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how to write an introduction for a report ks2

  • Non Chronological Report Ks2 Examples Worksheets And Resources

Non-chronological report – Best KS1/KS2 examples, worksheets and resources

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

Get children’s report writing in order, even if it’s not in chronological order, with these lesson ideas, activities and other resources for primary English…

Aidan Severs

It might surprise you to find that the words ‘non-chronological report’ do not feature in the national curriculum. Yet, the writing of non-chronological reports has become a staple of primary teaching.

While some schools have moved away from a genre-based way of teaching writing , you’re still very likely to find yourself being required to teach children how to produce this kind of writing.

What is a non-chronological report?

What are the features of a non-chronological report, non-chronological reports in ks1, non-chronological reports in ks2, progression through year groups, more non-chronological report resources.

The purpose of a non-chronological report is to inform the reader. A non-chronological report can be about anything that doesn’t require a chronological, time-ordered account of something. This might include:

  • an introduction to a hobby
  • an overview of a capital city
  • a piece about a child’s family

The following examples would not suit a non-chronological report:

  • Recount of a visit
  • Set of instructions
  • Write-up of a science experiment
  • Description of a historical sequence

Pupils could choose to write a non-chronological report about anything they are knowledgeable about and interested in.

Linking writing to previous learning

To remove the need to recall facts, you can also write non-chronological reports about fictional topics, for example, mythological beasts that children have created.

However, in primary schools it’s often the case that you’ll link the piece of writing to some current (or previous) learning in another curriculum area. This has the following benefits:

  • children may be very knowledgeable about the subject if you’ve taught them well
  • links to other subjects give the writing some further purpose
  • children may be enthusiastic about writing about that particular topic

There are drawbacks too, however. Children may get bogged down in trying to accurately represent their learning in other subjects to the point that demonstrating their writing ability takes a back seat.

“The words ‘non-chronological report’ do not feature in the national curriculum”

You must also exercise caution when reviewing and assessing writing. Focus on the English knowledge and skills children have demonstrated, rather than the subject knowledge they’ve demonstrated in the content.

Because non-chronological reports do not follow a sequential order but instead focus on presenting facts and details in a structured manner, it can be useful to teach pupils how to write them as a way of helping them structure their thoughts and understanding.

The features of a non-chronological report will depend on the age group that you teach. However the following is an overview of the full range of features that you might expect a child to include in a non-chronological report by the time they reach Year 6:

A clear and engaging title that reflects the subject of the report.

Introduction

An introductory paragraph or section that provides a brief overview of the topic, without getting into the details that will feature in the rest of the report.

Organise information into paragraphs based on the different aspects of the subject being presented.

Subheadings

Use subheadings to signal paragraphs or sections comprising more than one paragraph. This makes it easy for the reader to navigate through different aspects of the subject.

Facts and information

The report will focus on the presentation of factual information and details about the subject.

Illustrations and visuals

Non-chronological reports, such as the ones you see in children’s non-fiction books, usually include images, diagrams, and other visuals related to the content. The purpose of these is to aid the reader in understanding the text.

Presentational features

Use bullet points, numbering, labels and captions to present information with clarity and organise information clearly.

Technical vocabulary

The use of specialised vocabulary and terminology relevant to the subject.

Concluding statement

This is a concluding section that summarises key points and reiterates how the information you’ve presented is relevant to the overall purpose of the piece of writing.

As previously mentioned, the national curriculum doesn’t specifically require pupils in KS1 to write non-chronological reports. However, it does require you to teach pupils in Year 2 to ‘develop positive attitudes towards and stamina for writing by writing for different purposes’.

The purpose, as we have discovered already, of a non-chronological report is to inform the reader, so this should be the focus of any non-chronological report writing in Year 2. Beyond this, any piece of writing in Year 2 should be a means of practising and showcasing other writing skills, as set out in the national curriculum under the headings of spelling, handwriting, composition, vocabulary, grammar and punctuation.

Year 1 children need not write non-chronological reports at all.

In KS2, the national curriculum hints at what might be useful for pupils who are writing a non-chronological report. It says that pupils in Years 3 and 4 should be taught to draft and write by ‘organising paragraphs around a theme’ and ‘in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices [for example, headings and sub-headings]’.

The non-statutory guidance given in the national curriculum says:

‘Pupils should continue to have opportunities to write for a range of real purposes and audiences as part of their work across the curriculum. These purposes and audiences should underpin the decisions about the form the writing should take, such as a narrative, an explanation or a description.’

In the guidance for teachers of Years 5 and 6 it states:

‘Pupils should be taught to plan their writing by identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing as models for their own’.

It also says that pupils should be taught to plan and draft their writing ‘using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, bullet points, underlining]’.

Year 2 (KS1)

In Year 2, children can create simple non-chronological reports about topics they are familiar with, such as pets or favourite toys. Their focus can be on basic sections.

Provide scaffolds such as writing frames to help children organise information. You might also want to suggest a title and provide children with lots of time to orally rehearse what they want to write before they commit it to paper.

Year 3 (KS2)

Children in Year 3 can start exploring more diverse topics, potentially those linked to prior learning, and learn to organise and structure their reports with clear headings and subheadings.

Again, you may want to scaffold this, perhaps using guided planning and structure strips . Provide practice tasks focusing on grouping information around a theme.

