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Understanding Data Presentations (Guide + Examples)

Cover for guide on data presentation by SlideModel

In this age of overwhelming information, the skill to effectively convey data has become extremely valuable. Initiating a discussion on data presentation types involves thoughtful consideration of the nature of your data and the message you aim to convey. Different types of visualizations serve distinct purposes. Whether you’re dealing with how to develop a report or simply trying to communicate complex information, how you present data influences how well your audience understands and engages with it. This extensive guide leads you through the different ways of data presentation.

Table of Contents

What is a Data Presentation?

What should a data presentation include, line graphs, treemap chart, scatter plot, how to choose a data presentation type, recommended data presentation templates, common mistakes done in data presentation.

A data presentation is a slide deck that aims to disclose quantitative information to an audience through the use of visual formats and narrative techniques derived from data analysis, making complex data understandable and actionable. This process requires a series of tools, such as charts, graphs, tables, infographics, dashboards, and so on, supported by concise textual explanations to improve understanding and boost retention rate.

Data presentations require us to cull data in a format that allows the presenter to highlight trends, patterns, and insights so that the audience can act upon the shared information. In a few words, the goal of data presentations is to enable viewers to grasp complicated concepts or trends quickly, facilitating informed decision-making or deeper analysis.

Data presentations go beyond the mere usage of graphical elements. Seasoned presenters encompass visuals with the art of data storytelling , so the speech skillfully connects the points through a narrative that resonates with the audience. Depending on the purpose – inspire, persuade, inform, support decision-making processes, etc. – is the data presentation format that is better suited to help us in this journey.

To nail your upcoming data presentation, ensure to count with the following elements:

  • Clear Objectives: Understand the intent of your presentation before selecting the graphical layout and metaphors to make content easier to grasp.
  • Engaging introduction: Use a powerful hook from the get-go. For instance, you can ask a big question or present a problem that your data will answer. Take a look at our guide on how to start a presentation for tips & insights.
  • Structured Narrative: Your data presentation must tell a coherent story. This means a beginning where you present the context, a middle section in which you present the data, and an ending that uses a call-to-action. Check our guide on presentation structure for further information.
  • Visual Elements: These are the charts, graphs, and other elements of visual communication we ought to use to present data. This article will cover one by one the different types of data representation methods we can use, and provide further guidance on choosing between them.
  • Insights and Analysis: This is not just showcasing a graph and letting people get an idea about it. A proper data presentation includes the interpretation of that data, the reason why it’s included, and why it matters to your research.
  • Conclusion & CTA: Ending your presentation with a call to action is necessary. Whether you intend to wow your audience into acquiring your services, inspire them to change the world, or whatever the purpose of your presentation, there must be a stage in which you convey all that you shared and show the path to staying in touch. Plan ahead whether you want to use a thank-you slide, a video presentation, or which method is apt and tailored to the kind of presentation you deliver.
  • Q&A Session: After your speech is concluded, allocate 3-5 minutes for the audience to raise any questions about the information you disclosed. This is an extra chance to establish your authority on the topic. Check our guide on questions and answer sessions in presentations here.

Bar charts are a graphical representation of data using rectangular bars to show quantities or frequencies in an established category. They make it easy for readers to spot patterns or trends. Bar charts can be horizontal or vertical, although the vertical format is commonly known as a column chart. They display categorical, discrete, or continuous variables grouped in class intervals [1] . They include an axis and a set of labeled bars horizontally or vertically. These bars represent the frequencies of variable values or the values themselves. Numbers on the y-axis of a vertical bar chart or the x-axis of a horizontal bar chart are called the scale.

Presentation of the data through bar charts

Real-Life Application of Bar Charts

Let’s say a sales manager is presenting sales to their audience. Using a bar chart, he follows these steps.

Step 1: Selecting Data

The first step is to identify the specific data you will present to your audience.

The sales manager has highlighted these products for the presentation.

  • Product A: Men’s Shoes
  • Product B: Women’s Apparel
  • Product C: Electronics
  • Product D: Home Decor

Step 2: Choosing Orientation

Opt for a vertical layout for simplicity. Vertical bar charts help compare different categories in case there are not too many categories [1] . They can also help show different trends. A vertical bar chart is used where each bar represents one of the four chosen products. After plotting the data, it is seen that the height of each bar directly represents the sales performance of the respective product.

It is visible that the tallest bar (Electronics – Product C) is showing the highest sales. However, the shorter bars (Women’s Apparel – Product B and Home Decor – Product D) need attention. It indicates areas that require further analysis or strategies for improvement.

Step 3: Colorful Insights

Different colors are used to differentiate each product. It is essential to show a color-coded chart where the audience can distinguish between products.

  • Men’s Shoes (Product A): Yellow
  • Women’s Apparel (Product B): Orange
  • Electronics (Product C): Violet
  • Home Decor (Product D): Blue

Accurate bar chart representation of data with a color coded legend

Bar charts are straightforward and easily understandable for presenting data. They are versatile when comparing products or any categorical data [2] . Bar charts adapt seamlessly to retail scenarios. Despite that, bar charts have a few shortcomings. They cannot illustrate data trends over time. Besides, overloading the chart with numerous products can lead to visual clutter, diminishing its effectiveness.

For more information, check our collection of bar chart templates for PowerPoint .

Line graphs help illustrate data trends, progressions, or fluctuations by connecting a series of data points called ‘markers’ with straight line segments. This provides a straightforward representation of how values change [5] . Their versatility makes them invaluable for scenarios requiring a visual understanding of continuous data. In addition, line graphs are also useful for comparing multiple datasets over the same timeline. Using multiple line graphs allows us to compare more than one data set. They simplify complex information so the audience can quickly grasp the ups and downs of values. From tracking stock prices to analyzing experimental results, you can use line graphs to show how data changes over a continuous timeline. They show trends with simplicity and clarity.

Real-life Application of Line Graphs

To understand line graphs thoroughly, we will use a real case. Imagine you’re a financial analyst presenting a tech company’s monthly sales for a licensed product over the past year. Investors want insights into sales behavior by month, how market trends may have influenced sales performance and reception to the new pricing strategy. To present data via a line graph, you will complete these steps.

First, you need to gather the data. In this case, your data will be the sales numbers. For example:

  • January: $45,000
  • February: $55,000
  • March: $45,000
  • April: $60,000
  • May: $ 70,000
  • June: $65,000
  • July: $62,000
  • August: $68,000
  • September: $81,000
  • October: $76,000
  • November: $87,000
  • December: $91,000

After choosing the data, the next step is to select the orientation. Like bar charts, you can use vertical or horizontal line graphs. However, we want to keep this simple, so we will keep the timeline (x-axis) horizontal while the sales numbers (y-axis) vertical.

Step 3: Connecting Trends

After adding the data to your preferred software, you will plot a line graph. In the graph, each month’s sales are represented by data points connected by a line.

Line graph in data presentation

Step 4: Adding Clarity with Color

If there are multiple lines, you can also add colors to highlight each one, making it easier to follow.

Line graphs excel at visually presenting trends over time. These presentation aids identify patterns, like upward or downward trends. However, too many data points can clutter the graph, making it harder to interpret. Line graphs work best with continuous data but are not suitable for categories.

For more information, check our collection of line chart templates for PowerPoint and our article about how to make a presentation graph .

A data dashboard is a visual tool for analyzing information. Different graphs, charts, and tables are consolidated in a layout to showcase the information required to achieve one or more objectives. Dashboards help quickly see Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). You don’t make new visuals in the dashboard; instead, you use it to display visuals you’ve already made in worksheets [3] .

Keeping the number of visuals on a dashboard to three or four is recommended. Adding too many can make it hard to see the main points [4]. Dashboards can be used for business analytics to analyze sales, revenue, and marketing metrics at a time. They are also used in the manufacturing industry, as they allow users to grasp the entire production scenario at the moment while tracking the core KPIs for each line.

Real-Life Application of a Dashboard

Consider a project manager presenting a software development project’s progress to a tech company’s leadership team. He follows the following steps.

Step 1: Defining Key Metrics

To effectively communicate the project’s status, identify key metrics such as completion status, budget, and bug resolution rates. Then, choose measurable metrics aligned with project objectives.

Step 2: Choosing Visualization Widgets

After finalizing the data, presentation aids that align with each metric are selected. For this project, the project manager chooses a progress bar for the completion status and uses bar charts for budget allocation. Likewise, he implements line charts for bug resolution rates.

Data analysis presentation example

Step 3: Dashboard Layout

Key metrics are prominently placed in the dashboard for easy visibility, and the manager ensures that it appears clean and organized.

Dashboards provide a comprehensive view of key project metrics. Users can interact with data, customize views, and drill down for detailed analysis. However, creating an effective dashboard requires careful planning to avoid clutter. Besides, dashboards rely on the availability and accuracy of underlying data sources.

For more information, check our article on how to design a dashboard presentation , and discover our collection of dashboard PowerPoint templates .

Treemap charts represent hierarchical data structured in a series of nested rectangles [6] . As each branch of the ‘tree’ is given a rectangle, smaller tiles can be seen representing sub-branches, meaning elements on a lower hierarchical level than the parent rectangle. Each one of those rectangular nodes is built by representing an area proportional to the specified data dimension.

Treemaps are useful for visualizing large datasets in compact space. It is easy to identify patterns, such as which categories are dominant. Common applications of the treemap chart are seen in the IT industry, such as resource allocation, disk space management, website analytics, etc. Also, they can be used in multiple industries like healthcare data analysis, market share across different product categories, or even in finance to visualize portfolios.

Real-Life Application of a Treemap Chart

Let’s consider a financial scenario where a financial team wants to represent the budget allocation of a company. There is a hierarchy in the process, so it is helpful to use a treemap chart. In the chart, the top-level rectangle could represent the total budget, and it would be subdivided into smaller rectangles, each denoting a specific department. Further subdivisions within these smaller rectangles might represent individual projects or cost categories.

Step 1: Define Your Data Hierarchy

While presenting data on the budget allocation, start by outlining the hierarchical structure. The sequence will be like the overall budget at the top, followed by departments, projects within each department, and finally, individual cost categories for each project.

  • Top-level rectangle: Total Budget
  • Second-level rectangles: Departments (Engineering, Marketing, Sales)
  • Third-level rectangles: Projects within each department
  • Fourth-level rectangles: Cost categories for each project (Personnel, Marketing Expenses, Equipment)

Step 2: Choose a Suitable Tool

It’s time to select a data visualization tool supporting Treemaps. Popular choices include Tableau, Microsoft Power BI, PowerPoint, or even coding with libraries like D3.js. It is vital to ensure that the chosen tool provides customization options for colors, labels, and hierarchical structures.

