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Rankings and Decisions in Engineering pp 201–234 Cite as

Case Studies in Engineering

  • Fiorenzo Franceschini 12 ,
  • Domenico A. Maisano 12 &
  • Luca Mastrogiacomo 12  
  • First Online: 28 February 2022

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Part of the International Series in Operations Research & Management Science book series (ISOR,volume 319)

This chapter presents several examples of practical applications of the ranking aggregation problem in the field of Engineering, mainly in the context of design, development, and evaluation of the quality/reliability of products, services, and manufacturing processes.

These examples prove (1) the diffusion of the ranking aggregation problem within the Engineering field and (2) the great flexibility/adaptability of the aggregation techniques previously shown in this book (e.g., BC, EYA, and ZM II ) to the most varied practical contexts.

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This notation is in partial contrast to that used in Sect. 7.2.2 to denote the number of so-called “ t -objects” of an incomplete ranking.

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Franceschini, F., Maisano, D.A., Mastrogiacomo, L. (2022). Case Studies in Engineering. In: Rankings and Decisions in Engineering. International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, vol 319. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89865-6_7

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King: Playing to win with Google Cloud

King logo

King, an independent unit of the Activision Blizzard family, is a leading interactive entertainment company for the mobile world, with people all around the globe playing one or more of its games. It has developed more than 200 fun titles, offering games with a broad appeal and embedded social features to enhance player experience.

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King used bigquery to build a cloud-based data warehousing platform that reduces its overhead costs and boosts its analytics capability with google cloud machine learning., google cloud results.

  • Ingests, stores, and analyzes data from hundreds of millions of players while reducing infrastructure management burden
  • Solves game design challenges with Google Cloud Machine Learning
  • Improves agility by speeding up the data analysis process and enabling teams to find solutions faster

Stores petabytes of data with minimal overheads

In the world of mobile and social gaming, it takes more than a good idea for a games company to stand out from the competition. King , the makers of Candy Crush Saga and hundreds of other games, has achieved success in its market space with a focus on bite-sized entertainment, and a blend of art and science. “We have great game designers of course, but we’re also a very data-driven company,” says Åsa Bredin, FVP (First Vice President) Technology at King. “We try to validate our design with data to see how engaging a game is, and whether it’s at the appropriate difficulty.”

“Our infrastructure needs to support hundreds of thousands of concurrent connections per second, as well as our data warehouse, and we saw that Google has the capability to handle our needs. At the same time, we were very excited by its focus on machine learning and artificial intelligence.”

With 270 million players a month (as of Q2 2018), King operates at a scale that few other companies can ever hope to achieve, with its data archives in double-digit petabytes. Recently, the company had started to ask themselves whether a monolithic on-premises Hadoop environment set them up to tackle future challenges. Concerns centered around a future in which public cloud is a big part of the IT landscape, and when much of the innovation in data science and data engineering is now taking place in public cloud. When King began looking for alternative solutions, it knew it needed a cloud-based data platform that could maintain stability at scale and offer the latest analytics technology. After assessing a number of alternatives, King turned Google Cloud .

“Our infrastructure needs to support hundreds of thousands of concurrent connections per second, as well as our data warehouse, and we saw that Google has the capability to handle our needs,” says Jacques Erasmus, CIO at King. “At the same time, we were very excited by its focus on machine learning and artificial intelligence.”

BigQuery for scalability, reliability, flexibility

For years, King maintained one of the largest on-premises Hadoop clusters in Europe, but with an open source query engine suffering from stability issues, infrastructure management became a priority. “Maintaining a petabyte-scale data infrastructure on-premises costs a lot of time, manpower and, most importantly, organizational focus,” says Kenneth MacArthur, Senior Technical Project Manager at King. “One of the key drivers was to offload our infrastructure operations so that we could focus on what adds value to our business.”

In addition to the resource costs of an on-premises solution, King also had to split its data across different platforms to maximize efficiency, which could lead to data science teams waiting for data to be migrated before they could start work. Building a new data platform provided the opportunity to unify all its data in one place.

After taking some time to evaluate its options, King decided that Google Cloud had the best combination of scalability and analytics capability for its needs, and began work on building two new solutions: the company’s data warehousing infrastructure and a stand-alone platform for machine learning. For the former, King began migrating data from the on-premises cluster to BigQuery at the start of 2018, expecting to be finished by the end of the year.