Where possible, give children a real-life reason and purpose to write, for example, to teach their parents about what they have been learning about.

Year 4 (KS2)

Before moving on to adding other features to their non-chronological reports, students in Year 4 can spend time learning how to craft a more comprehensive introduction and conclusion.

Provide lots of live modelling and examples of sentence structures for children to choose from, avoiding simple sentences such as ‘This non-chronological report is about…’.

You can also show children how to ensure that they are incorporating technical vocabulary in their writing. The word lists in Appendix 1 of the English national curriculum are a good guide as to what is age-appropriate concerning spellings.

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

Download Aidan Severs’ non-chronological report example for Year 4.

Year 5 (KS2)

In Year 5, you can use assessment of prior knowledge to move children on. Begin to look at additional organisational features such as bullet points, numbering, labels and captions.

When using these new features, encourage pupils to make selections based on audience and purpose. Model how to make these decisions so that the information is presented as clearly as possible.

Year 6 (KS2)

By Year 6, the ideal is for children to be writing non-chronological reports with a high degree of independence, demonstrating all their prior learning accurately.

Your school’s individual English curriculum will likely have new grammar and punctuation content that children need to practise too. Colons, semi-colons, conjunctions and so on all have their place in non-chronological reports.

Remember that the main purpose of a non-chronological report is to inform the reader of something – this should always be the focus.

Non-chronological reports provide children with opportunities to practise and demonstrate many of the English writing skills you’ve taught them.

Show children how to select appropriate skills and techniques, all to communicate with clarity to their intended reader: this should be the case regardless of year group.

Aidan Severs is an education consultant with over 15 years of teaching experience. Follow him on Twitter  @AidanSevers  and see more of his work at  aidansevers.com

Pie Corbett non-chronological report

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

Elevate your KS2 English lessons with Pie Corbett’s enchanting non-chronological report resource about unicorns. Dive into vivid descriptions of their appearance, habitat and sightings, then encourage children to craft their own reports on unicorns, dragons or any fantastical creature that captivates their imagination.

Animals non-chronological report pack for KS1

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

Teach Year 1 and 2 children how to write engaging non-chronological reports with this KS1 text types resource pack from Plazoom.

In it you’ll find sheets to help them plan against success criteria, descriptions of what a non-chronological report should include, two detailed model texts and collections of facts about lions that children can use to create their own non-chronological reports.

Mythical creatures non-chronological report pack for KS2

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

And for Year 3-6, this Plazoom pack covers all the same bases, and includes a range of images of mythical creatures to inspire pupils’ own non-chronological report writing.

Superhero non-chronological report

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

We often ask children to write factual reports about animals – but you can also use the same approach to write a report about a superhero. This free Pie Corbett resource will show you exactly how to do it.

Non-chronological report medium-term plan for Year 2

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

This three-week sequence for KS1 is a sample resource from No Nonsense Literacy. The key learning outcome is to write a non-chronological report about an animal of interest.

Pupils will select an object they’re interested in, such as a toy car, and talk about its features. What it is made of, who might use it and why? They’ll then write a report about the object, including a diagram.

How to write a sports story

In this BBC Teach article , Sonali Shah demonstrates the process of planning, writing and editing a sports story that she is working on about what happens in a footballer’s medical.

She takes you through the process from start to finish; identifying the key features of non-chronological writing and emphasising the importance of researching, drafting and proof-reading in her job as a sports journalist.

She also explains how important it is to engage the reader by using appropriate vocabulary. Keywords and examples are presented on the screen to support pupils writing in this genre.

Non-chronological report examples

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

If you want a big selection of ‘what a good one looks like’ examples, just head to Literacy Wagoll .

Its collection of non-chronological report examples includes everything from polar bears and ancient Greeks to space school, The Day of the Dead and the fictional poison mantis frog.

Features of a non-chronological report PowerPoint

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

Run through what goes into non-chronological reports with your class with this handy PowerPoint presentation .

It looks at the criteria for report writing, a good opening sentence, organising your notes, using sub-headings and more.

Sports non-chronological report template

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

This writing frame will support children in creating their own factfile on a sport of their choice. It includes prompts and suggested sections.

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how to write an introduction for a report ks2

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Non-Chronological Reports

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

Comic Life and Non Chronological Reports

This lesson is designed to inspire your children to write non-chronological reports and organise it using a comic theme.

To view the full lesson plan click here .

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

Video Report

This video report is a great introduction to your non chronological reports. It explores three different aspects of Madrid and gives different facts about each just like a written report would.

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

Features in Detail

Explore many of the features of non chronological reports in more detail with many examples to help your children grasp the key points more effectively.

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

This resources explores some of the main features of a non chronological report. If you give an example of a non chronological report to your children, they can look for some of these features.

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

This animation video shows a struggling inventor called Sherman who is in need of inspiration for developing his flying machine.

Overlooking earth are a group of aliens who are monitoring Sherman’s progression. As the story develops, we learn that aliens were responsible for all major inventions throughout history. The aliens implant Sherman with the knowledge to create his flying machine with a twist.

Lesson Idea:

Create a Non-chronological report based on inventions throughout the years.

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

In the United Kingdom we are lucky enough to have 18 species of bat. Bats are a great topic to base a non-chronological report on as it gives the children the freedom to research a few different species of bat and find out facts.

You could also allow the children to choose one of the species and write a report on it for a more in-depth study. To have a look at an example of a vampire bat non-chronological report  Click Here . To download fact sheets for the 18 species of bat  Click Here .

