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Free MLA Citation Generator

Generate accurate citations in MLA format automatically, with MyBib!

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😕 What is an MLA Citation Generator?

An MLA citation generator is a software tool designed to automatically create academic citations in the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format. The generator will take information such as document titles, author, and URLs as in input, and output fully formatted citations that can be inserted into the Works Cited page of an MLA-compliant academic paper.

The citations on a Works Cited page show the external sources that were used to write the main body of the academic paper, either directly as references and quotes, or indirectly as ideas.

👩‍🎓 Who uses an MLA Citation Generator?

MLA style is most often used by middle school and high school students in preparation for transition to college and further education. Ironically, MLA style is not actually used all that often beyond middle and high school, with APA (American Psychological Association) style being the favored style at colleges across the country.

It is also important at this level to learn why it's critical to cite sources, not just how to cite them.

🙌 Why should I use a Citation Generator?

Writing citations manually is time consuming and error prone. Automating this process with a citation generator is easy, straightforward, and gives accurate results. It's also easier to keep citations organized and in the correct order.

The Works Cited page contributes to the overall grade of a paper, so it is important to produce accurately formatted citations that follow the guidelines in the official MLA Handbook .

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's MLA Citation Generator?

It's super easy to create MLA style citations with our MLA Citation Generator. Scroll back up to the generator at the top of the page and select the type of source you're citing. Books, journal articles, and webpages are all examples of the types of sources our generator can cite automatically. Then either search for the source, or enter the details manually in the citation form.

The generator will produce a formatted MLA citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall Works Cited page (which can be downloaded fully later!).

MyBib supports the following for MLA style:

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BibGuru MLA Citation Generator

Cite websites, books, articles, ...

BibGuru MLA Citation Generator citation generator

Your Works Cited page in MLA

  • A closer look at MLA's core elements

In-text citations in MLA

Formatting your paper in mla, helpful resources on mla style, the ultimate guide to citing in mla.

The MLA citation style was developed by the Modern Language Association of America, an association of scholars and teachers of language and literature.

The MLA publishes several academic journals, and the MLA Handbook , a citation guide for high school and undergrad students. The MLA Handbook provides guidelines for writing and documenting research, as well as tips for the use of the English language in your writing.

MLA is a very popular citation style. However, if you are unsure which citation style to use in your paper, ask your instructor. There are many different citation styles and using the style your instructor or institution has established correctly can have a positive impact on your grade.

This guide is based on the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook and aims at helping you cite correctly in MLA. The MLA Handbook provides guidelines for a large variety of sources and uses a two-part documentation system for citing sources:

  • in-text parenthetical citations (author, page)
  • a reference list at the end of paper with all literature used in text.

Each source that was cited in the text or notes of your paper should appear in a list at the end of the paper. MLA calls the reference list a "Works Cited" page.

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I want to cite a ...

Your Works Cited list identifies the sources you cite in the body of your research project. Works that you consult during your research, but don't use and cite in your paper, are not included. Your Works Cited list is ordered alphabetically by the part of the author's name that comes first in each entry.

Entries in the list of works cited are made up of core elements given in a specific order, and there are optional elements that may be included. The core elements in your works cited list are the following, given in the order in which they should appear, followed by the correct punctuation mark. The final element in an MLA reference should end with a period:

  • Title of source.
  • Title of container,
  • Contributor,
  • Publication date,

To use this template of core elements, first evaluate what you are citing to see which elements apply to the source. Then list each element relevant to your source in the order given on the template. For a work containing another work (e.g. an article published in a journal and contained in a database), you can repeat the process by filling out the template again from Title of container to Location , listing all elements that apply to the container.

Step-by-step guide to create a Works Cited entry

Let's try this with a journal article. If you wanted to cite the article , “What Should We Do with a Doctor Here?”: Medical Authority in Austen’s Sanditon ," from the journal, Nineteenth-Century Contexts , the process would look like this:

  • First, you would determine the author. In this case, that's Amy Mallory-Kani. so the first part of your reference would be: Mallory-Kani, Amy.
  • Next, you'd want to include the title of the source in quotation marks, followed by a period: “What Should We Do with a Doctor Here?”: Medical Authority in Austen’s Sanditon."
  • After the title of the source, you need to list the container. In this case, it's the journal's name, Nineteenth-Century Contexts , italicized and followed by a comma.
  • For journal articles, the title of the container needs to be followed by version, or the volume number of the journal, separated by a comma from the issue number: vol. 39, no. 4,
  • Since there is not typically a publisher listed for journal articles, the next step is to include the date, followed by a comma: 2017,
  • Finally, you'll end your reference by adding the page numbers for the article, followed by an ending period: pp. 313-26.

If we put this all together, the full reference will look like this:

EXAMPLE Journal article

Mallory-Kani, Amy. “'What Should We Do with a Doctor Here?': Medical Authority in Austen’s Sanditon ”. Nineteenth-Century Contexts , vol. 39, no. 4, 2017, pp. 313-26.

MLA has a specific rule about how to structure page numbers in a works cited entry. Use pp. and then list the number. If the page range is within ten or one hundred digits, you don't need to repeat the first digit. For example, you would write pp. 51-8 or pp. 313-26.

The following section takes a deeper look at the core elements of an MLA works cited entry to help you get your citation right.

MLA explainer image

A closer look at MLA's core elements

When formatting the author element, make sure to follow these guidelines:

  • When a work is published without an author's name, do not list it as Anonymous . Skip the author element instead and begin with the Title of source .
  • Begin the entry with the last name of the author, so it can be alphabetized under this name. Follow the last name with a comma and the rest of the name as presented by the work.
  • When a source has two authors, include them in the order in which they are presented in the work. Reverse the first of the names as described above.
  • When a source has three or more authors, reverse the first of the names as described above and follow it with a comma and the abbreviation, et al.

EXAMPLE Source with two authors

Gabrielle, Matthew, and David M. Perry. The Bright Ages: A New History of Medieval Europe . Harper, 2021.

In the Title of Source element, you list the title of the work you are citing:

EXAMPLE Title of Source element

Cox, Taylor.  Creating the Multicultural Organization: A Strategy for Capturing the Power of Diversity . Jossey-Bass, 2001.

In general, titles in your Works Cited list are given in full exactly as they are found in the source, except that capitalization, punctuation between the main title and a subtitle, and the styling of titles that normally appear in italic typeface are standardized. The Title of Source element is followed by a period unless the title ends in a question mark or exclamation point.

A container in the context of the MLA template is a work that contains another work. An example of a container can be:

  • A periodical, such as a journal, magazine or newspaper is the container of an article published there.
  • A website or database can be the container of a post, a review, a song, a film, or other media.
  • An art exhibit is the container of an artwork featured in it.

In the example below, the Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability is the container of the article “Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students”: 

EXAMPLE Title of Container

Sarchet, Thomastine, et al. “Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students.”  Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability , vol. 27, no. 2, Summer 2014, pp. 161–178.

Importantly, a website or a database is not always automatically the container of a work that can be found there. If you click on a Facebook link that takes you to a New York Times article, Facebook is not the container of the article, but the New York Times website is. Be careful to make the distinction here.

The title of Container is normally italicized and followed by a comma.

People, groups, and organizations can be contributors to a work without being its primary creator. There can be a primary author, but a work can also be created by a group of people. Key contributors should always be listed in your entry. Other contributors can be listed on a case-by-case basis. Whenever you list a contributor, include a label describing the role. These kinds of contributors should always be listed in your entry:

  • translators
  • editors responsible for scholarly editions and anthologies
  • editors responsible for edited collections of works by various primary authors from which you cite an individual contribution

EXAMPLE Translator of a work with a primary author

Chartier, Roger. The Order of Books: Readers, Authors, and Libraries in Europe between the Fourteenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Translated by Lydia G. Cochrane, Stanford UP, 1994.

It may be necessary to include other types of contributors if they shaped the overall presentation of the work. Use labels (in lowercase) to describe the contributor's role, such as:

  • translated by

EXAMPLE Creator of a television show

"Strike Up the Band." The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel , created by Amy Sherman-Palladino, season 3, episode 1, Amazon Studios, 2019.

When a source has three or more contributors in the same role, list the first contributor, followed by et al.

EXAMPLE Three or more contributors

Balibar, Étienne. Politics and the Other Scene . Translated by Christine Jones et al., Verso, 2002.

If a source is a version of a work released in more than one form, you need to identify the version in your entry. For example, books are commonly issued in versions called editions .

When citing versions in your Works Cited list, write original numbers with arabic numerals and no superscript. Abbreviate revised (rev.) and edition (ed.) .

EXAMPLE Edition of a work

Black, Joseph, et al., editors. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Victorian Era . 3rd ed., Broadview, 2021.

The source you are documenting may be part of a sequence, like a volume, issue, or episode. Include that number in your entry:

EXAMPLE Work with a number

Warren, R., et al. “The Projected Effect on Insects, Vertebrates, and Plants of Limiting Global Warming to 1.5°C Rather than 2°C.”  Science (New York, N.Y.) , vol. 360, no. 6390, 2018, pp. 791–795, doi:10.1126/science.aar3646.

Always use arabic numerals in the Number element. If necessary, convert roman numerals or spelled out numerals to arabic numerals.