Here, the team uses PowerPoint for this guide because of its user-friendly interface and robust Treemap capabilities.

Step 3: Make a Treemap Chart with PowerPoint

After opening the PowerPoint presentation, they chose “SmartArt” to form the chart. The SmartArt Graphic window has a “Hierarchy” category on the left.  Here, you will see multiple options. You can choose any layout that resembles a Treemap. The “Table Hierarchy” or “Organization Chart” options can be adapted. The team selects the Table Hierarchy as it looks close to a Treemap.

Step 5: Input Your Data

After that, a new window will open with a basic structure. They add the data one by one by clicking on the text boxes. They start with the top-level rectangle, representing the total budget.  

Treemap used for presenting data

Step 6: Customize the Treemap

By clicking on each shape, they customize its color, size, and label. At the same time, they can adjust the font size, style, and color of labels by using the options in the “Format” tab in PowerPoint. Using different colors for each level enhances the visual difference.

Treemaps excel at illustrating hierarchical structures. These charts make it easy to understand relationships and dependencies. They efficiently use space, compactly displaying a large amount of data, reducing the need for excessive scrolling or navigation. Additionally, using colors enhances the understanding of data by representing different variables or categories.

In some cases, treemaps might become complex, especially with deep hierarchies.  It becomes challenging for some users to interpret the chart. At the same time, displaying detailed information within each rectangle might be constrained by space. It potentially limits the amount of data that can be shown clearly. Without proper labeling and color coding, there’s a risk of misinterpretation.

A heatmap is a data visualization tool that uses color coding to represent values across a two-dimensional surface. In these, colors replace numbers to indicate the magnitude of each cell. This color-shaded matrix display is valuable for summarizing and understanding data sets with a glance [7] . The intensity of the color corresponds to the value it represents, making it easy to identify patterns, trends, and variations in the data.

As a tool, heatmaps help businesses analyze website interactions, revealing user behavior patterns and preferences to enhance overall user experience. In addition, companies use heatmaps to assess content engagement, identifying popular sections and areas of improvement for more effective communication. They excel at highlighting patterns and trends in large datasets, making it easy to identify areas of interest.

We can implement heatmaps to express multiple data types, such as numerical values, percentages, or even categorical data. Heatmaps help us easily spot areas with lots of activity, making them helpful in figuring out clusters [8] . When making these maps, it is important to pick colors carefully. The colors need to show the differences between groups or levels of something. And it is good to use colors that people with colorblindness can easily see.

Check our detailed guide on how to create a heatmap here. Also discover our collection of heatmap PowerPoint templates .

Pie charts are circular statistical graphics divided into slices to illustrate numerical proportions. Each slice represents a proportionate part of the whole, making it easy to visualize the contribution of each component to the total.

The size of the pie charts is influenced by the value of data points within each pie. The total of all data points in a pie determines its size. The pie with the highest data points appears as the largest, whereas the others are proportionally smaller. However, you can present all pies of the same size if proportional representation is not required [9] . Sometimes, pie charts are difficult to read, or additional information is required. A variation of this tool can be used instead, known as the donut chart , which has the same structure but a blank center, creating a ring shape. Presenters can add extra information, and the ring shape helps to declutter the graph.

Pie charts are used in business to show percentage distribution, compare relative sizes of categories, or present straightforward data sets where visualizing ratios is essential.

Real-Life Application of Pie Charts

Consider a scenario where you want to represent the distribution of the data. Each slice of the pie chart would represent a different category, and the size of each slice would indicate the percentage of the total portion allocated to that category.

Step 1: Define Your Data Structure

Imagine you are presenting the distribution of a project budget among different expense categories.

  • Column A: Expense Categories (Personnel, Equipment, Marketing, Miscellaneous)
  • Column B: Budget Amounts ($40,000, $30,000, $20,000, $10,000) Column B represents the values of your categories in Column A.

Step 2: Insert a Pie Chart

Using any of the accessible tools, you can create a pie chart. The most convenient tools for forming a pie chart in a presentation are presentation tools such as PowerPoint or Google Slides.  You will notice that the pie chart assigns each expense category a percentage of the total budget by dividing it by the total budget.

For instance:

  • Personnel: $40,000 / ($40,000 + $30,000 + $20,000 + $10,000) = 40%
  • Equipment: $30,000 / ($40,000 + $30,000 + $20,000 + $10,000) = 30%
  • Marketing: $20,000 / ($40,000 + $30,000 + $20,000 + $10,000) = 20%
  • Miscellaneous: $10,000 / ($40,000 + $30,000 + $20,000 + $10,000) = 10%

You can make a chart out of this or just pull out the pie chart from the data.

Pie chart template in data presentation

3D pie charts and 3D donut charts are quite popular among the audience. They stand out as visual elements in any presentation slide, so let’s take a look at how our pie chart example would look in 3D pie chart format.

3D pie chart in data presentation

Step 03: Results Interpretation

The pie chart visually illustrates the distribution of the project budget among different expense categories. Personnel constitutes the largest portion at 40%, followed by equipment at 30%, marketing at 20%, and miscellaneous at 10%. This breakdown provides a clear overview of where the project funds are allocated, which helps in informed decision-making and resource management. It is evident that personnel are a significant investment, emphasizing their importance in the overall project budget.

Pie charts provide a straightforward way to represent proportions and percentages. They are easy to understand, even for individuals with limited data analysis experience. These charts work well for small datasets with a limited number of categories.

However, a pie chart can become cluttered and less effective in situations with many categories. Accurate interpretation may be challenging, especially when dealing with slight differences in slice sizes. In addition, these charts are static and do not effectively convey trends over time.

For more information, check our collection of pie chart templates for PowerPoint .

Histograms present the distribution of numerical variables. Unlike a bar chart that records each unique response separately, histograms organize numeric responses into bins and show the frequency of reactions within each bin [10] . The x-axis of a histogram shows the range of values for a numeric variable. At the same time, the y-axis indicates the relative frequencies (percentage of the total counts) for that range of values.

Whenever you want to understand the distribution of your data, check which values are more common, or identify outliers, histograms are your go-to. Think of them as a spotlight on the story your data is telling. A histogram can provide a quick and insightful overview if you’re curious about exam scores, sales figures, or any numerical data distribution.

Real-Life Application of a Histogram

In the histogram data analysis presentation example, imagine an instructor analyzing a class’s grades to identify the most common score range. A histogram could effectively display the distribution. It will show whether most students scored in the average range or if there are significant outliers.

Step 1: Gather Data

He begins by gathering the data. The scores of each student in class are gathered to analyze exam scores.

After arranging the scores in ascending order, bin ranges are set.

Step 2: Define Bins

Bins are like categories that group similar values. Think of them as buckets that organize your data. The presenter decides how wide each bin should be based on the range of the values. For instance, the instructor sets the bin ranges based on score intervals: 60-69, 70-79, 80-89, and 90-100.

Step 3: Count Frequency

Now, he counts how many data points fall into each bin. This step is crucial because it tells you how often specific ranges of values occur. The result is the frequency distribution, showing the occurrences of each group.

Here, the instructor counts the number of students in each category.

  • 60-69: 1 student (Kate)
  • 70-79: 4 students (David, Emma, Grace, Jack)
  • 80-89: 7 students (Alice, Bob, Frank, Isabel, Liam, Mia, Noah)
  • 90-100: 3 students (Clara, Henry, Olivia)

Step 4: Create the Histogram

It’s time to turn the data into a visual representation. Draw a bar for each bin on a graph. The width of the bar should correspond to the range of the bin, and the height should correspond to the frequency.  To make your histogram understandable, label the X and Y axes.

In this case, the X-axis should represent the bins (e.g., test score ranges), and the Y-axis represents the frequency.

Histogram in Data Presentation

The histogram of the class grades reveals insightful patterns in the distribution. Most students, with seven students, fall within the 80-89 score range. The histogram provides a clear visualization of the class’s performance. It showcases a concentration of grades in the upper-middle range with few outliers at both ends. This analysis helps in understanding the overall academic standing of the class. It also identifies the areas for potential improvement or recognition.

Thus, histograms provide a clear visual representation of data distribution. They are easy to interpret, even for those without a statistical background. They apply to various types of data, including continuous and discrete variables. One weak point is that histograms do not capture detailed patterns in students’ data, with seven compared to other visualization methods.

A scatter plot is a graphical representation of the relationship between two variables. It consists of individual data points on a two-dimensional plane. This plane plots one variable on the x-axis and the other on the y-axis. Each point represents a unique observation. It visualizes patterns, trends, or correlations between the two variables.

Scatter plots are also effective in revealing the strength and direction of relationships. They identify outliers and assess the overall distribution of data points. The points’ dispersion and clustering reflect the relationship’s nature, whether it is positive, negative, or lacks a discernible pattern. In business, scatter plots assess relationships between variables such as marketing cost and sales revenue. They help present data correlations and decision-making.

Real-Life Application of Scatter Plot

A group of scientists is conducting a study on the relationship between daily hours of screen time and sleep quality. After reviewing the data, they managed to create this table to help them build a scatter plot graph:

In the provided example, the x-axis represents Daily Hours of Screen Time, and the y-axis represents the Sleep Quality Rating.

Scatter plot in data presentation

The scientists observe a negative correlation between the amount of screen time and the quality of sleep. This is consistent with their hypothesis that blue light, especially before bedtime, has a significant impact on sleep quality and metabolic processes.

There are a few things to remember when using a scatter plot. Even when a scatter diagram indicates a relationship, it doesn’t mean one variable affects the other. A third factor can influence both variables. The more the plot resembles a straight line, the stronger the relationship is perceived [11] . If it suggests no ties, the observed pattern might be due to random fluctuations in data. When the scatter diagram depicts no correlation, whether the data might be stratified is worth considering.

Choosing the appropriate data presentation type is crucial when making a presentation . Understanding the nature of your data and the message you intend to convey will guide this selection process. For instance, when showcasing quantitative relationships, scatter plots become instrumental in revealing correlations between variables. If the focus is on emphasizing parts of a whole, pie charts offer a concise display of proportions. Histograms, on the other hand, prove valuable for illustrating distributions and frequency patterns. 

Bar charts provide a clear visual comparison of different categories. Likewise, line charts excel in showcasing trends over time, while tables are ideal for detailed data examination. Starting a presentation on data presentation types involves evaluating the specific information you want to communicate and selecting the format that aligns with your message. This ensures clarity and resonance with your audience from the beginning of your presentation.