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

Whales journey throughout all of the world’s oceans, communicating with complex and mysterious sounds. Their sheer size amazes us: the blue whale can reach lengths of more than 100 feet and weigh up to 200 tonnes—as much as 33 elephants.

Despite living in the water, whales breathe air. And like humans, they are warm-blooded mammals who nurse their young. A thick layer of fat called blubber insulates them from cold ocean waters.

Some whales are known as baleen whales. These include the blue, right, bowhead, sei and gray whales. This refers to the fact that they have special bristle-like structures in their mouths (called baleen) that strains food from the water. Other whales, such as beluga or sperm whales, have teeth.

This is a great opportunity for your KS1 children to learn about non-chronological reports and whales.

There are two types of whales (baleen and toothed), but many different species of whales for the children to learn about and research.

The children love learning about whales and it captivates both boys and girls. To download the Powerpoint  Click Here . To download the Whale fact sheets  Click Here . To listen to whale calls  Click Here . To learn more about whales from the WWF  Click Here .

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

Famous People

Check out our resources linked to a variety of famous people from the past to the present. You can use the information from a range of sources to help write a non-chronological report linked to the topic famous people.

It is estimated that there were once more than 350 species of elephants in the world. Today we only have two of them left – the Asian and the Africa species.

These video, image and text resources explore the difference between Asian and African elephants and are suitable for non-chronological reports for your Ks1 class.

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

If you are creating non chronological reports on animals, check out our resources by following the link.

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

It may be popular in your class or it may not. If it is, what better way to introduce your report writing with this example of a Pokemon Report.

Your class can choose a Pokemon or create their own and write a non-chronological report about it.

©2024 TeachingCave.com Contact: [email protected]

ON YOUR 1ST ORDER

How To Write A Report Introduction: An Academic Guide

By Laura Brown on 27th July 2023

You are definitely here to learn how to write an introduction to a report. So let’s answer it directly!

Well, an effective introduction of a report should succinctly introduce the topic, state the purpose and scope of the report, and provide a brief overview of the key points to be discussed . A report introduction should capture the reader’s interest and set the tone for the rest of the document.

This could be the summary of what should be included in a report introduction and how you can write it. But this summary is not enough to understand completely how you are going to start your report.

Since you are here, you must have got an academic report to tackle. Well, let’s start by talking about something that’s often overlooked but absolutely crucial – the introduction! Trust us, nailing the introduction can make a world of difference to your entire report.

Your report introduction is like the friendly handshake you offer to your readers. It sets the tone, gives an overview of what’s to come, and entices them to stick around for the good stuff. A well-crafted intro not only impresses your readers but also shows off your writing chops and analytical skills.

So, let’s dive into the world of introductions and make your reports shine right from the very start! Get ready to captivate your audience and make your mark in the educational realm. Let’s go!

How To Write A Report Introduction: An Academic Guide

1. First, Understand The Purpose Of Your Report

To embark on successful academic writing , it’s crucial to grasp the essence of your report’s purpose. Reports come in various types, including essays, research papers, case studies, and many more! Each type requires a tailored approach to crafting a report introduction that captivates your readers.

Once you have identified the type of report you have got to prepare, the second most important thing is to understand why you have been given this report. What is the purpose, and what could be the possible outcome of completing this report.

2. Analyse The Target Audience

Audience engagement is a critical aspect of your report! Let’s shine a spotlight on your readers, who are the real heroes, and explore the art of tailoring your report introduction to captivate them.

It is really essential to consider the readers’ background and knowledge. Are they seasoned professors, fellow students, or professionals in a specific field? Understanding their perspectives helps you strike the perfect balance of technicality and simplicity in your introduction.

Crafting an introduction that speaks directly to your audience is the key. Inject enthusiasm, sprinkle relatable examples, and address their pain points . Use audience-savvy techniques, ensuring your introduction resonates with readers and leaves them eager to explore your entire report.

So, let’s dive in and charm your audience with an introduction they won’t forget! Let’s get started with how to write a report introduction!

3. Elements of a Strong Introduction

Before we head directly into how to start a report introduction, we need to understand some basic elements of the introduction of a report. A well-crafted introduction not only piques the interest of the readers but also sets the tone for the entire document. To achieve this, it should incorporate the following essential elements:

• Opening Hook or Attention-Grabber

The first few sentences of your introduction should captivate the reader’s attention and compel them to delve further into your report. An opening hook can take various forms, such as a thought-provoking question, a compelling statistic, a vivid anecdote, or a relevant and surprising fact.

• Contextualising the Report’s Topic

Following the attention-grabber, it is essential to provide the necessary context for your report’s topic. This contextualisation allows readers to grasp the background, relevance, and significance of the subject under investigation. Incorporate relevant historical, theoretical, or practical information to situate the report within its broader academic or real-world context.

• Thesis Statement or Main Objective

The thesis statement, often positioned at the end of the opening paragraph of the report introduction, concisely articulates the main objective or central argument of your report. It should be clear, specific, and focused, guiding readers on what they can expect to explore further in the document. A strong thesis statement sets the direction for the entire report, providing a roadmap for readers to navigate the subsequent sections with a clear understanding of the primary purpose.