The publisher is the entity primarily responsible for making the work available to the public. The publisher element may include the following:

  • book publisher
  • studio, network, company, or distributor that produced or broadcast a television show
  • institution responsible for creating website content
  • agency that produced government publication

A publisher's name may be omitted when there is none, or when it doesn't need to be given, for example in:

  • some periodicals (when publication is ongoing)
  • works published by their authors or editors (self-published)
  • websites not involved in producing the content they make available (e.g. Youtube)

This element tells your reader when the version of the book you are citing was published. In the example below, the book was published in 2018:

EXAMPLE Publication date

Lavelle, Christophe, editor.  Molecular Motors: Methods and Protocols. 2nd ed., Humana Press, 2018, doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-8556-2.

If roman numerals are used, convert them to arabic numerals. Use the day-month-year style to minimize commas in your entry and use the most specific date you can find in your source. Include day, month, and year if your source does:

EXAMPLE Specific Publication date

Merrill, Stephen. "Teaching through a Pandemic: A Mindset for This Moment." Edutopia , 19 Mar. 2020, www.edutopia.org/article/teaching-through-pandemic-mindset-moment.

When time is given and helps define and locate the work, include it.

For paginated print or similar formats (e.g. PDFs), the location is the page range. In other cases, additional information may need to be included with the page numbers so that the work can be found. In this overview, you can see examples for locations:

As mentioned above, Works Cited list entries in MLA style are based on the template of core elements. In some cases, you may need or want to give additional information relevant to the work you are documenting. You can do so by adding supplements to the template. There are two sections where you can add supplements, either:

  • after the Title of Source, or
  • at the end of the entry.

A period should be placed after a supplemental element. Three pieces of information are the most likely to be placed after the Title of Source:

  • A contributor other than the author
  • The original publication date (for a work contained in another work)
  • Generically labeled sections (if any part or section of the work has a unique title as well as generic label)

For example, inserting the contributors' roles and names after the Title of Source element tells the reader that Leila El Khalidi and Christopher Tingley translated only The Singing of the Stars , not all the other works in Short Arabic Plays :

EXAMPLE Supplemental elements

Fagih, Ahmed Ibrahim al-. The Singing of the Stars . Translated by Leila El Khalidi and Christopher Tingley. Short Arabic Plays: An Anthology , edited by Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Interlink Books, 2003, pp. 140-57.

If you need to clarify something about the entry as a whole, you can do it at the end of the entry , like:

  • Date of access
  • Medium of publication (when more than one version of a source is accessible on the same landing page and you are citing a version that is not the default version)
  • Dissertations and theses
  • Publication history
  • Book series
  • Columns, sections, and other recurring titled features
  • Multivolume works
  • Government documents

EXAMPLE Government documents

United States, Congress, House. Improving Broadband Access for Veterans Act of 2016. Congress.gov , www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-bill/6394/text. 114th Congress, 2nd session, House Resolution 6394, passed 6 Dec. 2016.

How to use Bibguru for MLA citations

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In-text citations aim at directing the reader to the entry in your Works Cited list for the source. while creating the least possible interruption in the text. An in-text citation usually contains the author's name (or other first element in the entry in the works cited list) and a page number. The page number usually goes in a parenthesis, placed where there is a natural pause in the text.

A parenthetical citation that directly follows a quotation is placed after the closing quotation mark. No punctuation is used between the author's name (or the title) and a page number:

EXAMPLE Parenthetical citation

“It's silly not to hope. It's a sin he thought.” (Hemingway 96)

The author's name can appear in the text itself or before the page number in the parenthesis:

Cox names five strategies to implement Diversity Management in companies (50).

Here are some additional examples of in-text citations and their corresponding Works Cited entries:

EXAMPLE Citation in prose using author's name

Smith argues that Jane Eyre is a "feminist Künstlerroman " that narrativizes a woman's struggle to write herself into being (86).
Jane Eyre is a "feminist Künstlerroman " that narrativizes a woman's struggle to write herself into being (Smith 86).

EXAMPLE Works cited

Smith, Jane. Feminist Self-Definition in the Nineteenth-Century Novel . Cambridge UP, 2001.

How to correctly style your in-text citations

  • If you are citing an author in your paper, give the full name at first mention and the last name alone thereafter.
  • If you are citing a work with two authors, include both first and last names the first time you mention them in your paper. Then, in a following parenthetical citation, connect the two last names with and .
  • If the source has three or more authors, you may list all the names or provide the name of the first collaborator followed by "and others" or "and colleagues". In a parenthetical citation, list the last name of the first author and et al .

Ditch the frustrations for stress-free citations

The MLA Handbook also provides guidelines on how to present your paper in a clear and consistent way. These are the general guidelines to format your paper correctly , according to MLA. For more details, refer to the MLA Handbook :

  • Use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Font size should be 12 pt.
  • Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides.
  • Double-space the entire text of your paper.
  • Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks.
  • Indent every new paragraph one half-inch from the left margin. You can use your tab bar for this.
  • Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one half-inch from the top and flush with the right margin.
  • Use italics for the titles of longer works.
  • Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically required.
  • On the first page, make sure that the text is left-aligned. Then, list your name, the name of your teacher or professor, the course name and the date in separate lines.
  • Center align your heading. Do not italicize, bold, or underline your title. Also, do not use a period after the title.

The MLA Handbook gives guidance for a multitude of different sources, like websites, television series, songs, articles, comic books, etc., and considers various types of contributors to these sources. BibGuru's MLA citation generator helps you create the fastest and most accurate MLA citations possible. If you want to learn more about MLA citations, check out our detailed MLA citation guides .

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Resources based on the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook

  • Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
  • California State University, Northridge Library MLA Style Guide
  • Columbia College Library MLA Style Guide
  • McMaster University Library MLA Style Guide
  • Spartanburg Community College Library MLA Style Guide
  • Madison College Libraries MLA Style Guide
  • California State University, Dominguez Hills Library MLA Style Guide
  • University of Wisconsin-Parkside Library MLA Style Guide

The following resources are based on the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook , but still offer relevant insights on MLA style

  • University of Washington Libraries MLA Style Guide
  • University of North Texas Libraries MLA Style Guide
  • Valencia College Library MLA Style Guide
  • College of Southern Nevada Libraries MLA Style Guide
  • University of Nevada, Reno Libraries MLA Style Guide
  • Montana State University Library MLA Style Guide
  • University of Michigan Library MLA Style Guide
  • University of Vermont Libraries MLA Style Guide
  • University of Illinois Library MLA Style Guide
  • Hillsborough Community College Libraries MLA Style Guide
  • Southern Connecticut State University Library MLA Style Guide
  • Arizona State University Library MLA Style Guide

An in-text citation usually contains the author's name (or other first element in the entry in the works cited list) and a page number. The page number usually goes in a parenthesis, placed where there is a natural pause in the text.

In MLA style, audio-visual material uses the specific time of the audio/video for in-text citations. You need to cite the author's last name and the time or a short version of the title and the time within parentheses, e.g.:

The following scene exemplifies the performer's physical abilities (Thurman 00:15:43-00:20:07).

Anyone can use MLA style given its versatility. However, this format is often used by writers and students working in the arts and humanities, such as linguistics, literature, and history.

Yes, the BibGuru MLA citation generator is completely free and ready to use by students and writers adopting MLA guidelines.

The most recent version of the MLA guidelines is the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook, released in 2021. It is still very new so you should check with your instructor or institution to make sure you're using the right version.

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MLA Format Guide for MLA (9th Edition)

MLA citations have two main parts that work together to identify the sources you’ve used for a paper and each of the specific places in your paper where you directly quote or paraphrase from a source:

  • A Works Cited list
  • Located at the end of your paper
  • Contains a list of full references for every source you cited in your paper
  • Alphabetized by author’s last name
  • In-text citations
  • Appear in the text of your paper, after any place where you directly quote or paraphrase from a source
  • Consist of just the author name and relevant page number of the quote source
  • Are written inside

How to Write an MLA Works Cited

The Works Cited list (sometimes also called a reference list or bibliography) contains the full references for every source you used in writing your paper. The references are alphabetized in the list by author’s last name.

Every entry in an MLA Works Cited—whether for a book, website, journal, etc.—is built from up to nine components:

  • Author. “Title of the Source.” Title of the Container , Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location.

If a particular reference you are using doesn’t have any information for one of these components, then you just leave out that component.

Here's a bit more information about each of the components that will let you handle any type of MLA works cited entry.

Author in MLA Format

How you handle the author depends on how many authors the work has, or if the author is an organization rather than a single person.

  • 1 author : Invert the author’s name (Last Name, First Name)
  • Andrews, Julianne
  • 2 authors : Include both authors in the order in which they appear on the work, inverting the first author’s name, followed by an “and” and then the second author’s name written normally.
  • Andrews, Julianne and Arthur Smith
  • 3+ authors : Include the first author listed on the work, inverted, followed by the phrase “et al”
  • Andrews, Julianne, et al
  • Organization : If the work was written by an Organization rather than by a person or group of people, then just write out the name of the organization.
  • No author : If a work has no listed author at all, then you can leave out the Author component entirely and start with the Title of the Source. (Note: when alphabetizing the entry by the first letter of the Title of the Source, ignore articles that start the title such as “The,” “A,” etc.)

Title of the Source in MLA Format

Use the entire title of your source, including subtitles. Subtitles should be separated from the main title by a colon.

The formatting for the source depends on whether it’s self contained or part of a larger whole (such as an entire book, website, or movie), or is part of a larger work (such as a story in an anthology, an article in a magazine, etc.):

  • If the source is a self contained unit : The title should be italicized.
  • Andrews, Julianne. The Friendly Giraffe . Knopf, 2011.
  • If the source is part of a larger work : The title should be placed within quotation marks.
  • Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Essays on Sports , Harcourt, 2017, pp. 17-31.