“Nested fields in BigQuery let us efficiently query our data without needing to join big tables. This has been very useful in allowing our business units to quickly drill down from top level numbers to very granular data.”

BigQuery formed the core of the new data warehouse, with its facility for scaling and easy-to-use functionality. Its innovative features also meant that the warehousing team could experiment with new data structures to improve performance.

“Nested fields in BigQuery let us efficiently query our data without needing to join big tables,” says Tom Starling, Principal Data Warehouse Engineer at King. “This has been very useful in allowing our business units to quickly drill down from top level numbers to very granular data.”

In addition, with Cloud Storage , King could hold its massive data archive more securely. “It took us out of the capacity planning game,” says Kenneth. Meanwhile, Cloud Dataflow proved a cost-effective way for the data warehouse team to ingest data without the complications of its on-premises precursor.

New solutions with Cloud Machine Learning Engine

Alongside the data warehousing platform, King’s technology team began exploring Google Cloud Machine Learning Engine tools to look for solutions for the company’s data scientists. The Game Platform Technology group, headed by Åsa Bredin, works with multiple game teams, acting as a force multiplier where solving the problems of one team can often lead to new solutions for the whole company.

A challenging problem King is trying to solve with machine learning is determining the appropriate level of difficulty for a game without having to manually playtest it over a long period of time. The team used Cloud Deployment Manager to deploy Google Kubernetes Engine workloads to create hundreds of virtual players, trained with machine learning models. The resulting data is then piped back to King’s data analytics modules with Cloud Pub/Sub . This creates a powerful feedback loop that lets King very quickly optimize the design of its games based on a foundation of solid data.

“When we ran on-premises, we didn’t have a clear way to deploy all our applications simply, so Cloud Deployment Manager has been really useful for us,” says Alex Nodet, AI Engineer at King. “If I have to deploy our pipeline tomorrow, I can do it very quickly.”

"Our scaling capabilities were not dynamic enough, Google Kubernetes Engine solved that issue. It's also a great complement to Google Cloud Machine Learning Engine when developing AI applications. We have been able to turn our prototype into a production-scale support tool that people want to use,” adds Alex.

“Speed of delivery is crucial to us and with the new setup, our teams can solve their own problems with fewer dependencies. It makes us so much more agile when teams can find their own solutions.”

Promoting agility, reducing dependency with Google Cloud

With Google Cloud, King has built a reliable, scalable data warehousing and analytics platform that will reduce overhead management and offer exciting opportunities with cutting-edge machine learning technology. Freed from the burden of building and maintaining servers, King’s engineers can stay focused on adding value to the business says Åsa: “Now we can spend our manpower on making the best games we can instead of managing clusters.”

According to CIO Jacques Erasmus, King’s data scientists have already seen notable improvements to the efficiency of their workflows with the new data platform.

“With the old cluster, when our analysts wanted to work on a project, they’d spend perhaps a day building out the environment, importing the data, and so on,” says Jacques. “Today, with Google Cloud, they can set up their data and environment with just a few button clicks.”

With a stable, easy-to-use data platform built with BigQuery, King has reduced dependencies and empowered its teams of analysts and data scientists.

“Speed of delivery is crucial to us and with the new setup, our teams can solve their own problems with fewer dependencies,” says Åsa. “It makes us so much more agile when teams can find their own solutions.”

Cutting-edge tools for a brave new world

With the migration nearly complete, King is already looking to see what new opportunities it can work on with Google. Expanding its use of machine learning across all aspects of the business is a major focus. Meanwhile, the company is currently working to develop its analytics platform into a service for external customers, and Google Cloud provides an easy, more secure way of segregating data for new users without exposing King’s own proprietary information. This multi-tenancy model, with segregated data, is already being used in recruitment where candidates can be evaluated not just for their general data skills but also their facility with the technology that King uses. Google Cloud itself has proved to be an effective recruiting tool for King, providing the company with a solid foundation for the future in terms of talent as well as technology.

“Google Cloud has been helping us attract the kind of people that you need to manage operations of this scale and complexity,” says Jacques. “Top talent likes to work with cutting-edge tools and technology, and our engineers are very happy with our decision to move to Google.”

Case: King Engineering Group (KEG)  ould there be investment...

Case: King Engineering Group (KEG) 

ould there be investment myopia of business unit managers in the KEG for the investment proposals of business units that are approved with "free money"? Explain briefly.