1. Fact Sheet Dashboard for Data Presentation

data presentation code used in computer

Convey all the data you need to present in this one-pager format, an ideal solution tailored for users looking for presentation aids. Global maps, donut chats, column graphs, and text neatly arranged in a clean layout presented in light and dark themes.

Use This Template

2. 3D Column Chart Infographic PPT Template

data presentation code used in computer

Represent column charts in a highly visual 3D format with this PPT template. A creative way to present data, this template is entirely editable, and we can craft either a one-page infographic or a series of slides explaining what we intend to disclose point by point.

3. Data Circles Infographic PowerPoint Template

data presentation code used in computer

An alternative to the pie chart and donut chart diagrams, this template features a series of curved shapes with bubble callouts as ways of presenting data. Expand the information for each arch in the text placeholder areas.

4. Colorful Metrics Dashboard for Data Presentation

data presentation code used in computer

This versatile dashboard template helps us in the presentation of the data by offering several graphs and methods to convert numbers into graphics. Implement it for e-commerce projects, financial projections, project development, and more.

5. Animated Data Presentation Tools for PowerPoint & Google Slides

Canvas Shape Tree Diagram Template

A slide deck filled with most of the tools mentioned in this article, from bar charts, column charts, treemap graphs, pie charts, histogram, etc. Animated effects make each slide look dynamic when sharing data with stakeholders.

6. Statistics Waffle Charts PPT Template for Data Presentations

data presentation code used in computer

This PPT template helps us how to present data beyond the typical pie chart representation. It is widely used for demographics, so it’s a great fit for marketing teams, data science professionals, HR personnel, and more.

7. Data Presentation Dashboard Template for Google Slides

data presentation code used in computer

A compendium of tools in dashboard format featuring line graphs, bar charts, column charts, and neatly arranged placeholder text areas. 

8. Weather Dashboard for Data Presentation

data presentation code used in computer

Share weather data for agricultural presentation topics, environmental studies, or any kind of presentation that requires a highly visual layout for weather forecasting on a single day. Two color themes are available.

9. Social Media Marketing Dashboard Data Presentation Template

data presentation code used in computer

Intended for marketing professionals, this dashboard template for data presentation is a tool for presenting data analytics from social media channels. Two slide layouts featuring line graphs and column charts.

10. Project Management Summary Dashboard Template

data presentation code used in computer

A tool crafted for project managers to deliver highly visual reports on a project’s completion, the profits it delivered for the company, and expenses/time required to execute it. 4 different color layouts are available.

11. Profit & Loss Dashboard for PowerPoint and Google Slides

data presentation code used in computer

A must-have for finance professionals. This typical profit & loss dashboard includes progress bars, donut charts, column charts, line graphs, and everything that’s required to deliver a comprehensive report about a company’s financial situation.

Overwhelming visuals

One of the mistakes related to using data-presenting methods is including too much data or using overly complex visualizations. They can confuse the audience and dilute the key message.

Inappropriate chart types

Choosing the wrong type of chart for the data at hand can lead to misinterpretation. For example, using a pie chart for data that doesn’t represent parts of a whole is not right.

Lack of context

Failing to provide context or sufficient labeling can make it challenging for the audience to understand the significance of the presented data.

Inconsistency in design

Using inconsistent design elements and color schemes across different visualizations can create confusion and visual disarray.

Failure to provide details

Simply presenting raw data without offering clear insights or takeaways can leave the audience without a meaningful conclusion.

Lack of focus

Not having a clear focus on the key message or main takeaway can result in a presentation that lacks a central theme.

Visual accessibility issues

Overlooking the visual accessibility of charts and graphs can exclude certain audience members who may have difficulty interpreting visual information.

In order to avoid these mistakes in data presentation, presenters can benefit from using presentation templates . These templates provide a structured framework. They ensure consistency, clarity, and an aesthetically pleasing design, enhancing data communication’s overall impact.

Understanding and choosing data presentation types are pivotal in effective communication. Each method serves a unique purpose, so selecting the appropriate one depends on the nature of the data and the message to be conveyed. The diverse array of presentation types offers versatility in visually representing information, from bar charts showing values to pie charts illustrating proportions. 

Using the proper method enhances clarity, engages the audience, and ensures that data sets are not just presented but comprehensively understood. By appreciating the strengths and limitations of different presentation types, communicators can tailor their approach to convey information accurately, developing a deeper connection between data and audience understanding.

[1] Government of Canada, S.C. (2021) 5 Data Visualization 5.2 Bar Chart , 5.2 Bar chart .  https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/edu/power-pouvoir/ch9/bargraph-diagrammeabarres/5214818-eng.htm

[2] Kosslyn, S.M., 1989. Understanding charts and graphs. Applied cognitive psychology, 3(3), pp.185-225. https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA183409.pdf

[3] Creating a Dashboard . https://it.tufts.edu/book/export/html/1870

[4] https://www.goldenwestcollege.edu/research/data-and-more/data-dashboards/index.html

[5] https://www.mit.edu/course/21/21.guide/grf-line.htm

[6] Jadeja, M. and Shah, K., 2015, January. Tree-Map: A Visualization Tool for Large Data. In GSB@ SIGIR (pp. 9-13). https://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1393/gsb15proceedings.pdf#page=15

[7] Heat Maps and Quilt Plots. https://www.publichealth.columbia.edu/research/population-health-methods/heat-maps-and-quilt-plots

[8] EIU QGIS WORKSHOP. https://www.eiu.edu/qgisworkshop/heatmaps.php

[9] About Pie Charts.  https://www.mit.edu/~mbarker/formula1/f1help/11-ch-c8.htm

[10] Histograms. https://sites.utexas.edu/sos/guided/descriptive/numericaldd/descriptiven2/histogram/ [11] https://asq.org/quality-resources/scatter-diagram

data presentation code used in computer

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Data Representation in Computer: Number Systems, Characters, Audio, Image and Video

  • by Anuj Kumar
  • 16 July 2021 16 February 2024
  • Computer Science

Table of Contents

  • 1 What is Data Representation in Computer?
  • 2.1 Binary Number System
  • 2.2 Octal Number System
  • 2.3 Decimal Number System
  • 2.4 Hexadecimal Number System
  • 3.4 Unicode
  • 4 Data Representation of Audio, Image and Video
  • 5.1 What is number system with example?

What is Data Representation in Computer?

A computer uses a fixed number of bits to represent a piece of data which could be a number, a character, image, sound, video, etc. Data representation is the method used internally to represent data in a computer. Let us see how various types of data can be represented in computer memory.

Before discussing data representation of numbers, let us see what a number system is.

Number Systems

Number systems are the technique to represent numbers in the computer system architecture, every value that you are saving or getting into/from computer memory has a defined number system.

A number is a mathematical object used to count, label, and measure. A number system is a systematic way to represent numbers. The number system we use in our day-to-day life is the decimal number system that uses 10 symbols or digits.

The number 289 is pronounced as two hundred and eighty-nine and it consists of the symbols 2, 8, and 9. Similarly, there are other number systems. Each has its own symbols and method for constructing a number.

A number system has a unique base, which depends upon the number of symbols. The number of symbols used in a number system is called the base or radix of a number system.

Let us discuss some of the number systems. Computer architecture supports the following number of systems:

Binary Number System

Octal number system, decimal number system, hexadecimal number system.

Number Systems

A Binary number system has only two digits that are 0 and 1. Every number (value) represents 0 and 1 in this number system. The base of the binary number system is 2 because it has only two digits.

The octal number system has only eight (8) digits from 0 to 7. Every number (value) represents with 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7 in this number system. The base of the octal number system is 8, because it has only 8 digits.

The decimal number system has only ten (10) digits from 0 to 9. Every number (value) represents with 0,1,2,3,4,5,6, 7,8 and 9 in this number system. The base of decimal number system is 10, because it has only 10 digits.

A Hexadecimal number system has sixteen (16) alphanumeric values from 0 to 9 and A to F. Every number (value) represents with 0,1,2,3,4,5,6, 7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E and F in this number system. The base of the hexadecimal number system is 16, because it has 16 alphanumeric values.

Here A is 10, B is 11, C is 12, D is 13, E is 14 and F is 15 .

Data Representation of Characters

There are different methods to represent characters . Some of them are discussed below:

Data Representation of Characters

The code called ASCII (pronounced ‘􀀏’.S-key”), which stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange, uses 7 bits to represent each character in computer memory. The ASCII representation has been adopted as a standard by the U.S. government and is widely accepted.

A unique integer number is assigned to each character. This number called ASCII code of that character is converted into binary for storing in memory. For example, the ASCII code of A is 65, its binary equivalent in 7-bit is 1000001.

Since there are exactly 128 unique combinations of 7 bits, this 7-bit code can represent only128 characters. Another version is ASCII-8, also called extended ASCII, which uses 8 bits for each character, can represent 256 different characters.

For example, the letter A is represented by 01000001, B by 01000010 and so on. ASCII code is enough to represent all of the standard keyboard characters.

It stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. This is similar to ASCII and is an 8-bit code used in computers manufactured by International Business Machines (IBM). It is capable of encoding 256 characters.

If ASCII-coded data is to be used in a computer that uses EBCDIC representation, it is necessary to transform ASCII code to EBCDIC code. Similarly, if EBCDIC coded data is to be used in an ASCII computer, EBCDIC code has to be transformed to ASCII.

ISCII stands for Indian Standard Code for Information Interchange or Indian Script Code for Information Interchange. It is an encoding scheme for representing various writing systems of India. ISCII uses 8-bits for data representation.

It was evolved by a standardization committee under the Department of Electronics during 1986-88 and adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Nowadays ISCII has been replaced by Unicode.

Using 8-bit ASCII we can represent only 256 characters. This cannot represent all characters of written languages of the world and other symbols. Unicode is developed to resolve this problem. It aims to provide a standard character encoding scheme, which is universal and efficient.

It provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the language and platform be. Unicode originally used 16 bits which can represent up to 65,536 characters. It is maintained by a non-profit organization called the Unicode Consortium.

The Consortium first published version 1.0.0 in 1991 and continues to develop standards based on that original work. Nowadays Unicode uses more than 16 bits and hence it can represent more characters. Unicode can represent characters in almost all written languages of the world.

Data Representation of Audio, Image and Video

In most cases, we may have to represent and process data other than numbers and characters. This may include audio data, images, and videos. We can see that like numbers and characters, the audio, image, and video data also carry information.