Regardless of whether it’s inside quotes or italicized, the title of the source should be written in title case, which means you capitalize every word other than articles, conjunctions, and prepositions.

Title of the Container in MLA Format

The “container” refers to a larger work that contains the source, such as a magazine that contains an article. If a source isn’t a part of a longer work (such as an entire book), then leave out the Title of Container component.

The Title of the Container should always be italicized:

Common examples of containers are:

  • A book containing short stories or essays
  • A magazine or newspaper containing articles
  • An encyclopedia containing entries
  • A website containing articles or other entries
  • A TV series containing episodes

Other Contributors

If there are people who contributed to a work besides the author(s), include those names in the “Other Contributors” component.

Other contributors should be formatted by identifying what the person did and then the person’s name written out normally. For example:

  • Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing of 2018 , edited by Carlos Mendes, Harcourt, 2017, pp. 17-31.

Common types of work that are result in people being included as contributors are:

  • Translated by
  • Illustrated by
  • Directed by

If there are different versions or editions of your source, specify which version your specific source belongs to:

  • Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing of 2018 , edited by Carlos Mendes, 3rd ed, Harcourt, 2017, pp. 17-31.

Common reasons for the inclusion of a version number for an entry are:

  • A 2nd (or 3rd or 4th, etc.) edition of a source
  • A director’s cut of a movie
  • An anniversary or expanded edition

Many types of sources are numbered in some way, and in such cases the MLA entry should capture that numbering:

  • Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing of 2018 , edited by Carlos Mendes, 3rd ed, vol. 3, Harcourt, 2017, pp. 17-31.

Numbering most often occurs for sources that have containers. Common examples include:

  • Journals are often divided into volumes (“vol. 3”)
  • Magazines and some periodicals may be numbered (“no. 16”)
  • Television shows often have season and episode numbers (“Season 4, Episode 2”)

If a source has multiple numbers, separate the numbers with commas (“vol 3, no. 16”).

Not all sources will have a publisher—this component usually only applies to books and to movies. For movies, the production company is treated as the “publisher.”

Publication date

You should include as specific a publication date as possible, which can range from just the year all the way down to the minute. Ranges are acceptable.

  • Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing of 2018, edited by Carlos Mendes, 3rd ed, vol. 3, Harcourt, 2017, pp. 17-31.

The most common ways to represent the publication date are:

  • Year : 2001
  • Month/Year : Apr. 1976 (note that months should be abbreviated to their first three letters followed by a period, such as “Apr.”)
  • Day/Month/Year : 2 Apr. 1976 (note that the day should precede the month)
  • Precise time and date : 2 Apr. 1976, 5:15 p.m.
  • Year Range : 1975-1977
  • Month/Year Range : Apr. 1976–Apr. 1977
  • If there’s no date : If you can’t find a publication date, instead use the day/month/year format for the day on which you accessed the information and use the word “Accessed” to make clear the distinction.
  • Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing , edited by Carlos Mendes, Accessed 2 Apr. 2018, www.greatsportswriting.com/best.

The location component generally only applies to references that either have containers or that is an event or physical object that occurred or you encountered in a physical place.

  • For a chapter, essay, story, or other part of a book : Include a page range.
  • Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing of 2018 , edited by Carlos Mendes, 3rd ed, vol. 3, Harcourt, 2017, pp. 217-231.
  • For a web page : Include the URL, leaving out the “http://” or “https://”.
  • For a printed periodical article : Include a page range.
  • Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” The Sports Magazine, 2 Jan. 2022, 25-39.
  • For an online journal : There are two options
  • Include a URL, leaving out the “http://” or “https://”
  • Andrews, Julianne. “A Statistical Analysis to Identify the Best Games Ever Played.” Sports Analytics , Accessed 2 Apr. 2018, www.sportsanalytics.org/1249.
  • A DOI—digital object identifier—which are sometimes assigned to journal articles to provide a link to that article that will never change. If an article has one, use it instead of a URL
  • Example: doi: 11.1633/tox.31266
  • Andrews, Julianne. “A Statistical Analysis to Identify the Best Games Ever Played.” Sports Analytics , Accessed 2 Apr. 2018, doi: 11.1633/tox.31266.
  • For a physical object located in a specific place : Include the place where you encountered the object, including the name of any institution and the location of that institution.
  • Goldsworthy, Andy. The Wall that Went for a Walk . 1999, Storm King Art Center, Windsor, NY.

How to Write MLA In-Text Citations

In-text citations do two things:

  • They identify the places in your paper where you either directly quote or paraphrase a source.
  • They contain just enough information to refer to the full entry in the Works Cited list, so a reader can tell which source you quoted or paraphrased from.

MLA In-Text Citations Format

MLA in-text citations follow two basic formats:

  • The author’s last name and a page number or other location inside parentheses:
  • The greatest game ever played wasn’t “great because of what happened on the field, but because of what happened off of it” (Andrews 71).
  • If the author is named in the sentence, then the in-text citation can include just the page:
  • As Andrews puts it, the greatest game every played wasn’t “great because of what happened on the field, but because of what happened off of it” (71).

Additions to Basic In-Text Citations Format

There are a few scenarios in which the formatting of in-text MLA citations changes just a bit:

  • Two authors : Use the last names of both authors separated by an “and.”
  • (Andrews and Smith 71).
  • Three authors : Within the parentheses, include the last name of the first author along with “et al.” When mentioning the authors outside the parentheses, use the last name of the first author along with the phrase “and colleagues.”
  • (Andrews et al. 71).
  • No author : Within the parentheses, include an abbreviated reference to the first two or three words of the source title in the Works Cited entry, and format the in-text citation to match the use of italicization or quotation marks in Works Cited entry. Outside the parentheses, use the entire source title, formatted correctly with quotation marks or italics.
  • (The Best Game 71).
  • Reference List

MLA BOOK CITATION GENERATOR

The simple guide to mla book citations , tomas elliott (ph.d.).

  • Published on 04/17/2021
  • Updated on 10/26/2023

This page details everything you need to know about how to construct an MLA citation for a book. It has been compiled by experts, and the information comes from the most up-to-date version of the MLA Handbook (9th Edition).

THE TWO PARTS OF A CITATION

There are two parts to any citation. The first part appears in the main body of your text, and the second part appears in a “Works Cited” list at the end of your document.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

There are two ways of citing a source in the main body of your text. You can include the name of the author in your text, followed by a page number in round brackets if necessary. Alternatively, you can group both the author and the page number in brackets together. For example:

Samuel Beckett begins Murphy on a characteristically nihilistic note: “The sun shone, having no alternative, on the nothing new” (3).

Alternatively:

The irony of the novel’s opening line is that it provides a new twist on the old cliché that there is “nothing new” under the sun (Beckett 3).

WORKS CITED LIST

At the end of your paper, you should include a list of Works Cited. This should contain all the information necessary for your reader to locate your sources. The basic layout is as follows:

Author Surname, Author First Name and/or Initial(s). Title. Version if not the first, Publisher, Publication Date.

So, the entry in the Works Cited list for the above novel by Beckett would be:

Beckett, Samuel. Murphy . Faber and Faber, 2009.

Note that, since this is the first edition of this publication of the novel, it does not include a version number or edition.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOURCES

The layout above is the basic example for a single-author work. However, there are many different kinds of sources that you may need to cite. The following is a list of all the major types of book that you might come across.

WORKS WITH TWO AUTHORS

Some books, particularly textbooks, have co-authors. To generate an MLA citation for a textbook with two authors, include both their surnames in your text and in your Works Cited list. In the Works Cited list, only the names of the first author are inverted. The second author’s names should appear in their natural order. For example:

Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer trace the “intersection between the history of natural philosophy and the history of political thought” (21).

Shapin, Steven, and Simon Schaffer. Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life . Princeton UP, 2011.

WORKS WITH THREE OR MORE AUTHORS

If a work has three or more authors, include the first author’s name followed by “and colleagues” in your prose. In the Works Cited list, use the phrase “et al.” (which means “and the rest”).

Henry Jenkins and colleagues propose the term “spreadable media” to describe media circulation (3).

Jenkins, Henry, et al. Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture. New York UP, 2013.

WORKS WITH NO AUTHOR

Works that don’t have an author can be cited using their title, like so:

The eponymous knight in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight carries a “dreadful axe” (line 202).   

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight . Translated by Keith Harrison, Oxford UP, 1998.

WORKS WITH EDITORS INSTEAD OF AUTHORS

If a book has editors rather than authors, simply use the editors’ names in your text and include a note in your Works Cited list that highlights the fact that it was compiled by editors. 

Scholars have argued that loss and mourning can be positive and creative, rather than simply negative (Eng and Kazanjian).

Eng, David L., and David Kazanjian, editors. Loss: The Politics of Mourning . U of California P, 2003.

CHAPTER IN AN EDITED COLLECTION

When citing a specific chapter in an edited collection, cite the chapter author’s name in your text. Your Works Cited list should then include the chapter title and the title of the collection, followed by page numbers for the chapter.

Poststructuralist theory demanded a “rethinking of time” in relation to language (Maclachlan 136). 

Maclachlan, Ian. “Temporalities of Writing: Time and Difference after Structuralism.” Time and Literature , edited by Thomas W. Allen, Cambridge UP, 2018, pp. 134-49.