• Overview of Report Structure and Sections

To facilitate navigation and comprehension, it is crucial to provide readers with an overview of the report’s structure and its key sections. This section-by-section outline acts as a guide, giving readers a glimpse of the organisation and flow of the report.

By skillfully incorporating these elements, your introduction will establish a strong groundwork for your report, fostering engagement and understanding throughout its entirety. Now we can move on with your actual question, how to write an introduction for an academic report! After reading this guide, if you still find anything difficult, you can always contact our report writing service for 24/7 assistance.

4. Crafting the Opening Hook

The art of crafting an engaging opening hook lies in its ability to seize the reader’s attention from the outset. Anecdotes and real-life examples breathe life into the report , making complex topics relatable and captivating for your readers. As you go on to illustrate the practical implications of the subject matter, your readers can immediately connect with the content. It will allow you to foster a sense of curiosity to explore further.

In addition to anecdotes, you should incorporate relevant statistics or data. It infuses credibility and significance into the introduction. Numbers possess a persuasive power, shedding light on the magnitude of an issue and underscoring the urgency of the report’s focus. Thought-provoking questions, on the other hand, spark introspection and stimulate critical thinking. Coupled with compelling quotes, they entice readers to contemplate the broader implications of the subject matter.

An effective opening hook in the report introduction, whether through anecdotes, statistics, or questions, sets the stage for an intellectually stimulating journey through the report’s core ideas. By capturing your reader’s imagination, the introduction paves the way for a rewarding exploration of the report’s findings and insights.

Since, students often search for how to write an introduction for a report example, here is one for you. The opening of the introduction could be like this:

In the age of digital interconnectedness, social media platforms have revolutionised the way we communicate, share information, and interact with others. The allure of virtual networks, however, comes hand in hand with growing concerns about their impact on mental health. As these platforms become an integral part of our daily lives, it is crucial to examine the intricate relationship between social media usage and its potential consequences on individuals’ psychological well-being, a pressing issue that forms the focal point of this academic report.

5. Providing Context for the Report

A well-contextualised introduction is paramount to the comprehension of the matter of the report. You should first delve into the background and history of the topic to provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of its evolution over time. This historical perspective lays the groundwork for appreciating the report’s relevance in the present context.

Moreover, describing the current relevance and significance of the topic bridges the gap between theory and practice. It highlights the practical implications and real-world applications, enticing readers to explore further. In addition to how to write a report introduction, it is essential to address the previous research or related studies to showcase the existing body of knowledge and identify gaps that the current report aims to fill.

By combining historical context, present-day relevance, and existing research, the introduction forges a clear pathway for readers to navigate through the report’s findings, enriching their understanding and appreciation of the subject matter.

Let’s have a look at an example from the sample report introduction:

The exponential rise of social media has transformed the dynamics of social interactions, communication, and information dissemination, transcending geographical boundaries. With billions of users actively engaging on platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and TikTok, the implications on mental health have garnered significant attention from researchers, health professionals, and society at large. This report endeavours to delve into the multifaceted impacts of social media on mental health, analysing its effects on emotional well-being, self-esteem, and psychological distress.

6. Formulating a Clear Thesis Statement

As we go on to learn how to write an introduction of a report, we should know about the thesis statement. A strong thesis statement is like the backbone of your whole work. It’s the core purpose and focus of what you are doing. When you define the main objective and scope in your thesis, it gives your readers a sneak peek into what you are trying to achieve.

To make it effective, keep the thesis concise and specific. Avoid any vagueness or ambiguity . This will help sharpen the direction of the report and guide your readers to understand the main argument better.

When your thesis aligns with the objectives of your report, everything flows more smoothly. It acts as a navigational tool, guiding you and your readers through all the details and helping everyone grasp the subject matter better. So, get ready to make your report shine with a killer thesis statement!

Let’s have an example of a thesis statement from the introduction of a report:

This report aims to explore the complexities of the relationship between social media usage and mental health, considering both positive and negative aspects. By synthesising existing research, psychological theories, and empirical evidence, we seek to shed light on the various mechanisms through which social media can influence mental health outcomes. Ultimately, this examination underscores the importance of promoting digital well-being and fostering responsible social media use for individuals of all ages.

7. Outlining the Report Structure

An effectively outlined report structure serves as a roadmap for readers. It gives readers a clear and organised overview of what’s inside. First off, listing the major sections or points give them a quick glimpse of how it’s all laid out.

And here’s the trick: a brief description of each section helps readers know what to expect. That way, they can read with focus and easily find what they need later.

When you highlight the logical progression of the report, it keeps everything flowing smoothly. Each section builds upon the previous ones, creating a cohesive narrative. This way, readers can get a comprehensive understanding of the topic.

Putting it all together, a well-structured report becomes a valuable guide for your readers. It leads them through all the details and ensures a rewarding and informed reading experience.

Do’s & Don’ts of How to Make a Report Introduction

Concluding on how to write a good introduction for a report.

A strong introduction forms the backbone of your report, as it plays a pivotal role in engaging readers and guiding their journey through the study’s contents. By recapitulating the significance of a well-crafted introduction, we underscore how it captivates readers from the outset, fostering their interest and curiosity.

The introduction sets the tone for the entire report, shaping readers’ perceptions and expectations. As this guide highlights the key elements for creating an effective introduction and how to start writing a report introduction, we encourage students to apply these principles to their own reports. By doing so, they can elevate the impact of their work, leaving a lasting impression on their readers.