We will see different file formats for storing sound, image, and video .

Multimedia data such as audio, image, and video are stored in different types of files. The variety of file formats is due to the fact that there are quite a few approaches to compressing the data and a number of different ways of packaging the data.

For example, an image is most popularly stored in Joint Picture Experts Group (JPEG ) file format. An image file consists of two parts – header information and image data. Information such as the name of the file, size, modified data, file format, etc. is stored in the header part.

The intensity value of all pixels is stored in the data part of the file. The data can be stored uncompressed or compressed to reduce the file size. Normally, the image data is stored in compressed form. Let us understand what compression is.

Take a simple example of a pure black image of size 400X400 pixels. We can repeat the information black, black, …, black in all 16,0000 (400X400) pixels. This is the uncompressed form, while in the compressed form black is stored only once and information to repeat it 1,60,000 times is also stored.

Numerous such techniques are used to achieve compression. Depending on the application, images are stored in various file formats such as bitmap file format (BMP), Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), Portable (Public) Network Graphic (PNG).

What we said about the header file information and compression is also applicable for audio and video files. Digital audio data can be stored in different file formats like WAV, MP3, MIDI, AIFF, etc. An audio file describes a format, sometimes referred to as the ‘container format’, for storing digital audio data.

For example, WAV file format typically contains uncompressed sound and MP3 files typically contain compressed audio data. The synthesized music data is stored in MIDI(Musical Instrument Digital Interface) files.

Similarly, video is also stored in different files such as AVI (Audio Video Interleave) – a file format designed to store both audio and video data in a standard package that allows synchronous audio with video playback, MP3, JPEG-2, WMV, etc.

FAQs About Data Representation in Computer

What is number system with example.

Let us discuss some of the number systems. Computer architecture supports the following number of systems: 1. Binary Number System 2. Octal Number System 3. Decimal Number System 4. Hexadecimal Number System

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Computers and the Internet

Course: computers and the internet   >   unit 1, how do computers represent data.

  • Binary & data
  • Bits (binary digits)

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Data representation

data presentation code used in computer

Computers use binary - the digits 0 and 1 - to store data. A binary digit, or bit, is the smallest unit of data in computing. It is represented by a 0 or a 1. Binary numbers are made up of binary digits (bits), eg the binary number 1001. The circuits in a computer's processor are made up of billions of transistors. A transistor is a tiny switch that is activated by the electronic signals it receives. The digits 1 and 0 used in binary reflect the on and off states of a transistor. Computer programs are sets of instructions. Each instruction is translated into machine code - simple binary codes that activate the CPU. Programmers write computer code and this is converted by a translator into binary instructions that the processor can execute. All software, music, documents, and any other information that is processed by a computer, is also stored using binary. [1]

To include strings, integers, characters and colours. This should include considering the space taken by data, for instance the relation between the hexadecimal representation of colours and the number of colours available.

This video is superb place to understand this topic

  • 1 How a file is stored on a computer
  • 2 How an image is stored in a computer
  • 3 The way in which data is represented in the computer.
  • 6 Standards
  • 7 References

How a file is stored on a computer [ edit ]

How an image is stored in a computer [ edit ]

The way in which data is represented in the computer. [ edit ].

To include strings, integers, characters and colours. This should include considering the space taken by data, for instance the relation between the hexadecimal representation of colours and the number of colours available [3] .

This helpful material is used with gratitude from a computer science wiki under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License [4]

Sound [ edit ]

  • Let's look at an oscilloscope
  • The BBC has an excellent article on how computers represent sound

See Also [ edit ]

Standards [ edit ].

  • Outline the way in which data is represented in the computer.

References [ edit ]

  • ↑ http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zwsbwmn/revision/1
  • ↑ https://ujjwalkarn.me/2016/08/11/intuitive-explanation-convnets/
  • ↑ IBO Computer Science Guide, First exams 2014
  • ↑ https://compsci2014.wikispaces.com/2.1.10+Outline+the+way+in+which+data+is+represented+in+the+computer

A unit of abstract mathematical system subject to the laws of arithmetic.

A natural number, a negative of a natural number, or zero.

Give a brief account.

  • Computer organization
  • Very important ideas in computer science

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data presentation code used in computer

It is the simplest form of data Presentation often used in schools or universities to provide a clearer picture to students, who are better able to capture the concepts effectively through a pictorial Presentation of simple data.

2. Column chart

data presentation code used in computer

It is a simplified version of the pictorial Presentation which involves the management of a larger amount of data being shared during the presentations and providing suitable clarity to the insights of the data.

3. Pie Charts


Pie charts provide a very descriptive & a 2D depiction of the data pertaining to comparisons or resemblance of data in two separate fields.

4. Bar charts


A bar chart that shows the accumulation of data with cuboid bars with different dimensions & lengths which are directly proportionate to the values they represent. The bars can be placed either vertically or horizontally depending on the data being represented.

5. Histograms

data presentation code used in computer

It is a perfect Presentation of the spread of numerical data. The main differentiation that separates data graphs and histograms are the gaps in the data graphs.

6. Box plots


Box plot or Box-plot is a way of representing groups of numerical data through quartiles. Data Presentation is easier with this style of graph dealing with the extraction of data to the minutes of difference.

data presentation code used in computer

Map Data graphs help you with data Presentation over an area to display the areas of concern. Map graphs are useful to make an exact depiction of data over a vast case scenario.

All these visual presentations share a common goal of creating meaningful insights and a platform to understand and manage the data in relation to the growth and expansion of one’s in-depth understanding of data & details to plan or execute future decisions or actions.

Importance of Data Presentation

Data Presentation could be both can be a deal maker or deal breaker based on the delivery of the content in the context of visual depiction.

Data Presentation tools are powerful communication tools that can simplify the data by making it easily understandable & readable at the same time while attracting & keeping the interest of its readers and effectively showcase large amounts of complex data in a simplified manner.

If the user can create an insightful presentation of the data in hand with the same sets of facts and figures, then the results promise to be impressive.

There have been situations where the user has had a great amount of data and vision for expansion but the presentation drowned his/her vision.

To impress the higher management and top brass of a firm, effective presentation of data is needed.

Data Presentation helps the clients or the audience to not spend time grasping the concept and the future alternatives of the business and to convince them to invest in the company & turn it profitable both for the investors & the company.

Although data presentation has a lot to offer, the following are some of the major reason behind the essence of an effective presentation:-

  • Many consumers or higher authorities are interested in the interpretation of data, not the raw data itself. Therefore, after the analysis of the data, users should represent the data with a visual aspect for better understanding and knowledge.
  • The user should not overwhelm the audience with a number of slides of the presentation and inject an ample amount of texts as pictures that will speak for themselves.
  • Data presentation often happens in a nutshell with each department showcasing their achievements towards company growth through a graph or a histogram.
  • Providing a brief description would help the user to attain attention in a small amount of time while informing the audience about the context of the presentation
  • The inclusion of pictures, charts, graphs and tables in the presentation help for better understanding the potential outcomes.
  • An effective presentation would allow the organization to determine the difference with the fellow organization and acknowledge its flaws. Comparison of data would assist them in decision making.

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Present Your Data Like a Pro

  • Joel Schwartzberg

data presentation code used in computer

Demystify the numbers. Your audience will thank you.

While a good presentation has data, data alone doesn’t guarantee a good presentation. It’s all about how that data is presented. The quickest way to confuse your audience is by sharing too many details at once. The only data points you should share are those that significantly support your point — and ideally, one point per chart. To avoid the debacle of sheepishly translating hard-to-see numbers and labels, rehearse your presentation with colleagues sitting as far away as the actual audience would. While you’ve been working with the same chart for weeks or months, your audience will be exposed to it for mere seconds. Give them the best chance of comprehending your data by using simple, clear, and complete language to identify X and Y axes, pie pieces, bars, and other diagrammatic elements. Try to avoid abbreviations that aren’t obvious, and don’t assume labeled components on one slide will be remembered on subsequent slides. Every valuable chart or pie graph has an “Aha!” zone — a number or range of data that reveals something crucial to your point. Make sure you visually highlight the “Aha!” zone, reinforcing the moment by explaining it to your audience.

With so many ways to spin and distort information these days, a presentation needs to do more than simply share great ideas — it needs to support those ideas with credible data. That’s true whether you’re an executive pitching new business clients, a vendor selling her services, or a CEO making a case for change.

data presentation code used in computer

  • JS Joel Schwartzberg oversees executive communications for a major national nonprofit, is a professional presentation coach, and is the author of Get to the Point! Sharpen Your Message and Make Your Words Matter and The Language of Leadership: How to Engage and Inspire Your Team . You can find him on LinkedIn and X. TheJoelTruth

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Chapter 18. Data Analysis and Coding


Piled before you lie hundreds of pages of fieldnotes you have taken, observations you’ve made while volunteering at city hall. You also have transcripts of interviews you have conducted with the mayor and city council members. What do you do with all this data? How can you use it to answer your original research question (e.g., “How do political polarization and party membership affect local politics?”)? Before you can make sense of your data, you will have to organize and simplify it in a way that allows you to access it more deeply and thoroughly. We call this process coding . [1] Coding is the iterative process of assigning meaning to the data you have collected in order to both simplify and identify patterns. This chapter introduces you to the process of qualitative data analysis and the basic concept of coding, while the following chapter (chapter 19) will take you further into the various kinds of codes and how to use them effectively.

To those who have not yet conducted a qualitative study, the sheer amount of collected data will be a surprise. Qualitative data can be absolutely overwhelming—it may mean hundreds if not thousands of pages of interview transcripts, or fieldnotes, or retrieved documents. How do you make sense of it? Students often want very clear guidelines here, and although I try to accommodate them as much as possible, in the end, analyzing qualitative data is a bit more of an art than a science: “The process of bringing order, structure, and interpretation to a mass of collected data is messy, ambiguous, time-consuming, creative, and fascinating. It does not proceed in a linear fashion: it is not neat. At times, the researcher may feel like an eccentric and tormented artist; not to worry, this is normal” ( Marshall and Rossman 2016:214 ).