OTHER LANGUAGES

When citing texts in other languages, follow the style preferences for capitalization that are used in the original language. You don’t typically need to include a translation of the title, unless you think your audience will be composed primarily of people who don’t know the language. If that is the case, include a translation in round brackets in the text and square brackets in your Works Cited list.

The world of Combray is first introduced in Du côté de chez Swann ( The Way by Swann’s ).

Proust, Marcel. Du côté de chez Swann [ The Way by Swann’s ]. Gallimard, 1988.

PREVIOUS PUBLICATION DATES

If an older work has been republished many times, you may wish to include the original publication date in your Works Cited list. This is not required but it may be useful to writers with specialist knowledge. In this case, the original publication date comes after the title, like so:

Baudry, Leo, and Marshall Cohen, editors. Film Theory and Criticism. 1974. 8th ed., Oxford UP, 2016.

MULTIPLE VOLUMES

Citing books in multiple volumes can be slightly complicated. If you cite material from one volume, then you only need to specify that particular volume in your Works Cited list. There’s no need to include the volume number in your text:

Marx notes that the value of a commodity depends on the “socially necessary labour time” required to produce it (129).

Marx, Karl. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy . Translated by Ben Fowkes, vol. 1, Penguin, 1976.

If you cite more than one volume in your paper, include the volume and the page number in your text, separated by a colon. Don’t include the words “volume,” or “page,” or any abbreviations. You should then include the total number of volumes in your Works Cited list, like so:

Beckett corresponded several times with the British director Peter Hall, sending him some “depressingly inadequate” notes for a production of Waiting for Godot in 1955 and some advice on reviving Krapp’s Last Tape in 1964 (2: 575; 3: 632).

The Letters of Samuel Beckett. Edited by George Craig et al., Cambridge UP, 2009-2016. 4 vols.

ELECTRONIC COPIES OF BOOKS, DIGITAL BOOKS, AND E-BOOKS 

Citing a digital book is very similar to citing a print book. In your bibliographic citation, you just have to note that the source is an “E-book” edition. Note, though, that e-books are less likely to have set page numbers, so you may wish to use another designator to refer your reader to a specific part of the text, as in the example below. For more on this, see our guide to in-text citations.

Modern technologies are currently revolutionizing global espionage (Lucas, ch. 1).

Lucas, Edward. Spycraft Rebooted: How Technology is Changing Espionage. E-book ed., Amazon Publishing, 2018.

Note that the MLA uses the term “e-book” to refer to publications that are specifically formatted for reading on an e-reader (such as a Kindle). These e-books will not have URLs or DOIs. If you are citing book content from an ordinary webpage with a URL, please see our guide on citing websites .

WORKS CITED

–––. The Letters of Samuel Beckett,  edited by George Craig et al. Cambridge UP, 2009-2016. 4 vols.

Lucas, Edward. Spycraft Rebooted: How Technology is Changing Espionage. E-book ed., Amazon Publishing, 2018. 

MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.

Proust, Marcel. Du côté de chez Swann [ The Way by Swann’s ]. Paris, Gallimard, 1988.

Shapin, Steven, and Simon Schaffer. Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life . Princeton UP, 2011. 

mla cite book generator

Tomas Elliott is an assistant Professor of English at Northeastern University London. His research specialisms include the history of theatre and film, European modernism, world literature, film adaptation, transmedia studies and citation practices. He read English and French Literature at Trinity College, Oxford, before completing a PhD in Comparative Literature and Literary Theory at the University of Pennsylvania.

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Our Complete Guide to Citing in MLA 9 Format

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In academia, citations help you avoid plagiarism and demonstrate your credibility as a researcher. The MLA format is widely used for this purpose, particularly for writing papers in literature and humanities.

Our comprehensive MLA guide will walk you through the process of citing various types of sources in MLA, as well as formatting your Works Cited list. With plenty of specific examples and step-by-step instructions, you'll be able to master the art of MLA citation in no time.

Get ready to master the art of MLA citations!

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Mla format overview.

The Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format is a widely used citation style for academic papers in the humanities and liberal arts. Designed to provide a clear and consistent method of citing sources, the MLA format helps writers avoid plagiarism and give proper credit to their sources. This citation style uses two main components: in-text citations and the Works Cited page.

In-text citations appear within the body of the paper, providing a brief reference to the source, usually including the author's last name and the page number where the information was found. In-text citations correspond to the full citation found on the Works Cited page, which is organized alphabetically by the author's last name.

The Works Cited page in the MLA citation format provides a comprehensive list of all sources used in the paper, offering detailed information about each source to help readers locate them. The format varies slightly based on the type of source, such as a book, journal article, or website. The MLA citation style prioritizes clarity and simplicity, making it easy for both writers and readers to understand and navigate the sources used in a paper.

Insert MLA In-text Citations

In the MLA citation format, in-text citations are brief references within the body of a paper that guide readers to the full citation in the Works Cited page. They typically include the author's last name and the page number where the information was found. Here you can find detailed examples of in-text citations in the MLA format:

Basic in-text citation: The most common in-text citation includes the author's last name and the page number(s) in parentheses, placed at the end of the sentence before the period. For example: (Smith 42) .

Multiple authors: If a source has two authors, include both last names in the citation, separated by "and." For example: (Smith and Johnson 58) . If a source has three or more authors, include the first author's last name followed by "et al." For example: (Smith et al. 22) .

Multiple works by the same author: If citing multiple works by the same author, include a shortened version of the title to differentiate between the sources. For example: (Smith, "A Journey into the Universe" 12) and (Queen, Rose Water 35) .

No author: If the source has no author, use a shortened version of the title in quotation marks for articles or in italics for longer works, such as books or websites. For example: ("Article Title" 5) or ( Book Title 32) .

Citing multiple sources in one sentence: If referencing multiple sources in one sentence, separate each citation with a semicolon. For example: (Smith 42; Bart 78) .

Indirect citations (quotations within a source): If citing a quotation from a source that is itself quoting another source, use the abbreviation "qtd. in" before the indirect source. For example: (qtd. in Smith 15) .

Electronic sources without page numbers: When citing electronic sources without page numbers, use the author's last name only or a shortened version of the title if no author is available. For example: (Smith) or ("Article Title") .

Audiovisual sources: If citing a film, television show, or other audiovisual source, use the title (italicized) and a timestamp (hours, minutes, and seconds) instead of a page number. For example: ( Citizen Kane 01:22:15) .

For long quotations, use a block quote format. Indent the entire quotation one inch from the left margin and do not use quotation marks. Place the in-text citation after the closing punctuation.

Smith emphasizes the importance of proper citation:

Citing sources correctly is essential for maintaining academic integrity and avoiding plagiarism. By giving credit to the original authors, you demonstrate respect for their work and allow readers to locate the sources you used. (25)

Format Your MLA Works Cited

A Works Cited page is an essential part of any research paper or academic work using the MLA citation format. It provides a comprehensive list of all sources cited in the paper, allowing readers to locate and verify the sources used.

Here are detailed instructions on how to format a Works Cited page in MLA format:

  • Choose placement and title: The Works Cited page should begin on a separate page at the end of your paper. Center the title "Works Cited" (without quotation marks) at the top of the page. Do not bold, italicize, or underline the title.
  • Use correct spacing and margins: Use double-spacing throughout the Works Cited page. Maintain 1-inch margins on all sides of the page. The first line of each citation should be flush with the left margin. Indent any additional lines by 0.5 inches (a hanging indent).
  • Organize citations: Sort the list of sources in alphabetical order by the author's last name. If a source does not have an author, use the title to alphabetize the entry. Ignore articles ("a," "an," "the") when alphabetizing by title.
  • Format entries correctly: Follow the general format for each source type (e.g., books, articles, websites) as specified in the MLA Handbook. Include the author's name, the title of the work, the container (if applicable), and other relevant information such as the publisher, publication date, and location.
  • Don't forget about punctuation and capitalization: Use title case for titles, capitalizing the first word, the last word, and all other major words. Use punctuation marks consistently, following the guidelines in the MLA Handbook.
  • Check for accuracy: Be sure to check each reference for accuracy, including spelling and punctuation, as well as proper capitalization and italics.

Screenshot of an MLA reference page

Remember to consult the MLA Handbook for specific guidelines and examples for various source types. As you add sources to your Works Cited page, be sure to double-check the formatting to ensure consistency and accuracy.

Cite Books in MLA

To cite a book in your Works Cited list, follow this format:

For example:

If the book is an edited volume, use the word "editor" or "editors" after the editor's name, depending on whether it is a single or multiple editors.

Citing an edited book:

For books with multiple editions, specify the edition after the title, using ordinal numbers (e.g., "2nd ed.").

Citing a book with multiple editions:

If a book is part of a series or multivolume set, include the volume number after the title, preceded by "vol." In cases where a book has no author, the citation should begin with the title.

When citing a book that has been translated, include the translator's name after the title, preceded by the word "Translated by."

Citing a translated book:

When citing a specific chapter or essay within an edited book or anthology, start with the author's name, followed by the title of the chapter or essay in quotation marks, then the title of the book, the editor's name, and the page numbers of the cited section.

Citing a specific portion of a book:

These examples cover various scenarios and exceptions for citing books in MLA format. Remember to consult the MLA Handbook for more information and specific guidelines when formatting your citations.

Cite Journal Articles in MLA

When citing a journal article in MLA format, follow this template:

For the journal articles that you accessed online, from JSTOR or a different online database, make sure to include the DOI or the URL if the DOI is unavailable.

Citing a journal article accessed online:

If an article has two authors, include both authors' names separated by "and."