We hope that this guide will help you through the introduction process. You can further go on to read how to write a conclusion for a report , so that you can create an excellent report for you.

Laura Brown

Laura Brown, a senior content writer who writes actionable blogs at Crowd Writer.

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Are you working on a report and struggling to write an engaging introduction? Do you want to know how to hook your readers and make them want to read your entire report? To better understand the concept of report introduction writing, visit the following link;

Review Introduction in Complete Dissertation Examples Here

In this step-by-step guide, we'll teach you how to write a report introduction that will get your readers excited about what's to come. It is a skill; mastering it can be the difference between a good and bad report.

What is a Report?

A report is an academic document that contains data or findings from an investigation. Reports are usually used to communicate the results of a business project, scientific study, or research effort. Reports typically include a section of the executive summary, followed by sections that provide more detailed information.

Explore What is the Goal of Report Writing Here

The length and format of a report vary depending on its purpose and audience. For example, an annual report for shareholders will be very different from a scientific one. Ultimately, the goal of any report is to provide clear and concise information about a particular subject.

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Structure of a Report

The structure of a report is very important in report writing conventions. The structure of a report is as follows.

1. Introduction

The introduction is the first section of a report and sets the tone for the rest of the document. The main objective of an introduction is to introduce your topic and get your readers interested in what you have to say.

2. Executive Summary

The executive summary is a short, concise overview of the findings or conclusions presented in a report. It's typically one or two paragraphs long and should be written last.

The body of a report contains all the detailed information about your topic. It can be divided into subsections if needed.

4. Conclusion

The conclusion wraps up the information presented in the body of the report and offers some final thoughts on the subject matter.

5. Appendices

Appendices are optional sections that contain additional information related to your topics, such as charts, graphs, tables, images, or data sets.

Role of Introduction in a Report

The purpose of an introduction in an academic report is to offer a clear, concise overview of the main points the report will address.

The introduction of a report is critical as it sets the stage for the rest of the report and provides your readers with a framework to understand your findings.

Learn More about What should Keep in Mind While Writing Introduction

It is important to remember that the introduction is not meant to be exhaustive; instead, its goal is to give the reader a basic understanding of what the report will cover.

It should state the overall purpose or goals of the report. It must provide a brief overview of the methods used to gather information and data for the report. Finally, the introduction should briefly touch on the key findings or takeaways from the report. By including these elements, you can ensure that your readers clearly understand your report's core.

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Characteristics of a well-written report introduction.

  • The introduction should convey the purpose of the report.
  • The introduction should provide an overview of the report's key points.
  • The introduction should clarify why the topic is necessary or relevant.
  • The introduction should define any key terms used in the report.
  • The introduction's purpose is to set the tone for the rest of the report.
  • The introduction should clarify what the reader can expect to find in the report.
  • The introduction should be well-organized and easy to follow.
  • The introduction should be no more than one or two paragraphs long.
  • The introduction must end with a clear statement of the report's thesis or main argument.

Components of a Well-Written Introduction

There are three parts to a well-written introduction:

  • The transition

The hook grabs the reader's attention with a brief report overview. The transition briefly explains how the hook relates to the rest of the report. The scope statement clearly and concisely states the report's leading authority.

Here's how to craft various parts of the introduction:

1. The Hook

The first part of a well-written introduction is the hook. The hook grabs the reader's attention and gives them a reason to keep reading. It can be a crucial statistic, important background information, and an overview of the topic in consideration.

2. The Transition

The second part of a well-written introduction is the transition. The transition connects the hook to the purpose of the report. In this part, write about what to expect from the report.

3. The Scope

A well-written introduction's third and final part describes the report's scope. You should briefly discuss the data collection methods, analysis, and results of the report.

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Steps of writing a report introduction, 1: introduce the topic of the report.

Present your report's topic and explain it briefly to familiarize the reader with the topic of the report. The concise way to introduce it is by explaining the background of the title and elaborating on the outcome.

 2. Summarize the Main Points Covered in the Report

In the second step, provide a summary of your key points, sections, results, and discussions of the report.

3. State the Purpose of the Report

Step 3 should describe the aim and purpose of your report. Use concise language and expressive verbs. Avoid jargon, ambiguities, and technical complexities early in your report.

4. Preview the Main Findings of the Report

In the final step of your report introduction, tell your readers what results you gained and what are the report's primary findings.

Template of the Report Introduction

You can follow this template to craft a concise and crisp introduction to your report.

"The purpose of this report is to (explain what the report will be about). This report will (give an overview of what the report will cover). The methodology used in this report is (explain how the report was created). The findings of this report are based on (describe what the report found). This report concludes with (give a summary of the report's conclusions)."

To conclude, writing a report introduction can make or break your complete report analysis. Therefore, the said recommendations must be followed to stand out in your report writing. 

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how to write an introduction for a report ks2

  • Education, training and skills
  • School curriculum
  • Primary curriculum, key stage 2
  • Tests and assessments (key stage 2)
  • Key stage 2: submitting teacher assessment data
  • Standards & Testing Agency

2024 key stage 2: submitting teacher assessment data

Updated 16 May 2024

how to write an introduction for a report ks2

© Crown copyright 2024

This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] .

Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.