To complicate matters further, each approach (e.g., Grounded Theory, deep ethnography, phenomenology) has its own language and bag of tricks (techniques) when it comes to analysis. Grounded Theory, for example, uses in vivo coding to generate new theoretical insights that emerge from a rigorous but open approach to data analysis. Ethnographers, in contrast, are more focused on creating a rich description of the practices, behaviors, and beliefs that operate in a particular field. They are less interested in generating theory and more interested in getting the picture right, valuing verisimilitude in the presentation. And then there are some researchers who seek to account for the qualitative data using almost quantitative methods of analysis, perhaps counting and comparing the uses of certain narrative frames in media accounts of a phenomenon. Qualitative content analysis (QCA) often includes elements of counting (see chapter 17). For these researchers, having very clear hypotheses and clearly defined “variables” before beginning analysis is standard practice, whereas the same would be expressly forbidden by those researchers, like grounded theorists, taking a more emergent approach.

All that said, there are some helpful techniques to get you started, and these will be presented in this and the following chapter. As you become more of an expert yourself, you may want to read more deeply about the tradition that speaks to your research. But know that there are many excellent qualitative researchers that use what works for any given study, who take what they can from each tradition. Most of us find this permissible (but watch out for the methodological purists that exist among us).


Qualitative Data Analysis as a Long Process!

Although most of this and the following chapter will focus on coding, it is important to understand that coding is just one (very important) aspect of the long data-analysis process. We can consider seven phases of data analysis, each of which is important for moving your voluminous data into “findings” that can be reported to others. The first phase involves data organization. This might mean creating a special password-protected Dropbox folder for storing your digital files. It might mean acquiring computer-assisted qualitative data-analysis software ( CAQDAS ) and uploading all transcripts, fieldnotes, and digital files to its storage repository for eventual coding and analysis. Finding a helpful way to store your material can take a lot of time, and you need to be smart about this from the very beginning. Losing data because of poor filing systems or mislabeling is something you want to avoid. You will also want to ensure that you have procedures in place to protect the confidentiality of your interviewees and informants. Filing signed consent forms (with names) separately from transcripts and linking them through an ID number or other code that only you have access to (and store safely) are important.

Once you have all of your material safely and conveniently stored, you will need to immerse yourself in the data. The second phase consists of reading and rereading or viewing and reviewing all of your data. As you do this, you can begin to identify themes or patterns in the data, perhaps writing short memos to yourself about what you are seeing. You are not committing to anything in this third phase but rather keeping your eyes and mind open to what you see. In an actual study, you may very well still be “in the field” or collecting interviews as you do this, and what you see might push you toward either concluding your data collection or expanding so that you can follow a particular group or factor that is emerging as important. For example, you may have interviewed twelve international college students about how they are adjusting to life in the US but realized as you read your transcripts that important gender differences may exist and you have only interviewed two women (and ten men). So you go back out and make sure you have enough female respondents to check your impression that gender matters here. The seven phases do not proceed entirely linearly! It is best to think of them as recursive; conceptually, there is a path to follow, but it meanders and flows.

Coding is the activity of the fourth phase . The second part of this chapter and all of chapter 19 will focus on coding in greater detail. For now, know that coding is the primary tool for analyzing qualitative data and that its purpose is to both simplify and highlight the important elements buried in mounds of data. Coding is a rigorous and systematic process of identifying meaning, patterns, and relationships. It is a more formal extension of what you, as a conscious human being, are trained to do every day when confronting new material and experiences. The “trick” or skill is to learn how to take what you do naturally and semiconsciously in your mind and put it down on paper so it can be documented and verified and tested and refined.

At the conclusion of the coding phase, your material will be searchable, intelligible, and ready for deeper analysis. You can begin to offer interpretations based on all the work you have done so far. This fifth phase might require you to write analytic memos, beginning with short (perhaps a paragraph or two) interpretations of various aspects of the data. You might then attempt stitching together both reflective and analytical memos into longer (up to five pages) general interpretations or theories about the relationships, activities, patterns you have noted as salient.

As you do this, you may be rereading the data, or parts of the data, and reviewing your codes. It’s possible you get to this phase and decide you need to go back to the beginning. Maybe your entire research question or focus has shifted based on what you are now thinking is important. Again, the process is recursive , not linear. The sixth phase requires you to check the interpretations you have generated. Are you really seeing this relationship, or are you ignoring something important you forgot to code? As we don’t have statistical tests to check the validity of our findings as quantitative researchers do, we need to incorporate self-checks on our interpretations. Ask yourself what evidence would exist to counter your interpretation and then actively look for that evidence. Later on, if someone asks you how you know you are correct in believing your interpretation, you will be able to explain what you did to verify this. Guard yourself against accusations of “ cherry-picking ,” selecting only the data that supports your preexisting notion or expectation about what you will find. [2]

The seventh and final phase involves writing up the results of the study. Qualitative results can be written in a variety of ways for various audiences (see chapter 20). Due to the particularities of qualitative research, findings do not exist independently of their being written down. This is different for quantitative research or experimental research, where completed analyses can somewhat speak for themselves. A box of collected qualitative data remains a box of collected qualitative data without its written interpretation. Qualitative research is often evaluated on the strength of its presentation. Some traditions of qualitative inquiry, such as deep ethnography, depend on written thick descriptions, without which the research is wholly incomplete, even nonexistent. All of that practice journaling and writing memos (reflective and analytical) help develop writing skills integral to the presentation of the findings.

Remember that these are seven conceptual phases that operate in roughly this order but with a lot of meandering and recursivity throughout the process. This is very different from quantitative data analysis, which is conducted fairly linearly and processually (first you state a falsifiable research question with hypotheses, then you collect your data or acquire your data set, then you analyze the data, etc.). Things are a bit messier when conducting qualitative research. Embrace the chaos and confusion, and sort your way through the maze. Budget a lot of time for this process. Your research question might change in the middle of data collection. Don’t worry about that. The key to being nimble and flexible in qualitative research is to start thinking and continue thinking about your data, even as it is being collected. All seven phases can be started before all the data has been gathered. Data collection does not always precede data analysis. In some ways, “qualitative data collection is qualitative data analysis.… By integrating data collection and data analysis, instead of breaking them up into two distinct steps, we both enrich our insights and stave off anxiety. We all know the anxiety that builds when we put something off—the longer we put it off, the more anxious we get. If we treat data collection as this mass of work we must do before we can get started on the even bigger mass of work that is analysis, we set ourselves up for massive anxiety” ( Rubin 2021:182–183 ; emphasis added).

The Coding Stage

A code is “a word or short phrase that symbolically assigns a summative, salient, essence-capturing, and/or evocative attribute for a portion of language-based or visual data” ( Saldaña 2014:5 ). Codes can be applied to particular sections of or entire transcripts, documents, or even videos. For example, one might code a video taken of a preschooler trying to solve a puzzle as “puzzle,” or one could take the transcript of that video and highlight particular sections or portions as “arranging puzzle pieces” (a descriptive code) or “frustration” (a summative emotion-based code). If the preschooler happily shouts out, “I see it!” you can denote the code “I see it!” (this is an example of an in vivo, participant-created code). As one can see from even this short example, there are many different kinds of codes and many different strategies and techniques for coding, more of which will be discussed in detail in chapter 19. The point to remember is that coding is a rigorous systematic process—to some extent, you are always coding whenever you look at a person or try to make sense of a situation or event, but you rarely do this consciously. Coding is the process of naming what you are seeing and how you are simplifying the data so that you can make sense of it in a way that is consistent with your study and in a way that others can understand and follow and replicate. Another way of saying this is that a code is “a researcher-generated interpretation that symbolizes or translates data” ( Vogt et al. 2014:13 ).

As with qualitative data analysis generally, coding is often done recursively, meaning that you do not merely take one pass through the data to create your codes. Saldaña ( 2014 ) differentiates first-cycle coding from second-cycle coding. The goal of first-cycle coding is to “tag” or identify what emerges as important codes. Note that I said emerges—you don’t always know from the beginning what will be an important aspect of the study or not, so the coding process is really the place for you to begin making the kinds of notes necessary for future analyses. In second-cycle coding, you will want to be much more focused—no longer gathering wholly new codes but synthesizing what you have into metacodes.

You might also conceive of the coding process in four parts (figure 18.1). First, identify a representative or diverse sample set of interview transcripts (or fieldnotes or other documents). This is the group you are going to use to get a sense of what might be emerging. In my own study of career obstacles to success among first-generation and working-class persons in sociology, I might select one interview from each career stage: a graduate student, a junior faculty member, a senior faculty member.

data presentation code used in computer

Second, code everything (“ open coding ”). See what emerges, and don’t limit yourself in any way. You will end up with a ton of codes, many more than you will end up with, but this is an excellent way to not foreclose an interesting finding too early in the analysis. Note the importance of starting with a sample of your collected data, because otherwise, open coding all your data is, frankly, impossible and counterproductive. You will just get stuck in the weeds.

Third, pare down your coding list. Where you may have begun with fifty (or more!) codes, you probably want no more than twenty remaining. Go back through the weeds and pull out everything that does not have the potential to bloom into a nicely shaped garden. Note that you should do this before tackling all of your data . Sometimes, however, you might need to rethink the sample you chose. Let’s say that the graduate student interview brought up some interesting gender issues that were pertinent to female-identifying sociologists, but both the junior and the senior faculty members identified as male. In that case, I might read through and open code at least one other interview transcript, perhaps a female-identifying senior faculty member, before paring down my list of codes.

This is also the time to create a codebook if you are using one, a master guide to the codes you are using, including examples (see Sample Codebooks 1 and 2 ). A codebook is simply a document that lists and describes the codes you are using. It is easy to forget what you meant the first time you penciled a coded notation next to a passage, so the codebook allows you to be clear and consistent with the use of your codes. There is not one correct way to create a codebook, but generally speaking, the codebook should include (1) the code (either name or identification number or both), (2) a description of what the code signifies and when and where it should be applied, and (3) an example of the code to help clarify (2). Listing all the codes down somewhere also allows you to organize and reorganize them, which can be part of the analytical process. It is possible that your twenty remaining codes can be neatly organized into five to seven master “themes.” Codebooks can and should develop as you recursively read through and code your collected material. [3]

Fourth, using the pared-down list of codes (or codebook), read through and code all the data. I know many qualitative researchers who work without a codebook, but it is still a good practice, especially for beginners. At the very least, read through your list of codes before you begin this “ closed coding ” step so that you can minimize the chance of missing a passage or section that needs to be coded. The final step is…to do it all again. Or, at least, do closed coding (step four) again. All of this takes a great deal of time, and you should plan accordingly.

Researcher Note

People often say that qualitative research takes a lot of time. Some say this because qualitative researchers often collect their own data. This part can be time consuming, but to me, it’s the analytical process that takes the most time. I usually read every transcript twice before starting to code, then it usually takes me six rounds of coding until I’m satisfied I’ve thoroughly coded everything. Even after the coding, it usually takes me a year to figure out how to put the analysis together into a coherent argument and to figure out what language to use. Just deciding what name to use for a particular group or idea can take months. Understanding this going in can be helpful so that you know to be patient with yourself.