Citing an article with two authors:

If an article has three or more authors, list only the first author, followed by "et al."

Citing an article with three authors:

In some cases, the journal article may not have an official author or some other elements, like the volume or issue number. In this situation, the title of the article is used in place of the author's name, while the volume and issue are omitted.

Citing an article without an author, volume or issue number:

Cite Websites in MLA

Citing a webpage on your MLA Works Cited page? Use the following format:

However, web pages may often not have an identified author. In this situation, the title of the article is used in place of the author's name. For example:

Citing a web page without an author:

When citing a website with an organization as the author, you can use the organization's name as both the author and the website name if they are the same.

Citing a website with an organization as the author:

If no publication date is available, use the abbreviation "n.d." (no date).

Moreover, for online sources without a publication date or for sources that can be updated or changed without notice (like web pages), it is recommended to include the "Accessed" date. This provides a clearer timeline of when the researcher viewed the material and ensures accuracy, as the content might have been updated or removed since that date. Using the "Accessed" date is especially useful for materials that are subject to change or when a source's stability cannot be guaranteed.

Cite Book Chapters in MLA

Citing a book chapter in MLA format requires you to include the chapter author and the book editor(s). The format is:

If the book is a translation, include the translator's name after the editor's name (if any), preceded by the phrase "translated by."

Citing a chapter in a translated book:

If the chapter has a unique title within a larger work, such as a play within an anthology or a collection of works by different authors, include the title of the larger work in italics, followed by the editor's name (if any) and the page numbers of the cited section.

Citing a chapter from a collection of works:

If the book is a multivolume set, include the volume number after the book title and edition (if available), preceded by "vol."

For chapters with supplementary materials or appendices, include the relevant page numbers or identifiers in the citation.

Cite Ebooks in MLA

Citing an ebook in MLA format follows similar guidelines to citing a printed book, but with a few additional details. The basic format for citing an ebook is as follows:

If the ebook has a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), the citation should include it at the end of the reference.

Citing an ebook with a DOI:

If your ebook was only available on a tablet, e-reader, or a reading app such as Kindle, all you need to do is to include the words "E-book ed."after the title.

Citing an ebook from a personal device:

In some scenarios, additional elements need to be included in the citation. If the ebook is part of a series, provide the series name and volume number after the publisher and before the publication date.

If the ebook is a translation, include the translator's name after the editor's name (if available), preceded by the phrase "translated by." For ebooks with supplementary materials, include the relevant page numbers or identifiers in the citation.

Cite Magazine Articles in MLA

To cite a magazine article in your MLA Works Cited page, use the following format:

If the magazine article is found online, you should also provide the URL or DOI at the end of the citation.

If the magazine is published seasonally (e.g., Winter, Spring, Summer, or Fall) rather than monthly, include the season and year as the publication date (e.g., Winter 2021).

Cite Newspaper Articles in MLA

For newspaper articles, the MLA citation format is similar to magazine articles:

If the article is found online, include the URL or the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if available, but do not include the page numbers.

If the newspaper isn't widely recognized or is a local paper, include the name of the city in parentheses following the newspaper's title.

If the article is available in both print and digital formats, the citation should be identical for both, but for digital articles, you should also include a DOI or a URL at the end of the citation.

Cite Conference Papers in MLA

To cite published conference proceedings in MLA, use the following format:

After the author's name, make sure to include the title of the paper in quotation marks, followed by the title of the conference (italicized), the date and location of the conference, and any relevant publication information (for instance, whether the paper has been published).

When a conference paper is part of a published conference proceedings, include the editor's name (if available) preceded by "edited by," the title of the proceedings (italicized), the publisher, and the publication date.

For online conference papers, provide the URL or DOI (if available) at the end of the citation.

Citing an edited conference paper available online:

Remember that each specific conference paper may require additional information or variations in the citation format.

Cite Audio & Visual Media in MLA

For audiovisual materials like films, television series, and YouTube videos, include the contributor(s) most relevant to your source, such as the director, or if not available, then producer, or writer. The MLA citation format for films materials is:

However, there are some exceptions to this format. When citing a TV-show episode, make sure to include the show title, as well as the season and episode numbers.

Citing a TV-show episode:

If you’re looking to cite a song, your citation should include the song title, as well as the name of the album and format (if applicable), or URL or DOI (if available).

Citing a song:

Remember that different scenarios and exceptions may require you to adapt these structures. Always consult the MLA Handbook for more information and specific guidelines when formatting your citations for audio and visual materials.

Cite Podcasts in MLA

To cite a podcast episode in MLA format, use the following citation structure:

If the podcast episode does not have an episode number, omit it from the citation.

If you need to cite a specific guest on the podcast, include their name and the description "guest" after the title of the podcast.

Keep in mind that you may need to adapt your citation based on the specific information available for the podcast and the focus of your discussion.

Cite Social Media Posts in MLA

For social media posts, use the following format in your MLA Works Cited:

Citing an Instagram post:

If the account name and its corresponding handle are similar (e.g., @aliciakeys and Alicia Keys), it is generally recommended to exclude the handle when including a URL in the entry. However, if you are not providing a URL, such as when referencing a mobile version of the site, it is advisable to include the handle, as it can assist your reader in locating the specific post.

Citing a Twitter post:

Citing a Facebook post:

Moreover, if you are accessing a post on the mobile version of a social media site and the copyright date is not visible, it is recommended to include the date you accessed the post as an additional element at the end of the entry.

Cite Images & Artworks in MLA

To cite an online image or artwork in your MLA citation list, the format is:

For digital images or artwork viewed online, begin with the artist's name, the title of the artwork in italics, the date of creation (if known), the website hosting the artwork or the name of the database, and the URL or DOI (if available).

Citing an image or artwork viewed online:

In cases where the creation date or author name is unknown, you can make adjustments to the citation format to account for the missing information.

If the creation date of the artwork is unknown, you can use the abbreviation "n.d." (no date) in place of the date.

If the author of the artwork is unknown, you can start the citation with the title of the artwork in italics. If it's necessary to provide context or specify that the author is unknown, you can use the term “Unknown Artist”, “Anonymous” or “Anon.”.

Citing an artwork with an unknown author and creation date:

Remember that citation requirements may vary depending on the context and the focus of your work. Always consult the MLA Handbook for more information and specific guidelines when formatting your citations with unknown information.

Cite Theses & Dissertations in MLA

When citing a thesis or dissertation in your MLA paper, use the following format:

For a digital thesis or dissertation, begin with the author's name, the title of the work in italics, the year of completion, the institution where the work was completed, the description of the work as a thesis or dissertation, and the URL or DOI (if available).

Citing a thesis or dissertation published online:

Cite Databases & Data Sets in MLA

When citing datasets or statistical data, include the author, publication year, title of the dataset, version, publisher, and the DOI or URL in your MLA Works Cited page:

If you are citing a specific work within a database or using data from a data set, you should first cite the work or the data following the appropriate citation format for that type of source (e.g., a journal article, a book, a newspaper article), and then add the database or data set as a supplementary source at the end of the citation.

Cite Mobile Applications in MLA

Citing mobile applications in MLA format requires the author, the app's release year, the app's title, the version, and the platform in your reference list entry:

Keep in mind that you may need to modify these examples based on the specific information available for the mobile application and the focus of your discussion.

Cite Classical Works

Citing classical works in MLA format involves various scenarios, depending on factors such as the type of source (print or digital), the specific edition or translation being cited, and the availability of specific information (author, title, date, etc.).

Keep in mind that classical works often have unique citation requirements due to their historical context and the numerous editions, translations, or versions available.

Here is the general structure for citing classical works in MLA format:

N.B. When referencing classical works, the original publication year is often unknown or irrelevant; instead, provide the year of the translation or version you are using in parentheses, followed by a period.

Cite Legal Documents

For a legal document as the main focus of your MLA citation, provide the title of the document in italics, the document number or code, the name of the authority issuing the document, the publication date, and the URL or DOI (if available).

For court cases , the citation structure is a bit different:

When citing the Constitution , you can use the following format: Title of Constitution, jurisdiction or authority, publication date, URL or DOI (if available).

For more information and examples on how to cite different government documents in the MLA format, we suggest that you follow these guidelines from the MLA Style Center.

Cite Online Lectures & TED Talks

When citing online lectures, webinars, or TED Talks, include the speaker, the date, the title of the talk, and the URL in your APA reference list entry:

Cite Course Materials & Lectures in MLA

Course materials are considered unique academic sources and should be cited according to the guidelines for educational or instructional materials. Here is the general structure for citing course materials in MLA format:

Cite Personal Communications in MLA

In MLA format, personal communications, such as interviews, emails, letters, or personal conversations, are considered unpublished sources and are not typically included in the Works Cited list because they cannot be accessed by your readers.

Instead, you should provide a parenthetical citation within the text of your document, giving credit to the source.

When citing personal communications in your text, mention the source of the communication, the type of communication (e.g., email, letter, personal interview, etc.), and the date the communication took place.

Here is the general structure for citing personal communications in MLA format:

(Source's Last Name, Type of Communication, Date)

Keep in mind that you should only cite personal communications in the body of your text, as they cannot be accessed by your readers and, therefore, should not be listed in the Works Cited page.

  • Personal interview: According to John Smith , the use of renewable energy has increased dramatically in the last decade (personal interview, 7 May 2023) .
  • Email: Jane Doe mentioned in an email that her research findings support the use of electric vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (12 April 2023) .
  • Letter: She recently expressed her concerns about the environmental impact of deforestation (Sarah Johnson, letter, 10 June 2022) .