Answer & Explanation

Yes, it's possible that business unit managers at King Engineering Group (KEG) have investing myopia when it comes to investment projects that are approved with "free money."

When business units receive "free money," which is money that does not have any direct financial cost or obligation to the business unit, managers may be more likely to invest in short-term projects with quick returns rather than long-term projects with uncertain returns. This is because free money does not have any direct financial cost or obligation to the business unit. This is due to the fact that the investment has a low level of risk, and the corporation may be more concerned with maximizing short-term outcomes as opposed to making investments that would benefit the company in the long run.

In addition, because business unit managers are not directly encouraged to seek out or generate creative investment proposals, it is possible that they will not have as much motivation to do either of those things. The absence of responsibility combined with the pressure to provide favorable financial results may lead to a reduction in investments made in projects that are more innovative and have a longer-term focus. This may be to the detriment of the organization in the long run.

As a result, it is essential for KEG to take into careful consideration the incentives and motivations of business unit managers when allocating funds to various projects and ensuring that they are aligned with the long-term goals of the company. KEG must also ensure that all of the projects are in line with the company's overall vision.

King Engineering Group (KEG) is a corporation that runs its operations using a variety of distinct business units. These units are accountable for presenting investment project proposals to the management team of the organization in order to receive approval. Business unit managers may be more likely to engage in investment myopia when investment proposals are approved with "free money." Investment myopia refers to short-sighted investment decisions that prioritize short-term gains over long-term benefits. When investment proposals are approved with "free money," business unit managers may be more likely to engage in investment myopia.

Given that there is neither a direct monetary cost nor an obligation linked with the investment, managers may be more focused on maximizing short-term gains. This is one reason why there is investment myopia in this case. They may choose to put their money into projects that can provide immediate and quantifiable outcomes rather than longer-term endeavors that call for a higher expenditure of both time and resources before they can show a return on their investment. This may result in the neglect of projects that might have a more substantial impact on the future success of the organization.

There is also the possibility that managers of business units are not as incentivized as they should be to look for or produce creative investment proposals. There is no direct financial benefit for generating big returns or investing in long-term, innovative ventures while using free money because there is no incentive to do so. As a result, managers might not feel motivated to take risks and come up with ideas that could be beneficial to the firm in the long run. As a direct consequence of this, KEG runs the risk of missing out on opportunities to innovate, grow, and provide long-term value for its shareholders.

When deciding how much money to put toward certain projects, the management team at KEG absolutely must take into account these potential dangers. To avoid falling victim to investment myopia, the company ought to have a well-defined and all-encompassing investment plan. This strategy ought to lay out the company's long-term goals and urge management to look for initiatives that are in accordance with these goals. They could motivate managers to invest in forward-thinking, long-term projects by linking performance indicators and rewards to the accomplishment of these initiatives. For instance, KEG might take into consideration the possibility of awarding performance-based bonuses to managers who effectively conceive and carry out original projects that result in considerable value creation for the company.

In addition to this, it is essential for the management team to cultivate a culture that places a premium on innovative and forward-looking ways of thinking. KEG is able to create a more forward-thinking investment approach that places a higher priority on long-term advantages rather than short-term gains by cultivating an environment that fosters risk-taking and provides managers with incentives to explore high-potential initiatives.

In conclusion, investment myopia might be a big risk for business units that are granted free money for the purpose of investing in investment projects. While distributing cash to various projects, the management team at KEG is required to give careful consideration to the incentives and motivations of the managers of the business units. KEG is able to mitigate the risks associated with investment myopia and drive long-term success for the company if it develops a comprehensive investment strategy, encourages innovation through the use of financial incentives, and cultivates a culture that places a high value on thinking in the long term.

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Case Study: Engineering a New Location Strategy

king engineering group case study

Business Issue

A global provider of end-to-end engineering services planned on establishing a new engineering center and had narrowed options for its location to two particular markets based on highly technical requirements and specialty talent needs. They engaged Talent Solutions to compare these markets’ ability to meet technical skill sets needs now and in the future, cultural fit, alignment to the clients’ global organization and more than 100 other factors/data points. This location strategy analysis would yield in-depth insights into workforce considerations at the market and occupation level, by drawing from data on supply/demand for each role, competition for talent, worker compensation, and retention/sustainability. 

Solution  

Data aggregation kicked off the project, with the team identifying key workforce demographics, local employer insights, employment statistics, and other relevant data to compare market locations, using propriety and third-party data sources. They then established baseline for comparative analysis by defining, validating, and aligning assumptions related to sites, markets, workforce, employment and compensation. Interviews with employers in each market highlighted current and expected hiring perspective and intent.   