This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/key-stage-2-submitting-teacher-assessment-data/2024-key-stage-2-submitting-teacher-assessment-data

1.  Introduction

This guidance provides information for schools and local authorities about how to submit teacher assessment (TA) data for pupils at the end of key stage 2 (KS2), including pre-key stage 2 standards and engagement model data.

TA data must be reported by Friday 28 June, for every pupil who is:

  • registered to take a national curriculum test
  • registered as working below the overall standard of the tests

Schools can submit data either:

  • directly to the Standards and Testing Agency (STA), using the  Primary Assessment Gateway (PAG)
  • to their local authority, if the local authority has agreed to submit it on their behalf

TA should be carried out as part of teaching and learning. It provides a judgement that is based on knowledge of how the pupil has performed over time and in a variety of contexts.

Teachers must make their TA judgements using one or more of the following:

  • TA frameworks  in English writing and science – for pupils who have completed the KS2 programme of study and are working at the standard of national curriculum assessments for that subject
  • pre-key stage 2 standards  in English reading, English writing and mathematics – for pupils who are working below the standard of national curriculum assessments and are engaged in subject-specific study, or who have not completed the relevant programme of study for that subject
  • the engagement model  – for pupils who are working below the standard of national curriculum assessments and are not yet engaged in subject-specific study

For more information, please refer to the  KS2 teacher assessment guidance .

1.1  Submitting teacher assessment data

Schools submitting data on the PAG can use:

  • a common transfer file (CTF) generated by their school’s management information system (MIS)
  • the TA spreadsheet template on the PAG

Local authorities that have chosen to collect and submit TA data on behalf of schools can also use the PAG to upload multiple files for different schools.

You can now find the different codes and descriptions for submitting TA data and pre-key stage data for each subject in section 15 of the  KS2 teacher assessment guidance .

Section 14.2 of the  KS2 teacher assessment guidance  provides further guidance on who should submit TA for pupils who change schools before, during and after test week.

1.2  Deadline for submission

The deadline for submissions is Friday 28 June. Data must be submitted to STA using the ‘Submit teacher assessment data’ form in the PAG.

Schools must only re-submit data after Friday 28 June when required to do so by STA or the local authority. Re-submission without authorisation will be investigated as maladministration. STA should be informed via the national curriculum assessments helpline on 0300 303 3013.

2.  Upload teacher assessment data on the Primary Assessment Gateway

2.1  schools uploading teacher assessment data.

1. Sign in to the PAG and go to the ‘My activity’ tab.

2.Select ‘Outstanding activity’, then ‘Submit teacher assessment data’ and ‘Edit’.

If you are submitting your data using a CTF generated by your school’s MIS, ensure the file is saved with the file name ‘DfENumber_KS2_NAALLLL_001.XML’ - you can then move to step 6.

File name convention

You should substitute ‘DfENumber’ with your school’s DfE Number. You can also update the version number - for example, 001. Please do not make any other changes to the file name.

It is important that the file name is in the correct format - otherwise it may create errors that mean your teacher assessment data does not upload correctly.

If you are submitting your data using the spreadsheet template from the PAG, continue to step 3.

3.Select ‘Generate TA template’ to generate a copy of the spreadsheet, then select ‘Download’ to open the template.

4.Open the template in Excel and enter the TA data for all pupils in the spreadsheet.

Please note that you:

  • must  update a pupil’s unique pupil number (UPN) in column A if it has changed
  • must  add pupil data for pupils who arrived in school before, or during, test week and were not added to pupil registration, to the bottom of the list
  • must not  amend names or dates of birth, as these must remain the same as confirmed during pupil registration to enable the records to match (see section 4.2)

5.Save the spreadsheet to your computer with the file name ‘KS2_DfENumber_001.xlsx’ (see advice above on file name convention), then go back to the ‘Submit teacher assessment data’ form on the PAG.

6.Under the ‘Upload teacher assessment file’ heading, ‘Select file’.

7.Navigate to where you saved your file, select it, then ‘Open’ and ‘Submit’.

A confirmation screen will show that your data has been submitted and advise on next steps.

You will receive 2 emails:

  • The first email will advise that your data has been received and will be processed.
  • The second email will advise if your upload was successful or if further action is required.

If you do not receive the first email within 15 minutes, please check you have used the correct file format for your submission. You must use the TA template downloaded from the PAG or the appropriate CTF extract from your MIS to enable successful submission and email receipt.

2.2  Local authorities uploading teacher assessment data on behalf of schools

To submit TA data for your relevant schools, you should upload the XML (CTF) or XLSX files which have been provided to you by your schools. You can either upload individual files for each school or use a zip file containing multiple files for different schools:

  • XML (CTF) files must be saved with the file name ‘DfENumber_KS2_NAALLLL_001.XML’
  • XLSX files must be saved with the file name ‘KS2_DfENumber_001.xlsx’

You should substitute ‘DfENumber’ with your school’s DfE Number. You can also update the version number – for example, 001. Please do not make any other changes to the file name.

Once you have checked the files are correct, you should:

2.Select ‘Available activity’, then ‘Submit teacher assessment data’ and ‘Edit’.

If you are submitting multiple files for different schools, add these to a zip file, save it to your computer and then move to step 6. The zip file can contain a mix of both CTF and XLSX files.

If you are submitting one file per school, save each individual file to your computer and then move to step 6.

Alternatively, you can generate a TA template for each individual school in the form of a spreadsheet. To do this, continue to step 3.