Always ensure that you have the permission of the person you are citing to include their personal communication in your work, as this information is not publicly accessible and may involve privacy concerns.

MLA Style: Final Notes

As you can see, the MLA citation format provides a consistent and clear method for citing various types of sources in your research. By mastering the MLA citation style, you will not only make your work more professional but also help your readers easily locate the sources you have used.

We hope this comprehensive guide on MLA citation style has provided you with a solid foundation for citing sources in your research. Remember that Bibcitation is here to help you with your academic needs, offering accurate and easy-to-use tools.

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Cite a Website in MLA

Cite a book in mla, cite a journal article in mla, cite a youtube video in mla.

The MLA Style Manual, published by the Modern Language Association, is used in the humanities, such as English studies. Read more on Wikipedia.

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Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper

Consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.

  • Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
  • Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
  • Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
  • Book: What have reviews said about it?
  • What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
  • Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
  • Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
  • Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
  • Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
  • Are there ads?
  • When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
  • Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
  • Does the source even have a date?
  • Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
  • If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?

What You Need to Know About MLA Formatting

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A Handy Guide for Using APA Format

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Free MLA Citation Generator

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What is the Cite This For Me MLA Citation Generator?

Are you looking for an easy and reliable way to cite your sources in the MLA format? Look no further because Cite This For Me’s MLA citation generator is designed to remove the hassle of citing. You can use it to save valuable time by auto-generating all of your citations.

The Cite This For Me citation machine accesses information from across the web, assembling all of the relevant material into a fully-formatted works cited MLA format page that clearly maps out all of the sources that have contributed to your paper. Using a generator simplifies the frustrating citing process, allowing you to focus on what’s important: completing your assignment to the best of your ability.

Have you encountered an unusual source, such as a microfiche or a handwritten manuscript, and are unsure how to accurately cite this in the MLA format? Or are you struggling with the dozens of different ways to cite a book? If you need a helping hand with creating your citations, Cite This For Me’s accurate and powerful generator and handy MLA format template for each source type will help to get you one step closer to the finishing line.

Continue reading our handy style guide to learn how to cite like a pro. Find out exactly what a citation generator is, how to implement the MLA style in your writing, and how to organize and present your work according to the guidelines.

Popular MLA Citation Examples

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  • Image online or video
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Why Do I Need To Cite?

Whenever you use someone else’s ideas or words in your own work, even if you have paraphrased or completely reworded the information, you must give credit where credit is due to avoid charges of plagiarism. There are many reasons why.

First, using information from a credible source lends credibility to your own thesis or argument. Your writing will be more convincing if you can connect it to information that has been well-researched or written by a credible author. For example, you could argue that “dogs are smart“ based on your own experiences, but it would be more convincing if you could cite scientific research that tested the intelligence of dogs.

Second, you should cite sources because it demonstrates that you are capable of writing on an academic or professional level. Citations show that your writing was thoughtfully researched and composed, something that you would not find in more casual writing.

Lastly, and most importantly, citing is the ethical thing to do. Imagine that you spent months of your life on a paper: researching it, writing it, and revising it. It came out great and you received many compliments on your thesis and ideas. How would you feel if someone took those ideas (or even the whole paper) and turned them in as their own work without citations? You’d probably feel terrible.

For all of these reasons, be sure that all of the source material that has contributed to your work is cited. There are two steps:

  • Acknowledge a source with an MLA in-text citation (also known as a parenthetical citation )
  • Feature a full citation for the source in your works cited list

Create citations, whether manually or by using the Cite This For Me MLA citation generator, to maintain accuracy and consistency throughout your project.

Do I Have to Cite Everything?

When writing a research paper, any information used from another source needs to be cited. The only exceptions to this rule are everyday phrases (e.g., all the world’s a stage) and common knowledge (e.g., President Kennedy was killed in 1963).

Also, your own work does not need to be cited. That includes your opinions, ideas, and visuals (e.g., graphs, photos, etc.) you created. However, you do need to cite your own work if you have previously published it or used it in another assignment. Otherwise it’s considered self plagiarism . For example, submitting a paper that you wrote and already turned in for another class is still plagiarism, even though it is your own work.

If you have any doubts about whether or not something you’ve written requires a citation, it’s always better to cite the source. While it may be a tedious process without an MLA citation machine, attributing your research is essential in validating the statements and conclusions you make in your work. What’s more, drawing on numerous sources elevates your understanding of the topic, and accurately citing these sources reflects the impressive research journey that you have embarked on.

Consequences of Not Citing

The importance of crediting your sources goes far beyond ensuring that you don’t lose points on your assignment for citing incorrectly. Plagiarism, even when done unintentionally, can be a serious offense in both the academic and professional world.

If you’re a student, possible consequences include a failing assignment or class grade, loss of scholarship, academic probation, or even expulsion. If you plagiarize while writing professionally, you may suffer legal ramifications as well, such as fines, penalties, or lawsuits.

The consequences of plagiarism extend beyond just the person who plagiarized: it can result in the spread of misinformation. When work is copied and/or improperly cited, the facts and information presented can get misinterpreted, misconstrued, and mis-paraphrased. It can also be more difficult or impossible for readers and peers to check the information and original sources, making your work less credible.

What is the MLA Format?

The MLA format was developed by the Modern Languages Association as a consistent way of documenting sources used in academic writing. In 2021, the Modern Languages Association replaced its 8th edition of the guidelines with the current 9th edition. Most of these changes were made to reflect the expanding digital world and how researchers and writers cite online information resources. MLA is a concise style predominantly used in the liberal arts and humanities, first and foremost in research focused on languages, literature, and culture. You can find out more here .

It is important to present your work consistently, regardless of the style you are using. Accurately and coherently crediting your source material both demonstrates your attention to detail and enhances the credibility of your written work. The MLA format provides a uniform framework for consistency across a scholarly document, and caters to a large variety of sources. So, whether you are citing a website, an article, or even a podcast, the style guide outlines everything you need to know to correctly format all of your MLA citations.* The style also provides specific guidelines for formatting your research paper, and useful tips on the use of the English language in your writing.

The Cite This For Me style guide is based on the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook. Our citation generator also uses the 9th edition — allowing you to shift focus from the formatting of your citations to what’s important — how each source contributes to your work.

MLA has been widely adopted by scholars, professors, journal publishers, and both academic and commercial presses across the world. However, many academic institutions and disciplines prefer a specific style of referencing (or have even developed their own unique format) so be sure to check which style you should be using with your professor. Whichever style you’re using, be consistent!

So, if you’re battling to get your citations finished in time, you’ve come to the right place. The generator above will create your citations in MLA style by default, or it can cite any source in 7,000+ styles. So, whether your discipline uses the APA citation style, or your institution requires you to cite in the Chicago style citation , simply go to the Cite This For Me website to find generators and style guides for ASA , IEEE , AMA , Harvard and many more.

*You may need to cite a source type that is not covered by the format manual – for these instances we have developed additional guidance and MLA format examples, which stick as closely as possible to the spirit of the style. Where examples are not covered in the official handbook, this is clearly indicated.

How Do I Create and Format MLA In-text Citations?

The MLA format is generally simpler than other referencing styles as it was developed to emphasize brevity and clarity. The style uses a straightforward two-part documentation system for citing sources: parenthetical citations in the author-page format that are keyed to an alphabetically ordered MLA works cited page. This means that the author’s last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text as a parenthetical citation, and a complete corresponding reference should appear in your works cited list.

Keep your MLA in-text citations brief, clear and accurate by only including the information needed to identify the sources. Furthermore, each parenthetical citation should be placed close to the idea or quote being cited, where a natural pause occurs – which is usually at the end of the sentence. Essentially you should be aiming to position your parenthetical citations where they minimize interruption to the reading flow, which is particularly important in an extensive piece of written work.

Check out the examples below…

MLA Format Examples

In-text citation MLA examples:

  • Page specified, author mentioned in text:

If the author’s name already appears in the sentence itself then it does not need to appear in the parentheses. Only the page number appears in the citation.

Here is an MLA format example for a source with one author :

Sontag has theorized that collecting photographs is a way “to collect the world” (3).

Here is an MLA format example for a source with two authors :

According to MacDougall and Sanders-Parks, “employers seldom expect you to know every aspect of a new job” (31).

  • Page specified, author not mentioned in text:

Include the author’s last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken in a parenthetical citation after the quote. This way of citing foregrounds the information being cited.

Example for source with one author :

“To collect photographs is to collect the world” (Sontag 3).

Example for a source with two authors :

“But employers seldom expect you to know every aspect of a new job” (MacDougall and Sanders-Parks 31).

When the author is referred to more than once in the same paragraph, you may use a single MLA in-text citation at the end of the paragraph (as long as the work cannot be confused with others cited).

If you are citing two works by the same author, you should put a comma after the author’s surname and add a shortened title to distinguish between them. If there are two authors with the same surname, be sure to include their first initial in your citation to avoid confusion.

  • Website, author known:

Books are not the only sources you will cite; odds are that you will also use many web-based sources. An MLA website citation in the text of your paper looks similar to a book citation, except that it does not include a page number.

“Photography reflects, records and advertises our lives online” (O’Hagan).

  • Website, unknown author:

Many web pages don’t have a clear author listed. In these cases, MLA citation format guidelines say to include the title of the web page. You can shorten the title if it is long.

“The most expensive photograph ever sold was not by a photographer, nor was the photograph taken by the artist” (“Photography Market”).