A compensation analysis compared each market’s competitive wage and non-wage compensation and benefit. Finally, the team audited all known variables and assumptions, to validate alignment of supply and demand data. Such extensive research unearthed highly specific, up-to-date details on how the two locations ranked relative to every client objective. 

The resulting report helped the client make sense of the different benefits each market offered, by providing data-backed conclusions in the following key areas:

  • The report revealed critical candidate dynamics, such as the fact that twice as many graduates remain and express willingness to work in Market A compared to Market B.
  • Market A wages are 5-7 percent lower on average for targeted positions, though senior levels can be up to 8 percent above Market B wages.
  • Employer brand is stronger in Market A, where candidates view the client as a top employer of engineering skills, while other companies dwarf client hiring in Market B.
  • Lower crime rates and higher livability indices increase target candidate access and growth in Market A, as opposed to reducing access in Market B.
  • The client ended up following Talent Solutions’ recommendation of going with Market A for their engineering center, a choice which would increase their hiring and retention by 60 percent, a key challenge they had been trying to address. 

Read or download the full case study . 

king engineering group case study

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  1. King Engineering Group Inc.edited 1 .docx

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  2. How to Create Awesome Engineering Case Studies for Your Business

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  3. Kain Capital buys most of King Engineering

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  4. Engineering case study I

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  5. King Engineering

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  6. King Vehicle Engineering Group Announces Strong Growth

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  1. King Engineering Group

    IDC PMS - Group assignment: design and justification of the PMS. Subject Outline for Information and Decisions. Chapter 1, The role of accounting information in management decision making. IDC Subject Outline 2022 Autumn. studocu_is_not_affiliated_school_university. StudeerSnel B.V., Keizersgracht 424, 1016 GC Amsterdam, KVK: 56829787, BTW ...

  2. ADM4345

    DATE: November 14,2018 SUBJECT:King Engineering Group Inc.'s Management Controls System Analysis It has been brought toLalonde Consulting's attention that top management has some significant concerns regarding the potential flaws inKing Engineering Group, Inc.'s (King) management controls system.

  3. King Engineering Inc..docx

    INTRODUCTION King Engineering Group Inc. is a large engineering and construction firm with over 11,000 employees and $1.5 billion annual sales. ... Case Study #2: Lever. Ltd. Your assignment is to answer the 3 questions at the end of this Case Study -- which is posted on a separate link. Also be sure to check out the 3rd separate link that

  4. King Engineering Group Case Study on Management Controls 1

    King Engineering Group Case Study on Management Controls 1. • Analyze the case 2.Evaluate the performance measurement and incentive systems used in King Engineering Group. What changes would you recommend, if any? 3.What are some critical success factors? Image transcription text 441 King Engineering Group , Inc . 2016 ( plan )

  5. PDF BUSI 4008

    This course focuses on managerial planning and control systems using the case method. It extends the concepts covered in the intermediate management accounting course and also integrates relevant contextual issues from other functional areas of organizations.

  6. KING Engineering CASE Study

    KING Engineering CASE Study. practical. Course. Canadian Business Taxation I (Cacc 742) 38 Documents. Students shared 38 documents in this course ... This document has been uploaded by a student, just like you, who decided to remain anonymous. BAC Education Group. Recommended for you. 7. CO22101 E IP03 Solution. Canadian Business Taxation I ...

  7. Solved . What is the main problem with KEG's LTIP? Explain

    . What is the main problem with KEG's LTIP? Explain briefly (5 marks) (King Engineering Group Case Study) This problem has been solved! You'll get a detailed solution from a subject matter expert that helps you learn core concepts. See Answer Question: . What is the main problem with KEG's LTIP?

  8. Operations Management for Engineering Consulting Firms: A Case Study

    This study challenges these criticisms by developing a series of propositions for engineering consulting firms based on a flexible manufacturing paradigm, in particular to (1) develop a generalized skill set among employees; (2) balance the workload across the organization; (3) cultivate project managers in a deliberate manner; and (4) apply ...

  9. Case Studies in Engineering

    7.3.2 Real-World Case Study (II) The prioritization of ECs can be interpreted as a "special" ranking aggregation problem, in which CRs can be considered as experts and ECs as objects. Let us try to clarify this through a real-world case study. Figure 7.7 contains the HoQ concerning the design of a climbing harness (Franceschini et al., 2015a).