  • must  update a pupil’s UPN in column A if it has changed

5.Save the spreadsheet to your computer with the file name in the format ‘KS2_DfENumber_001.xlsx’ (see advice above on file convention), then go back to the ‘Submit teacher assessment data’ form on the PAG.

If you do not receive the first email within 15 minutes, please check you have used the correct file format for your submission. You must use the TA template downloaded from the PAG, or the appropriate CTF extract from your MIS, to enable successful submission and email receipt.

2.3  Email confirmation

The table below summarises the emails that schools and local authorities may receive after they have submitted their TA data successfully, or if there is an error that needs to be actioned:

Where local authorities have submitted multiple files, their successful or rejected confirmation emails will include a list of schools. Where files have been processed with errors, local authorities will receive individual emails for each school.

2.4  Viewing submitted data

Schools can view the data they have submitted by selecting the ‘Download processed teacher assessment data’ form in the ‘Available activity’ section on the PAG. This report will only show pupil data that has been uploaded successfully without any errors.

Local authorities also have access to the ‘Download processed teacher assessment data’ form. This allows local authorities to view successfully uploaded data for all their schools, including those they have a moderation agreement with.

Pupils with errors will be shown on the ‘Review teacher assessment errors’ form found in the ‘Outstanding activity’ section of the PAG.

Schools can also see a record of all TA files that have been submitted for their school, including any data submitted on their behalf by their local authority, by selecting the ‘View uploaded teacher assessment file’ form in the ‘Available activity’ section of the PAG.

Local authorities can see a record of all the data files submitted for their schools, either by the school or the local authority, by selecting the ‘View LA uploaded teacher assessment file’ in the ‘Available activity’ section in the PAG.

These forms will show you the:

  • name of the user who uploaded the file
  • upload date and time
  • processing status of the file
  • file uploaded – you can download this file, if required

3.  Review teacher assessment data errors

When schools and local authorities are uploading TA data, there may be some pupil data that does not successfully upload. In these cases, the email notification will advise of next steps.

Schools can view pupils with errors in the ‘Review teacher assessment errors’ form in the ‘Outstanding activity’ section of the PAG.

Local authorities submitting on behalf of schools will see a ‘Review teacher assessment errors’ form for each school where errors have occurred on submission, and can use the ‘Search’ field to filter by DfE Number if required.

Schools whose data has been submitted by the local authority on their behalf will also see the ‘Review teacher assessment errors’ form. Schools should discuss errors with the local authority before taking any recommended next steps.

To review TA errors, select ‘Edit’ and the form will provide details of the errors within the TA data upload. Further information about each table within the report can be found below.

3.1 Teacher assessment matched to pupil registration records with errors

Error : Pupils have been successfully matched to a pupil record that was provided during pupil registration, however there was an issue with the TA data.

Fix : An appropriate error message will be shown for the user to correct the TA submission. After completion the file should be re-uploaded.

3.2 Teacher assessments without pupil registration records

Error : Pupils cannot be matched to a pupil record that was provided during pupil registration. This may be because:

  • they were not registered on pupil registration (see section 3.6)
  • the personal details differ to what is held on pupil registration and has prevented the records from matching (see section 3.7)
  • the pupil was uploaded in error (see section 5)

Fix : Please refer to the appropriate section referred to above.

3.3 Pupil registration records without teacher assessment

Error : Registered pupils do not match any data within the TA upload.

Fix : If a pupil’s data is missing from the TA upload, the user will be required to re-submit the file with TA data for these pupils.

If data has been provided for these pupils, they may have different details to those provided during pupil registration and can be matched from the ‘Teacher assessments without pupil registration records’ table (see section 3.7).

3.4 Teacher assessment matched and successfully applied to pupil record

Data has successfully been uploaded for the pupils. No further action is required for pupils within this table.

3.5 Rejected teacher assessments

Error : Pupils have not been uploaded successfully and will need to be uploaded again.

Fix : An appropriate pupil-specific error message will be shown for the user to correct and re-upload the file - for example, an invalid or incorrectly formatted date of birth, or missing UPN.

3.6 Registering a new pupil in teacher assessment

Pupils should only be added to pupil registration if they were registered at your school during test week.

Pupils who appear in the ‘Teacher assessments without pupil registration records’ table can be added to the pupil registration data by selecting ‘Register pupil’ from the dropdown list to the left of the pupil’s name.

These pupils will then move to the ‘Additional pupils’ table. You should then select the relevant registration code for each test and select ‘Save’.

The ‘Registered’ code must only be used for pupils who sat the tests and should correspond with completed attendance registers. Once the above has been completed, select the ‘Submit’ button to complete the action.

The ‘Just arrived’ code must only be used for pupils who were registered at the school during test week but had recently joined the school, and there was not enough time for the school to establish the pupil was working at the standard of the tests. You can find more information in section 6.2 of the  KS2 assessment and reporting arrangements .

3.7 Matching teacher assessment data to an existing pupil record

Pupils may appear in the ‘Teacher assessments without pupil registration records’ table and the ‘Pupil registration without teacher assessment’ table.

This may be due to a difference in the personal details provided at pupil registration and those submitted as part of the TA upload.

In the ‘Pupil registration without teacher assessment’ table, you can manually match these records by selecting the correct pupil record from the dropdown box to the left of the pupil’s name.