For any in-text citation, don’t forget to include a corresponding full citation in your bibliography. If you are struggling with how to cite a website in MLA, try the Cite This For Me MLA generator at the top of this page.

Works cited / bibliography example:

Unlike an MLA in-text citation, you must include all of the publication information in your works cited entries.

Franke, Damon. Modernist Heresies: British Literary History, 1883-1924. Ohio State UP, 2008.

O’Hagan, Sean. “What Next for Photography in the Age of Instagram?” The Guardian , 14 Oct. 2018, www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/oct/14/future-photography-in-the-age-of-instagram-essay-sean-o-hagan..

“The Photography Market is About Not Just Names.” The Economist , 13 Jul. 2017, www.economist.com/books-and-arts/2017/07/13/the-photography-market-is-about-not-just-names.

Sontag, Susan. On Photography . Penguin, 2008.

Luckily for you, we know where the commas go, and the Cite This For Me citation generator will put them there for you.

If citing is giving you a headache, use the Cite This For Me free, accurate MLA citation generator to add all of your source material to your works cited page with just a few clicks.

How Do I Format My MLA Works Cited Page?

A works cited page is a comprehensive list of all the sources that directly contributed to your work – each entry links to the brief parenthetical citations in the main body of your work. An in-text citation only contains enough information to enable readers to find the source in the works cited MLA format list, so you’ll need to include the complete publication information for the source in your works cited entries.

Your works cited MLA page should appear at the end of the main body of text on a separate page. Each entry should start at the left margin and be listed alphabetically by the author’s last name (note that if there is no author, you can alphabetize by title). For entries that run for more than one line, indent the subsequent line(s) – this format is called a ‘hanging indentation.’

The title of the page should be neither italicized nor bold – it is simply center-aligned. Like the rest of your MLA format paper the list should be double-spaced, both between and within entries.

Sometimes your professor will ask you to also list the works that you have read throughout your research process, but didn’t directly cite in your paper. This list should be called ‘Work Cited and Consulted,’ and is an excellent opportunity to demonstrate the full extent of the research you have carried out.

Remember, indicate all of your sources via both parenthetical citations and an MLA format works cited list, to acknowledge the work of other authors.

Works cited examples:

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. Verso, 1983.

Fox, Claire F. The Fence and the River: Culture and Politics at the U.S.-Mexico Border. U of Minnesota P, 1999.

Sontag, Susan. On Photography. Penguin, 2008.

MLA Style Research

When you are gathering sources in your research phase, be sure to make note of the following bibliographical items:

  • Name of original source owner: author, editor, translator, illustrator, or director
  • Titles: article or newspaper title, title of publication, series title
  • Important dates: date of publication, date of composition, issue date, event date, date accessed
  • Publishing information: publisher name
  • Identifying information: number of volumes, volume number, issue number, edition, chapter, pages, lines

If you’re still in your research phase, why not try out Cite This For Me for Chrome? It’s an intuitive and easy-to-use browser extension that enables you to instantly create and edit a citation for any online source whilst you browse the web.

Racing against the clock? If your deadline has crept up on you and you’re running out of time, the Cite This For Me MLA citation maker will help collect and add any source to your MLA bibliography with just a click.

In today’s digital age, source material comes in all shapes and sizes. Thanks to Cite This For Me’s citation generator, citing is no longer a chore. Accurately and easily cite any type of source in a heartbeat, whether it be a musical score, a work of art, or even a comic strip. Cite This For Me elevates students’ research to the next level by enabling them to cite a wide range of sources.

MLA Citation Formatting Guidelines

Accurately citing sources for your assignment doesn’t just prevent the appearance or accusations of plagiarism – presenting your source material in a clear and consistent way also ensures that your work is accessible to your reader. So, whether you’re following the MLA format citation guidelines or using the Cite This For Me generator, be sure to abide by the presentation rules on font type, margins, page headers and line spacing.

To format your research paper according to the guidelines:

  • Set the margins to 1 inch (or 2.5 cm) on all sides
  • Choose an easily readable font, recommended Times New Roman
  • Set font size to 12 point
  • Set double space for your entire paper
  • Indent every new paragraph by ½ inch – you can simply use your tab bar for this
  • In the header section – on the top right corner of the pages – give your last name followed by the respective page number

MLA format heading, title, and running head: Within this formatting style, an MLA title page isn’t necessary. What’s needed instead is a header. The header is a small section added to the first page of your paper and it includes all of the same basic information a title page would.

To format your MLA header and title:

  • On the first page, ensure the text is left-aligned and then give your details: starting with your full name in line one, followed by the name of your teacher or professor, the course name and number, and the date in separate lines
  • Center align your heading – do not italicize, bold or underline, or use a period after the title
  • The body of your text should start in the next line, left-aligned with an indentation

On every page, you will also need to include what is called a “running head.” Follow these directions to create one:

  • On the top right corner of each page – give your last name followed by the respective page number. This is your running head.
  • It should be positioned ½ an inch from the top of the page, and 1 inch from the right edge of the page.

If your instructor asks for or insists on having an MLA cover page for your paper, ask them to show you a cover page example. That’s the best way to know what your instructor will be looking for.

Here is a visual MLA format template for the first page of your paper:

mla cite book generator

MLA Style 9th Edition - Changes From Previous Editions

It is worth bearing in mind that the MLA format is constantly evolving to meet the various challenges facing today’s researchers. Using Cite This For Me’s generator will help you to stay ahead of the game without having to worry about the ways in which the style has changed.

Below is a list outlining the key ways in which the style has developed since previous editions.

  • Titles of independent works (such as books and periodicals) are now italicized rather than underlined .
  • Listing URLs for web citations is now always encouraged, and you should no longer include “https://” at the beginning of the URL with the exception of DOIs.
  • You no longer are required to list the place of publication for a source unless the version of the work changes based on location, or it was published prior to 1900.
  • You are no longer required to provide medium information in your citations (e.g. ‘Print.’, ‘Web.’, ‘DVD.’ etc.)
  • The style guidelines now call for the inclusion of both volume and issue numbers in listings for journal articles.

How Do I Cite My Sources With the Cite This For Me Citation Machine for MLA?

If you’re frustrated by the time-consuming process of citing, the Cite This For Me multi-platform citation management tool will transform the way you conduct your research. Using this fast, accurate and accessible generator will give you more time to work on the content of your paper, so you can spend less time worrying about tedious references.

To use the MLA format generator:

  • Choose the type of source you would like to cite (e.g. website, book, journal & video
  • Enter the URL , DOI , ISBN , title, or other unique source information to locate your source
  • Click the ‘Search’ button (If there is more than one result, review the sources presented and select one)
  • See what information was found on your source, then click the “Continue” button
  • Review or edit your citation information, then click “Complete citation” to create it
  • Copy your fully-formatted citation into your works cited list</li/>
  • Repeat the same process for each source that has contributed to your work

As well as making use of the powerful citation generator on this MLA citation website, you can cite with our Chrome add-on or Word add-on.

Manage all your citations in one place

Create projects, add notes, cite directly from the browser.

Sign up to Cite This For Me – the ultimate citation management tool.

Published October 1, 2015. Updated July 21, 2021.

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Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper

Consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.

  • Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
  • Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
  • Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
  • Book: What have reviews said about it?
  • What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
  • Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
  • Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
  • Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
  • Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
  • Are there ads?
  • When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
  • Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
  • Does the source even have a date?
  • Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
  • If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?

MLA Format: Everything You Need to Know and More

Filled with a wide variety of examples and visuals, our Citation Machine® MLA guide will help you master the citation process. Learn how to cite websites, books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, films, social media, and more!

MLA Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs

Comprehensive Guide to APA Format

Our Citation Machine® APA guide is a one-stop shop for learning how to cite in APA format. Read up on what APA is, or use our citing tools and APA examples to create citations for websites, books, journals, and more!

APA Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs

Everything You Need to Know About Chicago Style

Creating citations in Chicago style has never been easier thanks to our extensive Citation Machine® Chicago style guide and tools. Learn about footnotes, endnotes, and everything in between, or easily create citations for websites, books, journal articles, and more!

Chicago Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs

Citation Machine®’s Ultimate Writing Guides

Whether you’re a student, writer, foreign language learner, or simply looking to brush up on your grammar skills, our comprehensive grammar guides provide an extensive overview on over 50 grammar-related topics. Confused about reflexive verbs, demonstrative adjectives, or conjunctive adverbs? Look no further! Learn about these grammar topics and many, many more in our thorough and easy to understand reference guides!

Citing Sources Guide | Grammar Guide | Plagiarism Guide | Writing Tips

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MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

The MLA Handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any source regardless of whether it’s included in this list.

However, this guide will highlight a few concerns when citing digital sources in MLA style.

Best Practices for Managing Online Sources

Because online information can change or disappear, it is always a good idea to keep personal copies of important electronic information whenever possible. Downloading or even printing key documents ensures you have a stable backup. You can also use the Bookmark function in your web browser in order to build an easy-to-access reference for all of your project's sources (though this will not help you if the information is changed or deleted).

It is also wise to keep a record of when you first consult with each online source. MLA uses the phrase, “Accessed” to denote which date you accessed the web page when available or necessary. It is not required to do so, but it is encouraged (especially when there is no copyright date listed on a website).

Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA

Include a URL or web address to help readers locate your sources. Because web addresses are not static (i.e., they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web (e.g., on multiple databases), MLA encourages the use of citing containers such as Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix in order to easily access and verify sources. However, MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs.

Many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI (digital object identifier). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI number instead of the URL.