—Jessi Streib, author of The Power of the Past and Privilege Lost 

Note that there is no magic in any of this, nor is there any single “right” way to code or any “correct” codes. What you see in the data will be prompted by your position as a researcher and your scholarly interests. Where the above codes on a preschooler solving a puzzle emerged from my own interest in puzzle solving, another researcher might focus on something wholly different. A scholar of linguistics, for example, may focus instead on the verbalizations made by the child during the discovery process, perhaps even noting particular vocalizations (incidence of grrrs and gritting of the teeth, for example). Your recording of the codes you used is the important part, as it allows other researchers to assess the reliability and validity of your analyses based on those codes. Chapter 19 will provide more details about the kinds of codes you might develop.

Saldaña ( 2014 ) lists seven “necessary personal attributes” for successful coding. To paraphrase, they are the following:

  • Having (or practicing) good organizational skills
  • Perseverance
  • The ability and willingness to deal with ambiguity
  • Flexibility
  • Creativity, broadly understood, which includes “the ability to think visually, to think symbolically, to think in metaphors, and to think of as many ways as possible to approach a problem” (20)
  • Commitment to being rigorously ethical
  • Having an extensive vocabulary [4]

Writing Analytic Memos during/after Coding

Coding the data you have collected is only one aspect of analyzing it. Too many beginners have coded their data and then wondered what to do next. Coding is meant to help organize your data so that you can see it more clearly, but it is not itself an analysis. Thinking about the data, reviewing the coded data, and bringing in the previous literature (here is where you use your literature review and theory) to help make sense of what you have collected are all important aspects of data analysis. Analytic memos are notes you write to yourself about the data. They can be short (a single page or even a paragraph) or long (several pages). These memos can themselves be the subject of subsequent analytic memoing as part of the recursive process that is qualitative data analysis.

Short analytic memos are written about impressions you have about the data, what is emerging, and what might be of interest later on. You can write a short memo about a particular code, for example, and why this code seems important and where it might connect to previous literature. For example, I might write a paragraph about a “cultural capital” code that I use whenever a working-class sociologist says anything about “not fitting in” with their peers (e.g., not having the right accent or hairstyle or private school background). I could then write a little bit about Bourdieu, who originated the notion of cultural capital, and try to make some connections between his definition and how I am applying it here. I can also use the memo to raise questions or doubts I have about what I am seeing (e.g., Maybe the type of school belongs somewhere else? Is this really the right code?). Later on, I can incorporate some of this writing into the theory section of my final paper or article. Here are some types of things that might form the basis of a short memo: something you want to remember, something you noticed that was new or different, a reaction you had, a suspicion or hunch that you are developing, a pattern you are noticing, any inferences you are starting to draw. Rubin ( 2021 ) advises, “Always include some quotation or excerpt from your dataset…that set you off on this idea. It’s happened to me so many times—I’ll have a really strong reaction to a piece of data, write down some insight without the original quotation or context, and then [later] have no idea what I was talking about and have no way of recreating my insight because I can’t remember what piece of data made me think this way” ( 203 ).

All CAQDAS programs include spaces for writing, generating, and storing memos. You can link a memo to a particular transcript, for example. But you can just as easily keep a notebook at hand in which you write notes to yourself, if you prefer the more tactile approach. Drawing pictures that illustrate themes and patterns you are beginning to see also works. The point is to write early and write often, as these memos are the building blocks of your eventual final product (chapter 20).

In the next chapter (chapter 19), we will go a little deeper into codes and how to use them to identify patterns and themes in your data. This chapter has given you an idea of the process of data analysis, but there is much yet to learn about the elements of that process!

Qualitative Data-Analysis Samples

The following three passages are examples of how qualitative researchers describe their data-analysis practices. The first, by Harvey, is a useful example of how data analysis can shift the original research questions. The second example, by Thai, shows multiple stages of coding and how these stages build upward to conceptual themes and theorization. The third example, by Lamont, shows a masterful use of a variety of techniques to generate theory.

Example 1: “Look Someone in the Eye” by Peter Francis Harvey ( 2022 )

I entered the field intending to study gender socialization. However, through the iterative process of writing fieldnotes, rereading them, conducting further research, and writing extensive analytic memos, my focus shifted. Abductive analysis encourages the search for unexpected findings in light of existing literature. In my early data collection, fieldnotes, and memoing, classed comportment was unmistakably prominent in both schools. I was surprised by how pervasive this bodily socialization proved to be and further surprised by the discrepancies between the two schools.…I returned to the literature to compare my empirical findings.…To further clarify patterns within my data and to aid the search for disconfirming evidence, I constructed data matrices (Miles, Huberman, and Saldaña 2013). While rereading my fieldnotes, I used ATLAS.ti to code and recode key sections (Miles et al. 2013), punctuating this process with additional analytic memos. ( 2022:1420 )

Example 2:” Policing and Symbolic Control” by Mai Thai ( 2022 )

Conventional to qualitative research, my analyses iterated between theory development and testing. Analytical memos were written throughout the data collection, and my analyses using MAXQDA software helped me develop, confirm, and challenge specific themes.…My early coding scheme which included descriptive codes (e.g., uniform inspection, college trips) and verbatim codes of the common terms used by field site participants (e.g., “never quit,” “ghetto”) led me to conceptualize valorization. Later analyses developed into thematic codes (e.g., good citizens, criminality) and process codes (e.g., valorization, criminalization), which helped refine my arguments. ( 2022:1191–1192 )

Example 3: The Dignity of Working Men by Michèle Lamont ( 2000 )

To analyze the interviews, I summarized them in a 13-page document including socio-demographic information as well as information on the boundary work of the interviewees. To facilitate comparisons, I noted some of the respondents’ answers on grids and summarized these on matrix displays using techniques suggested by Miles and Huberman for standardizing and processing qualitative data. Interviews were also analyzed one by one, with a focus on the criteria that each respondent mobilized for the evaluation of status. Moreover, I located each interviewee on several five-point scales pertaining to the most significant dimensions they used to evaluate status. I also compared individual interviewees with respondents who were similar to and different from them, both within and across samples. Finally, I classified all the transcripts thematically to perform a systematic analysis of all the important themes that appear in the interviews, approaching the latter as data against which theoretical questions can be explored. ( 2000:256–257 )

Sample Codebook 1

This is an abridged version of the codebook used to analyze qualitative responses to a question about how class affects careers in sociology. Note the use of numbers to organize the flow, supplemented by highlighting techniques (e.g., bolding) and subcoding numbers.

01. CAPS: Any reference to “capitals” in the response, even if the specific words are not used

01.1: cultural capital 01.2: social capital 01.3: economic capital

(can be mixed: “0.12”= both cultural and asocial capital; “0.23”= both social and economic)

01. CAPS: a reference to “capitals” in which the specific words are used [ bold : thus, 01.23 means that both social capital and economic capital were mentioned specifically

02. DEBT: discussion of debt

02.1: mentions personal issues around debt 02.2: discusses debt but in the abstract only (e.g., “people with debt have to worry”)

03. FirstP: how the response is positioned

03.1: neutral or abstract response 03.2: discusses self (“I”) 03.3: discusses others (“they”)

Sample Coded Passage:

* Question: What other codes jump out to you here? Shouldn’t there be a code for feelings of loneliness or alienation? What about an emotions code ?

Sample Codebook 2

This is an example that uses "word" categories only, with descriptions and examples for each code

Further Readings

Elliott, Victoria. 2018. “Thinking about the Coding Process in Qualitative Analysis.” Qualitative Report 23(11):2850–2861. Address common questions those new to coding ask, including the use of “counting” and how to shore up reliability.

Friese, Susanne. 2019. Qualitative Data Analysis with ATLAS.ti. 3rd ed. A good guide to ATLAS.ti, arguably the most used CAQDAS program. Organized around a series of “skills training” to get you up to speed.

Jackson, Kristi, and Pat Bazeley. 2019. Qualitative Data Analysis with NVIVO . 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. If you want to use the CAQDAS program NVivo, this is a good affordable guide to doing so. Includes copious examples, figures, and graphic displays.

LeCompte, Margaret D. 2000. “Analyzing Qualitative Data.” Theory into Practice 39(3):146–154. A very practical and readable guide to the entire coding process, with particular applicability to educational program evaluation/policy analysis.

Miles, Matthew B., and A. Michael Huberman. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook . 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. A classic reference on coding. May now be superseded by Miles, Huberman, and Saldaña (2019).

Miles, Matthew B., A. Michael Huberman, and Johnny Saldaña. 2019. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook . 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA; SAGE. A practical methods sourcebook for all qualitative researchers at all levels using visual displays and examples. Highly recommended.

Saldaña, Johnny. 2014. The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers . 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. The most complete and comprehensive compendium of coding techniques out there. Essential reference.

Silver, Christina. 2014. Using Software in Qualitative Research: A Step-by-Step Guide. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA; SAGE. If you are unsure which CAQDAS program you are interested in using or want to compare the features and usages of each, this guidebook is quite helpful.

Vogt, W. Paul, Elaine R. Vogt, Diane C. Gardner, and Lynne M. Haeffele2014. Selecting the Right Analyses for Your Data: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods . New York: The Guilford Press. User-friendly reference guide to all forms of analysis; may be particularly helpful for those engaged in mixed-methods research.

  • When you have collected content (historical, media, archival) that interests you because of its communicative aspect, content analysis (chapter 17) is appropriate. Whereas content analysis is both a research method and a tool of analysis, coding is a tool of analysis that can be used for all kinds of data to address any number of questions. Content analysis itself includes coding. ↵
  • Scientific research, whether quantitative or qualitative, demands we keep an open mind as we conduct our research, that we are “neutral” regarding what is actually there to find. Students who are trained in non-research-based disciplines such as the arts or philosophy or who are (admirably) focused on pursuing social justice can too easily fall into the trap of thinking their job is to “demonstrate” something through the data. That is not the job of a researcher. The job of a researcher is to present (and interpret) findings—things “out there” (even if inside other people’s hearts and minds). One helpful suggestion: when formulating your research question, if you already know the answer (or think you do), scrap that research. Ask a question to which you do not yet know the answer. ↵
  • Codebooks are particularly useful for collaborative research so that codes are applied and interpreted similarly. If you are working with a team of researchers, you will want to take extra care that your codebooks remain in synch and that any refinements or developments are shared with fellow coders. You will also want to conduct an “intercoder reliability” check, testing whether the codes you have developed are clearly identifiable so that multiple coders are using them similarly. Messy, unclear codes that can be interpreted differently by different coders will make it much more difficult to identify patterns across the data. ↵
  • Note that this is important for creating/denoting new codes. The vocabulary does not need to be in English or any particular language. You can use whatever words or phrases capture what it is you are seeing in the data. ↵

A first-cycle coding process in which gerunds are used to identify conceptual actions, often for the purpose of tracing change and development over time.  Widely used in the Grounded Theory approach.