If the pupil that you need to link to is not available in the dropdown list, but they appear in one of the other tables, then you may need to un-match the record in the other table first (see section 3.8).

3.8 Un-matching teacher assessment data

If a pupil has been successfully loaded and has been incorrectly matched to a pupil record, you can select the ‘Un-match’ button next to the pupil’s name in the ‘Teacher Assessment matched and successfully applied to pupil record’ table.

The uploaded pupil record and teacher assessment data will then appear in the ‘Teacher assessments without pupil registration record’ table and the un-matched pupil record will appear in the ‘Pupil registration record without teacher assessment’ table.

The pupil in the ‘Teacher assessments without pupil registration record’ table can then either be matched to the correct pupil (see section 3.7), registered (see 3.6), or removed by selecting ‘Remove Teacher Assessment’ (see section 5.2).

4.  Correcting errors

Once schools and local authorities have reviewed the ‘Review teacher assessment errors’ form, they should take corrective action (see section 3) and may need to re-submit corrected data by uploading the file again using the ‘Submit teacher assessment data’ form. The new submission will update the data that has been previously uploaded.

It is important to note that uploading a blank file will not remove pupils or data that has already been submitted.

When you re-submit corrected data, you only need to include the changes you wish to make. Data that was previously uploaded correctly does not need to be re-uploaded. You should also ensure the file name is in the correct format to avoid it creating additional errors (see section 2).

4.1  Wrong UPN

If a pupil’s UPN has changed since pupil registration - for example, a pupil was registered with a temporary UPN and has now been allocated a permanent UPN - you can update this by providing the new UPN when uploading TA data.

If you have already uploaded TA data for the pupil and you wish to change their UPN, you will need to upload the pupil again with the new UPN and all their TA data. Then, on the ‘Review teacher assessment errors’ form which will be created, you will first need to un-match the incorrect pupil entry from the ‘Teacher Assessment matched and successfully applied to pupil record’ table and then manually match the correct pupil (see section 3.8).

4.2  Wrong name, gender or date of birth

If the pupil details are incorrect in the TA spreadsheet template downloaded from the PAG, these cannot be changed as they are the pupil details confirmed during pupil registration.

If you have uploaded a pupil with different details to those already registered, you may need to manually match them to the correct record held (see section 3.8).

5.  Deleting pupils

5.1  when to delete a pupil.

A pupil should only be deleted from TA data if they were uploaded in error and were not registered on the PAG during pupil registration. Corrections to TA (see section 4) can be made by submitting another file, but this will only refresh the data and will not remove pupils or data that has already been submitted.

A pupil can be deleted by a school, or local authority submitting on behalf of the school, if they:

  • were not registered at your school during test week
  • are a duplicate, which means the pupil exists more than once in the submission – this may occur if the pupil was uploaded more than once but with different details

A pupil cannot be deleted if:

  • they have left the school but appear on the TA spreadsheet template: these pupils should be recorded as ‘L’ for all subjects
  • they have been uploaded with incorrect TA outcomes: these can be corrected by uploading another file which will refresh the data (see section 4 - please ensure the file name is in the correct format to avoid additional errors
  • they did not take the tests because they were working below the overall standard of the tests, unable to access the tests or were absent on the day of the tests: you should submit their TA data using the appropriate code – for more information, please refer to the KS2 teacher assessment guidance

5.2  How to delete a pupil

Schools and local authorities will only be able to delete pupils if they were not registered at the school on the PAG during pupil registration and therefore appear in the ‘Teacher assessments without pupil registration records’ table (see section 3.2) within the ‘Review teacher assessment errors’ form. To delete a pupil:

  • Select ‘Remove teacher assessment’ from the drop-down list to the left of the pupil’s name.
  • Click ‘OK’ on the box that will appear on screen to advise the pupil has been removed successfully.

If you have added a pupil (see section 3.6) to your pupil registration data in error whilst uploading your TA data, you must check they meet the criteria above. To report this and request removal, please contact the national curriculum assessments helpline on 0300 3030 3013. STA will then be able to take corrective action.

6.  Local authority summary reports

Local authorities can view and download a TA submission summary for their geographical schools and any non-geographical schools that notified STA they have a moderation agreement with your local authority. This is available via the ‘Teacher assessment submission summary reports – LA’ form in the ‘Available activity’ section on the PAG.

6.1  Generate school teacher assessment submission summary report

This report shows a school-level summary of TA that has, and has not, been submitted.

6.2  Generate expected teacher assessment pupils report

This report shows all schools and their pupils for whom TA data is required. It also indicates whether English reading and mathematics data is required in addition to writing and science.

6.3  Generate outstanding pupils teacher assessment report

This report includes the same information as the ‘Expected teacher assessment pupils report’, but only shows the pupils where TA data is still outstanding.

7.  Further information

STA has published videos to support schools and local authorities, including the:

  • ‘KS2 teacher assessment: how to submit your data’ video, which demonstrates how to submit data on the PAG:

KS2 teacher assessment: how to submit your data

  • ‘KS2 teacher assessment: resolving errors within submitted data’ video, which demonstrates how to view and correct errors found in your data submission:

KS2 teacher assessment: resolving errors within submitted data  

If you need support signing in to the PAG, you can find more information in the ‘Signing in’ section within the guidance on using the PAG .

For any other enquiries about submitting KS2 TA data, please contact the national curriculum assessments helpline on 0300 303 3013 or email  [email protected] .

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