  10. King Case Study

    After taking some time to evaluate its options, King decided that Google Cloud had the best combination of scalability and analytics capability for its needs, and began work on building two new...

  11. Case: King Engineering Group (KEG) ould there be investment

    Step-by-step explanation King Engineering Group (KEG) is a corporation that runs its operations using a variety of distinct business units. These units are accountable for presenting investment project proposals to the management team of the organization in order to receive approval.

  12. PDF Case Study: J.A. King

    Case Study: J.A. King System integrator reduces costs for ingredient batching, material handling, and mixing Opto 22 43044 Business Park Drive • Temecula • CA 92590-3614 Phone: 800-321-6786 or 951-695-3000 Pre-sales Engineering is free. Product Support is free. www.opto22.com Form 2249-170927 © 2017 Opto 22. All rights reserved.

  13. PDF J.A. King Creates Custom Test Software for a Utility Provider ...

    J.A. King, a Cross Company Group, has more than 80 years of experience in precision measurement. J.A. King provides quality measurement equipment, backed by the highest standards of service and calibration in the industry. The J.A. King Engineering Solutions team specializes in creating custom measurement solutions for their

  14. Case: King Engineering Group (KEG) Based on the information

    Answered step-by-step Asked by HMM125 Case: King Engineering Group (KEG) Based on the information... Case: King Engineering Group (KEG) Based on the information provided in the case, explain briefly how improper financial target setting may affect KEG's profit goal achievements. Accounting Business Managerial Accounting ACCOUNTING 11219

  15. Answered: What is the main problem with KEG's…

    Explain briefly (King Engineering Group Case Study) Purchasing and Supply Chain Management 6th Edition ISBN: 9781285869681 Author: Robert M. Monczka, Robert B. Handfield, Larry C. Giunipero, James L. Patterson Publisher: Robert M. Monczka, Robert B. Handfield, Larry C. Giunipero, James L. Patterson ChapterC: Cases Section: Chapter Questions

  16. J.A. King Case Study: Commonwealth Brands

    With the help of a solution developed by J.A. King, Commonwealth brands (an ITG Brands company) was able to reduce waste by up to 30% in their production process. Check out our latest case study to learn how our team worked with Commonwealth to develop and implement the solution.

  17. Case study: Capital city towers, Moscow

    Request PDF | Case study: Capital city towers, Moscow | After more than a decade in the planning, Moscow City, a new mixed-use business district rising 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) west of the Kremlin ...

  18. PDF Upward Spiral: The Story of the Evolution Tower

    This bespoke self-climbing formwork system achieved an impressive maximum framing speed of six days per fl oor, with an average speed of seven days per fl oor. The 12 concrete columns and central core are supported by the 3.5-meter-thick raft over piled foundations. It took 48 hours to pour 8,000 cubic meters of concrete for the raft.

  19. A Big City as an Independent Central Place System, a Case Study of

    The study was based on the model of Moscow's central place system. The study evaluated how the factor of the Russian capital's considerable territorial expansion has influenced the dynamics of its central place system from 2009 to 2015. We have found that there is a strong interrelation between Moscow's radial-circular structure and a ...

  20. What is the main problem with King Engineering Group LTIP? (Case

    Thy asked me to study and evaluate companies' Accounting s Answered over 90d ago Q hi , I need your help with managerial accounting 511 MCQ questions Kushalta Bhattarai < [email protected] > To ta

  21. Case Study: Engineering a New Location Strategy

    A global provider of end-to-end engineering services planned on establishing a new engineering center and had narrowed options for its location to two particular markets based on highly technical requirements and specialty talent needs. They engaged Talent Solutions to compare these markets' ability to meet technical skill sets needs now and ...

  22. Evolution Tower : Moscow City's Spiral Architectural Landmark

    According to The Skyscraper Center, Evolution Tower is the 360th tallest building in the world, the 15th tallest in Europe. 9th tallest in Russia as well as Moscow city. This impressive building ...

  23. What is the main problem with King Engineering Group Long term

    (King Engineering Group Case Study) BUSINESS ACCOUNTING MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING MGM 102. Answer & Explanation Unlock full access to Course Hero. Explore over 16 million step-by-step answers from our library. Get answer. Related Course Resources. MGM 102. Ryan International School, Malad. 103 Documents.