A first-cycle coding process in which terms or phrases used by the participants become the code applied to a particular passage.  It is also known as “verbatim coding,” “indigenous coding,” “natural coding,” “emic coding,” and “inductive coding,” depending on the tradition of inquiry of the researcher.  It is common in Grounded Theory approaches and has even given its name to one of the primary CAQDAS programs (“NVivo”).

Computer-assisted qualitative data-analysis software.  These are software packages that can serve as a repository for qualitative data and that enable coding, memoing, and other tools of data analysis.  See chapter 17 for particular recommendations.

The purposeful selection of some data to prove a preexisting expectation or desired point of the researcher where other data exists that would contradict the interpretation offered.  Note that it is not cherry picking to select a quote that typifies the main finding of a study, although it would be cherry picking to select a quote that is atypical of a body of interviews and then present it as if it is typical.

A preliminary stage of coding in which the researcher notes particular aspects of interest in the data set and begins creating codes.  Later stages of coding refine these preliminary codes.  Note: in Grounded Theory , open coding has a more specific meaning and is often called initial coding : data are broken down into substantive codes in a line-by-line manner, and incidents are compared with one another for similarities and differences until the core category is found.  See also closed coding .

A set of codes, definitions, and examples used as a guide to help analyze interview data.  Codebooks are particularly helpful and necessary when research analysis is shared among members of a research team, as codebooks allow for standardization of shared meanings and code attributions.

The final stages of coding after the refinement of codes has created a complete list or codebook in which all the data is coded using this refined list or codebook.  Compare to open coding .

A first-cycle coding process in which emotions and emotionally salient passages are tagged.

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods Copyright © 2023 by Allison Hurst is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Table of contents.

  • Introduction to Functional Computer
  • Fundamentals of Architectural Design

Data Representation

  • Instruction Set Architecture : Instructions and Formats
  • Instruction Set Architecture : Design Models
  • Instruction Set Architecture : Addressing Modes
  • Performance Measurements and Issues
  • Computer Architecture Assessment 1
  • Fixed Point Arithmetic : Addition and Subtraction
  • Fixed Point Arithmetic : Multiplication
  • Fixed Point Arithmetic : Division
  • Floating Point Arithmetic
  • Arithmetic Logic Unit Design
  • CPU's Data Path
  • CPU's Control Unit
  • Control Unit Design
  • Concepts of Pipelining
  • Computer Architecture Assessment 2
  • Pipeline Hazards
  • Memory Characteristics and Organization
  • Cache Memory
  • Virtual Memory
  • I/O Communication and I/O Controller
  • Input/Output Data Transfer
  • Direct Memory Access controller and I/O Processor
  • CPU Interrupts and Interrupt Handling
  • Computer Architecture Assessment 3

Course Computer Architecture

Digital computers store and process information in binary form as digital logic has only two values "1" and "0" or in other words "True or False" or also said as "ON or OFF". This system is called radix 2. We human generally deal with radix 10 i.e. decimal. As a matter of convenience there are many other representations like Octal (Radix 8), Hexadecimal (Radix 16), Binary coded decimal (BCD), Decimal etc.

Every computer's CPU has a width measured in terms of bits such as 8 bit CPU, 16 bit CPU, 32 bit CPU etc. Similarly, each memory location can store a fixed number of bits and is called memory width. Given the size of the CPU and Memory, it is for the programmer to handle his data representation. Most of the readers may be knowing that 4 bits form a Nibble, 8 bits form a byte. The word length is defined by the Instruction Set Architecture of the CPU. The word length may be equal to the width of the CPU.

The memory simply stores information as a binary pattern of 1's and 0's. It is to be interpreted as what the content of a memory location means. If the CPU is in the Fetch cycle, it interprets the fetched memory content to be instruction and decodes based on Instruction format. In the Execute cycle, the information from memory is considered as data. As a common man using a computer, we think computers handle English or other alphabets, special characters or numbers. A programmer considers memory content to be data types of the programming language he uses. Now recall figure 1.2 and 1.3 of chapter 1 to reinforce your thought that conversion happens from computer user interface to internal representation and storage.

  • Data Representation in Computers

Information handled by a computer is classified as instruction and data. A broad overview of the internal representation of the information is illustrated in figure 3.1. No matter whether it is data in a numeric or non-numeric form or integer, everything is internally represented in Binary. It is up to the programmer to handle the interpretation of the binary pattern and this interpretation is called Data Representation . These data representation schemes are all standardized by international organizations.

Choice of Data representation to be used in a computer is decided by

  • The number types to be represented (integer, real, signed, unsigned, etc.)
  • Range of values likely to be represented (maximum and minimum to be represented)
  • The Precision of the numbers i.e. maximum accuracy of representation (floating point single precision, double precision etc)
  • If non-numeric i.e. character, character representation standard to be chosen. ASCII, EBCDIC, UTF are examples of character representation standards.
  • The hardware support in terms of word width, instruction.

Before we go into the details, let us take an example of interpretation. Say a byte in Memory has value "0011 0001". Although there exists a possibility of so many interpretations as in figure 3.2, the program has only one interpretation as decided by the programmer and declared in the program.

  • Fixed point Number Representation

Fixed point numbers are also known as whole numbers or Integers. The number of bits used in representing the integer also implies the maximum number that can be represented in the system hardware. However for the efficiency of storage and operations, one may choose to represent the integer with one Byte, two Bytes, Four bytes or more. This space allocation is translated from the definition used by the programmer while defining a variable as integer short or long and the Instruction Set Architecture.

In addition to the bit length definition for integers, we also have a choice to represent them as below:

  • Unsigned Integer : A positive number including zero can be represented in this format. All the allotted bits are utilised in defining the number. So if one is using 8 bits to represent the unsigned integer, the range of values that can be represented is 28 i.e. "0" to "255". If 16 bits are used for representing then the range is 216 i.e. "0 to 65535".
  • Signed Integer : In this format negative numbers, zero, and positive numbers can be represented. A sign bit indicates the magnitude direction as positive or negative. There are three possible representations for signed integer and these are Sign Magnitude format, 1's Compliment format and 2's Complement format .

Signed Integer – Sign Magnitude format: Most Significant Bit (MSB) is reserved for indicating the direction of the magnitude (value). A "0" on MSB means a positive number and a "1" on MSB means a negative number. If n bits are used for representation, n-1 bits indicate the absolute value of the number. Examples for n=8:

Examples for n=8:

0010 1111 = + 47 Decimal (Positive number)

1010 1111 = - 47 Decimal (Negative Number)

0111 1110 = +126 (Positive number)

1111 1110 = -126 (Negative Number)

0000 0000 = + 0 (Postive Number)

1000 0000 = - 0 (Negative Number)

Although this method is easy to understand, Sign Magnitude representation has several shortcomings like

  • Zero can be represented in two ways causing redundancy and confusion.
  • The total range for magnitude representation is limited to 2n-1, although n bits were accounted.
  • The separate sign bit makes the addition and subtraction more complicated. Also, comparing two numbers is not straightforward.

Signed Integer – 1’s Complement format: In this format too, MSB is reserved as the sign bit. But the difference is in representing the Magnitude part of the value for negative numbers (magnitude) is inversed and hence called 1’s Complement form. The positive numbers are represented as it is in binary. Let us see some examples to better our understanding.

1101 0000 = - 47 Decimal (Negative Number)

1000 0001 = -126 (Negative Number)

1111 1111 = - 0 (Negative Number)

  • Converting a given binary number to its 2's complement form

Step 1 . -x = x' + 1 where x' is the one's complement of x.

Step 2 Extend the data width of the number, fill up with sign extension i.e. MSB bit is used to fill the bits.

Example: -47 decimal over 8bit representation

As you can see zero is not getting represented with redundancy. There is only one way of representing zero. The other problem of the complexity of the arithmetic operation is also eliminated in 2’s complement representation. Subtraction is done as Addition.

More exercises on number conversion are left to the self-interest of readers.

  • Floating Point Number system

The maximum number at best represented as a whole number is 2 n . In the Scientific world, we do come across numbers like Mass of an Electron is 9.10939 x 10-31 Kg. Velocity of light is 2.99792458 x 108 m/s. Imagine to write the number in a piece of paper without exponent and converting into binary for computer representation. Sure you are tired!!. It makes no sense to write a number in non- readable form or non- processible form. Hence we write such large or small numbers using exponent and mantissa. This is said to be Floating Point representation or real number representation. he real number system could have infinite values between 0 and 1.

Representation in computer

Unlike the two's complement representation for integer numbers, Floating Point number uses Sign and Magnitude representation for both mantissa and exponent . In the number 9.10939 x 1031, in decimal form, +31 is Exponent, 9.10939 is known as Fraction . Mantissa, Significand and fraction are synonymously used terms. In the computer, the representation is binary and the binary point is not fixed. For example, a number, say, 23.345 can be written as 2.3345 x 101 or 0.23345 x 102 or 2334.5 x 10-2. The representation 2.3345 x 101 is said to be in normalised form.

Floating-point numbers usually use multiple words in memory as we need to allot a sign bit, few bits for exponent and many bits for mantissa. There are standards for such allocation which we will see sooner.

  • IEEE 754 Floating Point Representation

We have two standards known as Single Precision and Double Precision from IEEE. These standards enable portability among different computers. Figure 3.3 picturizes Single precision while figure 3.4 picturizes double precision. Single Precision uses 32bit format while double precision is 64 bits word length. As the name suggests double precision can represent fractions with larger accuracy. In both the cases, MSB is sign bit for the mantissa part, followed by Exponent and Mantissa. The exponent part has its sign bit.

It is to be noted that in Single Precision, we can represent an exponent in the range -127 to +127. It is possible as a result of arithmetic operations the resulting exponent may not fit in. This situation is called overflow in the case of positive exponent and underflow in the case of negative exponent. The Double Precision format has 11 bits for exponent meaning a number as large as -1023 to 1023 can be represented. The programmer has to make a choice between Single Precision and Double Precision declaration using his knowledge about the data being handled.