Online newspapers and magazines sometimes include a “permalink,” which is a shortened, stable version of a URL. Look for a “share” or “cite this” button to see if a source includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL.

Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources

If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation. Par. would be used for a single paragraph, while pars. would be used for a span of two or more paragraphs.

Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)

Here are some common features you should try to find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Not every web page will provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible:

  • Author and/or editor names (if available); last names first.
  • "Article name in quotation marks."
  • Title of the website, project, or book in italics.
  • Any version numbers available, including editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (no.).
  • Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
  • Take note of any page numbers (p. or pp.) or paragraph numbers (par. or pars.).
  • DOI (if available, precede it with "https://doi.org/"), otherwise a URL (without the https://) or permalink.
  • Date you accessed the material (Date Accessed). While not required, saving this information it is highly recommended, especially when dealing with pages that change frequently or do not have a visible copyright date.

Use the following format:

Author. "Title." Title of container (self contained if book) , Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink). 2 nd container’s title , Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).

Citing an Entire Web Site

When citing an entire website, follow the same format as listed above, but include a compiler name if no single author is available.

Author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), DOI (preferred), otherwise include a URL or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site . Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

The Purdue OWL Family of Sites . The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory . Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006.

Course or Department Websites

Give the instructor name. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title.

Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England . Purdue U, Aug. 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Accessed 31 May 2007.

English Department . Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/. Accessed 31 May 2015.

A Page on a Web Site

For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once.

Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.”  eHow , www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.

“ Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview. ”   WebMD , 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.

Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the book in question is an e-book by putting the term "e-book" in the "version" slot of the MLA template (i.e., after the author, the title of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors).

Silva, Paul J.  How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. E-book, American Psychological Association, 2007.

If the e-book is formatted for a specific reader device or service, you can indicate this by treating this information the same way you would treat a physical book's edition number. Often, this will mean replacing "e-book" with "[App/Service] ed."

Machiavelli, Niccolo.  The Prince , translated by W. K. Marriott, Kindle ed., Library of Alexandria, 2018.

Note:  The MLA considers the term "e-book" to refer to publications formatted specifically for reading with an e-book reader device (e.g., a Kindle) or a corresponding web application. These e-books will not have URLs or DOIs. If you are citing book content from an ordinary webpage with a URL, use the "A Page on a Web Site" format above.

An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)

Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, and the date of access.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV . 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado , www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine . 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive , www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

If the work cited is available on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.

Adams, Clifton R. “People Relax Beside a Swimming Pool at a Country Estate Near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/.

An Article in a Web Magazine

Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.

Bernstein, Mark. “ 10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. ”   A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites , 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal

For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a DOI if available, otherwise provide a URL or permalink to help readers locate the source.

Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal

MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print

Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article . Provide the URL and the date of access.

Wheelis, Mark. “ Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. ”   Emerging Infectious Diseases , vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)

Cite online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “ Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates. ”   Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library , https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

E-mail (including E-mail Interviews)

Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom the message was sent with the phrase, “Received by” and the recipient’s name. Include the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization.

Kunka, Andrew. “ Re: Modernist Literature. ”  Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000.

Neyhart, David. “ Re: Online Tutoring. ” Received by Joe Barbato, 1 Dec. 2016.

A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting

Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets.

Author or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site , Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.

Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek , 29 Sept. 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/343929/best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.

Begin with the user's Twitter handle in place of the author’s name. Next, place the tweet in its entirety in quotations, inserting a period after the tweet within the quotations. Include the date and time of posting, using the reader's time zone; separate the date and time with a comma and end with a period. Include the date accessed if you deem necessary.

@tombrokaw. “ SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign. ”   Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.

@PurdueWLab. “ Spring break is around the corner, and all our locations will be open next week. ”   Twitter , 5 Mar. 2012, 12:58 p.m., twitter.com/PurdueWLab/status/176728308736737282.

A YouTube Video

Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing. If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube , uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.

“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.

A Comment on a Website or Article

List the username as the author. Use the phrase, Comment on, before the title. Use quotation marks around the article title. Name the publisher, date, time (listed on near the comment), and the URL.

Not Omniscient Enough. Comment on “ Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’ After Argument Over Pasta. ”  ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m., abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story?id=39704050.

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Consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.

  • Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
  • Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
  • Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
  • Book: What have reviews said about it?
  • What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
  • Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
  • Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
  • Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
  • Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
  • Are there ads?
  • When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
  • Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
  • Does the source even have a date?
  • Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
  • If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?
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  3. 🎉 Correct mla format for a book. How to Cite a Book in MLA Format : 7

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  4. MLA Format Citation Generator (Free) & Quick Guide

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  5. Automatic mla citation machine. FREE MLA Format Citation Generator

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  6. How to Cite a Book in MLA

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VIDEO

  1. MLA Cite at End of Article

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  6. What is MLA format citation example?

COMMENTS

  1. Free MLA Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    Scroll back up to the generator at the top of the page and select the type of source you're citing. Books, journal articles, and webpages are all examples of the types of sources our generator can cite automatically. Then either search for the source, or enter the details manually in the citation form. The generator will produce a formatted MLA ...

  2. Citing a Book in MLA

    E-books in MLA format: Citing an e-book (a digital book that lacks a URL and that you use software to read on a personal e-reader): Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. E-book ed., Barnes & Noble Classics, 2004. In the "version" section of the citation, include "E-book ed." to specify that you used an e-book version of a printed book.

  3. Free MLA Citation Generator

    How to cite in MLA format. MLA is one of the most common citation styles used by students and academics. This quick guide explains how to cite sources according to the 9th edition (the most recent) of the MLA Handbook.You can also use Scribbr's free citation generator to automatically generate references and in-text citations.. An MLA citation has two components:

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    Scan your paper for plagiarism mistakes. Get help for 7,000+ citation styles including APA 6. Check for 400+ advanced grammar errors. Create in-text citations and save them. Free 3-day trial. Cancel anytime.*. Try Easybib® Plus. Consider your source's credibility. Ask these questions:

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    To cite one of the songs on Pink Floyd's album in MLA formatting, cite it as: %%Pink Floyd. "Another Brick in the Wall (Part I)." The Wall, Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as: %%Colfer, Chris. The Land of Stories. Little Brown, 2016. To cite a specific story or chapter in the book, cite it as:

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  7. FREE MLA Format Citation Generator

    To use the generator: Choose the type of source you would like to cite (e.g., website, book, journal & video) Enter the URL, DOI, ISBN, title, or other unique source information to locate your source. Click the 'Search' button to begin looking for your source. Look through the search results and click the 'Cite' button next to the ...

  8. Free MLA Citation Generator

    The MLA Handbook gives guidance for a multitude of different sources, like websites, television series, songs, articles, comic books, etc., and considers various types of contributors to these sources. BibGuru's MLA citation generator helps you create the fastest and most accurate MLA citations possible.

  9. Free MLA Citation Generator by Cite This For Me

    The Cite This For Me style guide is based on the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook. Our generator and MLA format template for citations also use the 9th edition - allowing you to shift focus from the formatting of your citations to what's important - how each source contributes to your work. The MLA formatting style has been widely adopted ...

  10. Free MLA Citation Generator

    The Works Cited list (sometimes also called a reference list or bibliography) contains the full references for every source you used in writing your paper. The references are alphabetized in the list by author's last name. Every entry in an MLA Works Cited—whether for a book, website, journal, etc.—is built from up to nine components: Author.

  11. MLA Book Citation: Free Citation Generator

    Some books, particularly textbooks, have co-authors. To generate an MLA citation for a textbook with two authors, include both their surnames in your text and in your Works Cited list. In the Works Cited list, only the names of the first author are inverted. The second author's names should appear in their natural order.

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    Bibcitation is a free citation generator that creates bibliographies, references and works cited. Automatically generate MLA, APA, Chicago and other citations and create an accurate bibliography in one click. ... Cite Books in MLA. To cite a book in your Works Cited list, follow this format: Citing a book in MLA. Author's Last Name, First Name ...

  13. How to Cite a Book in MLA

    If the book cover or title page specifies an edition, add the edition number or name, followed by the abbreviation "ed.", after the title. Note that versions of the Bible are treated slightly differently. MLA format. Author last name, First name. Book Title. Edition ed., Publisher, Year. MLA Works Cited entry.

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    EasyBib® has tools to help you create citations for over 50 source types in this style, as well as a guide to show you how an MLA paper should be formatted. Review the guide to learn how to format a paper's title page, paragraphs, margins, quotations, abbreviations, numbers, tables, and more! There are even tips on editing, as well as on the ...

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    MLA Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs. Comprehensive Guide to APA Format. Our Citation Machine® APA guide is a one-stop shop for learning how to cite in APA format. Read up on what APA is, or use our citing tools and APA examples to create citations for websites, books ...

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    The Cite This For Me style guide is based on the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook. Our citation generator also uses the 9th edition — allowing you to shift focus from the formatting of your citations to what's important — how each source contributes to your work. MLA has been widely adopted by scholars, professors, journal publishers, and ...

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    Cite a book automatically in MLA. The 8 th edition of the MLA handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any ...

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    Note: The MLA considers the term "e-book" to refer to publications formatted specifically for reading with an e-book reader device (e.g., a Kindle) or a corresponding web application.These e-books will not have URLs or DOIs. If you are citing book content from an ordinary webpage with a URL, use the "A Page on a Web Site" format above.

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    An ISBN or International Standard Book Number is a 13 digit number that identifies published books. Ex: 978-3-16-148410-