbell, chief engagement officer at Resolve, an infertility advocacy organization. "Our hope is that all plans and laws will reflect this updated definition of infertility that is inclusive of all people who are struggling to build their families."

Briskin and Maggipinto's fight for IVF benefits

The lawsuit says Briskin and Maggipinto have been wanting to grow their family through IVF since 2017.

Briskin asked former Mayor Bill de Blasio’s administration in 2021 to provide him and other gay male employees equal IVF benefits but was denied, according to the lawsuit. The couple filed a discrimination charge against New York City with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission the following year.

The city has argued that Briskin and Maggipinto were ineligible for IVF benefits because its health care plan does not provide benefits to surrogates, according to the lawsuit. The couple, in turn, argued that they were not seeking reimbursement for any surrogacy charges and “simply wanted coverage for the same IVF services” provided to other employees. 

The couple was granted a “right to sue” letter from the Department of Justice in March. 

Is IVF tax deductible? IVF may be tax deductible, but LGBTQ+ couples less likely to get write-offs

The lawsuit names Mayor Eric Adams and former mayor Bill de Blasio as defendants. A city hall spokesperson told USA TODAY the city would review the details of the complaint.

“The Adams administration proudly supports the rights of LGBTQ+ New Yorkers to access the health care they need," reads the statement. "The city has been a leader in offering IVF treatments for any city employee or dependent covered by the city’s health plan who has shown proof of infertility, regardless of gender identity or sexual orientation."

Briskin left his role as assistant district attorney in 2022 but remains covered by the city’s healthcare plan through COBRA. Last year, Briskin and Maggipinto went forward with fertility treatment without IVF coverage provided by the city, which they claim would have awarded them tens of thousands of dollars in benefits. 

The lawsuit says the couple had donor eggs fertilized with their sperm late last year and hopes to transfer the embryos to a surrogate later this year.

Definition of 'annotated'

Annotated in american english.

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  1. Unannotated Definition & Meaning

    unannotated: [adjective] not marked with critical or explanatory notes or comments : not annotated.

  2. Annotated Definition & Meaning

    annotated: [adjective] provided with explanatory notes or comments.


    UNANNOTATED definition: 1. An unannotated document does not have any explanations or notes added to the text: 2. An…. Learn more.

  4. Unannotated vs Annotated: Decoding Common Word Mix-Ups

    Define Annotated. Annotated refers to a text or document that has additional comments, notes, or explanations added to it. These annotations provide context and analysis to the original content, helping readers to better understand and interpret it. Annotated texts are often used in academic settings as a way to provide additional insights and ...


    ANNOTATED definition: 1. past simple and past participle of annotate 2. to add a short explanation or opinion to a text…. Learn more.

  6. ANNOTATE Definition & Meaning

    Annotate definition: to supply with critical or explanatory notes; comment upon in notes. See examples of ANNOTATE used in a sentence.

  7. ANNOTATED Definition & Meaning

    Annotated definition: supplied with or containing explanatory notes, textual comments, etc.. See examples of ANNOTATED used in a sentence.

  8. UNANNOTATED definition and meaning

    Not annotated; lacking notes or bibliographic references.... Click for English pronunciations, examples sentences, video.

  9. annotate verb

    Definition of annotate verb in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. ... The drawings were all clearly annotated. The text was annotated with her own comments. Oxford Collocations Dictionary Annotate is used with these nouns as the object: text;

  10. annotate verb

    Definition of annotate verb in Oxford Advanced American Dictionary. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more.

  11. UNANNOTATED definition in American English

    Not annotated; lacking notes or bibliographic references.... Click for pronunciations, examples sentences, video.

  12. Annotate

    annotate: 1 v add explanatory notes to or supply with critical comments "The scholar annotated the early edition of a famous novel" Synonyms: footnote Type of: compose , indite , pen , write produce a literary work v provide interlinear explanations for words or phrases "He annotated on what his teacher had written" Synonyms: comment , gloss ...

  13. annotation noun

    Definition of annotation noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more.


    UNANNOTATED meaning: 1. An unannotated document does not have any explanations or notes added to the text: 2. An…. Learn more.

  15. What Is an Annotated Bibliography?

    An annotated bibliography is a list of source references that includes a short descriptive text (an annotation) for each source. It may be assigned as part of the research process for a paper, or as an individual assignment to gather and read relevant sources on a topic. Scribbr's free Citation Generator allows you to easily create and manage ...


    ANNOTATE meaning: 1. to add a short explanation or opinion to a text or image: 2. to add a description or piece of…. Learn more.

  17. ANNOTATED definition and meaning

    Supplied with critical or explanatory notes.... Click for English pronunciations, examples sentences, video.

  18. Annotated Definition & Meaning

    Annotated definition: Simple past tense and past participle of annotate. .

  19. Annotate Definition & Meaning

    annotate: [verb] to make or furnish critical or explanatory notes or comment.

  20. Annotation Definition & Meaning

    annotation: [noun] a note added by way of comment or explanation.

  21. Jerry Seinfeld Can No Longer Be About Nothing

    Prompted in an interview last month with The New Yorker's editor, David Remnick ("There was an element of, 'We can't be too Jewy,'" Mr. Remnick suggested), Mr. Seinfeld did not linger ...

  22. A Definition of Antisemitism, While Helpful, Is Not a Cure

    Antisemitism is one such term. Over the years, various definitions of what does and what does not constitute hatred of or antagonism toward Jews have been put forward by well-meaning individuals ...

  23. Fleet Services Newsletter, May 2024

    The new definition adds some language and now includes "a person using a pedestrian conveyance" in addition to a pedestrian on foot. A pedestrian conveyance is any human-powered device a pedestrian may use to move or move another person. It also includes electric motored devices as long as they produce less than 750 watts.


    ANNOTATE definition: 1. to add a short explanation or opinion to a text or image: 2. to add a description or piece of…. Learn more.

  25. Senators Need to Stop the Antisemitism Awareness Act

    Of course, the Antisemitism Awareness Act isn't intended to target conservative Christians. It's meant, rather, to quash anti-Israel activism. "There are not two legitimate sides to this ...

  26. Definition of Antisemitism Is the Subject of Bitter Debate

    The definition itself is vague and uncontroversial, stating that antisemitism is a "certain perception of Jews that may be expressed as hatred" toward them. But the I.H.R.A. also includes with ...

  27. What is climate change mitigation and why is it urgent?

    Climate change mitigation refers to any action taken by governments, businesses or people to reduce or prevent greenhouse gases, or to enhance carbon sinks that remove them from the atmosphere. These gases trap heat from the sun in our planet's atmosphere, keeping it warm. Since the industrial era began, human activities have led to the ...


    ANNOTATED meaning: 1. past simple and past participle of annotate 2. to add a short explanation or opinion to a text…. Learn more.

  29. NYC sued for denying IVF coverage to gay male employees

    0:03. 1:35. A gay couple is suing New York City for denying them in vitro fertilization benefits, claiming the city's current health care plan discriminates against gay male employees. The class ...

  30. ANNOTATED definition in American English

    Definition of annotated from the Collins English Dictionary. Read about the team of authors behind Collins Dictionaries. New from Collins Quick word challenge. Quiz Review. Question: 1 - Score: 0 / 5. MAMMALS. Drag the correct answer into the box. hedgehog. chimpanzee. elephant.