The Floating Point operations on the regular CPU is very very slow. Generally, a special purpose CPU known as Co-processor is used. This Co-processor works in tandem with the main CPU. The programmer should be using the float declaration only if his data is in real number form. Float declaration is not to be used generously.

  • Decimal Numbers Representation

Decimal numbers (radix 10) are represented and processed in the system with the support of additional hardware. We deal with numbers in decimal format in everyday life. Some machines implement decimal arithmetic too, like floating-point arithmetic hardware. In such a case, the CPU uses decimal numbers in BCD (binary coded decimal) form and does BCD arithmetic operation. BCD operates on radix 10. This hardware operates without conversion to pure binary. It uses a nibble to represent a number in packed BCD form. BCD operations require not only special hardware but also decimal instruction set.

  • Exceptions and Error Detection

All of us know that when we do arithmetic operations, we get answers which have more digits than the operands (Ex: 8 x 2= 16). This happens in computer arithmetic operations too. When the result size exceeds the allotted size of the variable or the register, it becomes an error and exception. The exception conditions associated with numbers and number operations are Overflow, Underflow, Truncation, Rounding and Multiple Precision . These are detected by the associated hardware in arithmetic Unit. These exceptions apply to both Fixed Point and Floating Point operations. Each of these exceptional conditions has a flag bit assigned in the Processor Status Word (PSW). We may discuss more in detail in the later chapters.

  • Character Representation

Another data type is non-numeric and is largely character sets. We use a human-understandable character set to communicate with computer i.e. for both input and output. Standard character sets like EBCDIC and ASCII are chosen to represent alphabets, numbers and special characters. Nowadays Unicode standard is also in use for non-English language like Chinese, Hindi, Spanish, etc. These codes are accessible and available on the internet. Interested readers may access and learn more.

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Different types of Coding Schemes to represent data

  • What are the different ways of Data Representation?
  • Categorical Representation of Data in Julia
  • 10 Most Important Data Structures For Coding Interviews
  • Program to find out the data type of user input
  • Difference between Abstract Data Types and Objects
  • Difference between data type and data structure
  • Data Types in Objective-C
  • How to fit categorical data types for random forest classification?
  • Data Type Modifiers in C
  • Difference between fundamental data types and derived data types
  • Data Types in Statistics
  • Different forms of data representation in today's world
  • Types of 2-D discrete data plots in MATLAB
  • Different dataset forms in Social Networks
  • Numeric and Date-time data types in SQL Server
  • Types of Sources of Data in Data Mining
  • Data Type Ranges and their macros in C++
  • C# | How to get TypeCode for the class String
  • Data Types and Addressing Modes of 80386/80386DX Microprocessor

Any text-based data is stored by the computer in the form of bits(a series of 1s and 0s), and follows the specified Coding Scheme. The coding scheme is a Standard that tells the user’s machine which character represents which set of bytes. Specifying the coding scheme used is very important as without it, the machine could interpret the given bytes as a different character than intended. For Example : 0x6B may be interpreted as the character ‘k’ in ASCII, but as the character ‘, ‘ in the less commonly used

coding scheme.

  • UTF-32 (Unicode Transformation Format 32-bit) : UTF-32 is a coding scheme utilizing 4 bytes to represent a character. It is a fixed length scheme, that is, each character is always represented by 4 bytes. It was used to represent all of Unicode’s 1, 112, 064 code points. Due to the large space requirements of this scheme, it was made obsolete by the later developed more efficient schemes.
  • UTF-16(Unicode Transformation Format 16-bit) : UTF-32 is a coding scheme utilizing either 2 or 4 bytes to represent a character. It can represent all of Unicode’s 1, 112, 064 code points.
  • UTF-8(Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit) : Introduced in 1993, UTF-8 is a coding scheme which requires each character to be represented by at least 1 byte. It can represent all of Unicode’s code points. UTF-8 is a super-set of ASCII, as the first 128 characters, from 0x00 to 0x7f, are the same as ASCII. Thus, this UTF scheme is reverse Compatible with ASCII. It is a variable length encoding, with either 1, 2, 3 or 4 bytes used to represent a character. In order to indicate that two(or more) consecutive bytes are the part of same character, or represent two different characters, the first few bits of each byte are used as indicators.
  • ISCII(Indian Script Code for Information Interchange) : It is a coding scheme which can accommodate the characters used by various Indian scripts. It is an 8-bit scheme. The First 128 characters are the same as ASCII, and only the next 128 bit space is used to represent ISCII specific characters.

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    Data representation. Computers use binary - the digits 0 and 1 - to store data. A binary digit, or bit, is the smallest unit of data in computing. It is represented by a 0 or a 1. Binary numbers are made up of binary digits (bits), eg the binary number 1001. The circuits in a computer's processor are made up of billions of transistors.

  8. Presentation Layer in OSI model

    Prerequisite : OSI Model. Introduction : Presentation Layer is the 6th layer in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. This layer is also known as Translation layer, as this layer serves as a data translator for the network. The data which this layer receives from the Application Layer is extracted and manipulated here as per the required ...

  9. PDF Data Representation

    data communication. To many, however Shannon's great contribution was that he never lost his sense of fun throughout his long career. Claude Shannon (1916-2001) The Structure of Memory • The fundamental unit of memory inside a computer is called a bit, which is a contraction of the words binary digit. A bit can

  10. Data Presentation

    Methods of Data Presentation in Statistics. 1. Pictorial Presentation. It is the simplest form of data Presentation often used in schools or universities to provide a clearer picture to students, who are better able to capture the concepts effectively through a pictorial Presentation of simple data. 2.

  11. Present Your Data Like a Pro

    TheJoelTruth. While a good presentation has data, data alone doesn't guarantee a good presentation. It's all about how that data is presented. The quickest way to confuse your audience is by ...

  12. Chapter 18. Data Analysis and Coding

    We call this process coding. [1] Coding is the iterative process of assigning meaning to the data you have collected in order to both simplify and identify patterns. This chapter introduces you to the process of qualitative data analysis and the basic concept of coding, while the following chapter (chapter 19) will take you further into the ...

  13. 11 Data Visualization Techniques for Every Use-Case with Examples

    11 Data Visualization Techniques for Every Use-Case with Examples. Discover the most popular analyses, techniques, and tools to master the art of data visualization. Aug 2023 · 16 min read. Data visualization is rapidly becoming an essential skill in data science and many other data-driven industries, such as finance, education, and healthcare.

  14. What Is Data Visualization?

    Data visualization. Data visualization is a critical step in the data science process, helping teams and individuals convey data more effectively to colleagues and decision makers. Teams that manage reporting systems typically leverage defined template views to monitor performance. However, data visualization isn't limited to performance ...

  15. A Tutorial on Data Representation

    Decoding 2's Complement Numbers. Check the sign bit (denoted as S).; If S=0, the number is positive and its absolute value is the binary value of the remaining n-1 bits.; If S=1, the number is negative. you could "invert the n-1 bits and plus 1" to get the absolute value of negative number. Alternatively, you could scan the remaining n-1 bits from the right (least-significant bit).

  16. Data Representation

    Mantissa, Significand and fraction are synonymously used terms. In the computer, the representation is binary and the binary point is not fixed. For example, a number, say, 23.345 can be written as 2.3345 x 101 or 0.23345 x 102 or 2334.5 x 10-2. The representation 2.3345 x 101 is said to be in normalised form.

  17. How to Present Data in PowerPoint: Expert Strategies

    Make sure your data is accurate, up-to-date, and relevant to your presentation topic. Your goal will be to create clear conclusions based on your data and highlight trends. 2. Know your audience. Knowing who your audience is and the one thing you want them to get from your data is vital.

  18. Different types of Coding Schemes to represent data

    UTF-16 (Unicode Transformation Format 16-bit) : UTF-32 is a coding scheme utilizing either 2 or 4 bytes to represent a character. It can represent all of Unicode's 1, 112, 064 code points. UTF-8 (Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit) : Introduced in 1993, UTF-8 is a coding scheme which requires each character to be represented by at least 1 ...


    The terms bits, bytes, nibble and word are used widely in reference to computer memory and data size. Let us explain each term. Bits: A bit can be defined as binary digits that can either be 0 or 1. It is the basic unit of data or information in digital computers. Byte: A group of bits (often 8) used to represent a character is called a byte.

  20. Data Presentation

    A presentation that displays real-time data. OK, the split flap board is not a real presentation since it is hardware, but it has the same mechanism as a data presentation on a computer or television screen. Next to airports, you will find such monitors at train stations, factories, museums, reception desks, hospitals and so on.

  21. Data (computer science)

    Data (computer science) In computer science, data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols; datum is a single symbol of data. Data requires interpretation to become information. Digital data is data that is represented using the binary number system of ones (1) and zeros (0), instead of analog ...

  22. Five Essential Presenting Tips for Data Professionals

    Overview of Your Journey. Why Good Presentations Matter. Tip 1 — Understand Your Audience. Tip 2 — Use Visuals Religiously. Tip 3 — Avoid Jargon and Keep it Simple Silly. Tip 4 — Relate Your Work to the Bigger Picture. Tip 5 — Have a Memorable Bottom Line. Wrapping Up.

  23. Data Representation in Computer Organization

    Data can be anything like a number, a name, notes in a musical composition, or the color in a photograph. Data representation can be referred to as the form in which we stored the data, processed it and transmitted it. In order to store the data in digital format, we can use any device like computers, smartphones, and iPads.

  24. 6 Ways to Create More Interactive PowerPoint Presentations

    Then, with this shape still selected, press Ctrl+C (copy), and then Ctrl+V (paste). In the second box, type 9. With the Animation Pane still open and this second shape selected, click the drop-down arrow and choose "Timing" again. Change the Start option to "After Previous," and make sure the Delay option is 1 second.

  25. Hello GPT-4o

    Prior to GPT-4o, you could use Voice Mode to talk to ChatGPT with latencies of 2.8 seconds (GPT-3.5) and 5.4 seconds (GPT-4) on average. To achieve this, Voice Mode is a pipeline of three separate models: one simple model transcribes audio to text, GPT-3.5 or GPT-4 takes in text and outputs text, and a third simple model converts that text back to audio.

  26. Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion

    Nov. 6, 2023. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Management Guideline. View clinical recommendations for diagnosis and management of adults with mild TBI. Apr. 29, 2024. Health Care Provider Resources. View resources to manage and prevent concussions. Apr. 15, 2024.