Case Study: Performance Management At The University Of Ghana

Case Study: Performance Management at the University of Ghana Case Study: Performance Management at the University of Ghana Answer 1 The one component pertaining to the performance management process that is used ineffectively by Balme Library of the University of Ghana in Legon; suburb of city of Accra in Ghana, is predominantly Coaching And Feedback. Coaching and feedback is considered as one of the main components in the four components constituting the Performance management process. From the case study, it is clear that this component is not implemented effectively by the University of Ghana in its Balme Library. Coaching and feedback is the component which is required to be included in the performance management process for its pivotal role in ensuring improved and better performance by the employee. This improved performance is triggered through the use of formal and informal medium by superiors and managers to discus with their subordinates their performance and progress against organizational objective. Managers review the competencies portrayed by their subordinates during their work and subsequently discuss the progress or the domain where the employee might be lacking, usually at regular intervals. However, this culture or practice is not found to exist in Balme Library as an employee survey conducted involving the staff of the Balme Library indicated that, more than 60% of the library staff or employees were never provided with the opportunity to discuss their performance with their managers or superiors. Thus, this form pertaining to the performance management process which predominantly is a development tool, is not actually utilized as development tool at Balme Library, rather it is merely used as a form. Furthermore, evidence suggests that systematic job analysis is not performed at Blame Library, which is an integral component of Coaching and Feedback, since if the job description is not clear and distinguished to the manager ...

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case study performance management at the university of ghana

Performance Management at the University of Ghana

The University of Ghana in Legon, Ghana, was established in 1948 as an affiliate college of the University of London called University College of the Gold Coast. In 1961, the university was reorganized by an act of Parliament into what it is today: the independent, degree-granting University of Ghana (http:// www.ug.edu.gh/).

The Balme Library is the main library in the University of Ghana library system. Situated on the main Legon campus, it coordinates a large number of libraries attached to the university’s various schools, institutes, faculties, departments, and halls of residence, most of which are autonomous.

The library was started as the College Library in 1948 and was then situated in Achimota College, which was about 8 kilome- ters from the present Legon campus. In 1959, the College Library moved into its brand-new buildings at the Legon campus and was named after the University College of the Gold Coast’s first principal, David Mowbrary Balme.

As in the case of many other modern university libraries worldwide that face resources challenges and the need to serve an increasingly diverse customer base, the Balme Library has implemented numerous initiatives. One such initiative is a performance management system. However, several of the components of the performance management process at the Balme Library are in need of improvement. First, there is no evidence that a systematic job analysis was conducted for any of the jobs at the library. Second, the forms that the employees are rated on contain vague items such as “general behavior.” The forms include no specific definition of what “general behavior” is or examples explaining to employees (or managers) what would lead to a high or a low rating in this category. In addition, all library employees are rated on the same form, regardless of their job responsibilities. Third, there is no evidence that managers have worked with employees in setting mutually agreed-upon goals. Fourth, there is no formal or informal discussion of results and needed follow-up steps after the subordinates and managers complete their form. Not surprisingly, an employee survey revealed that more than 60% of the employees have never discussed their performance with their managers. Finally, employees are often rated by different people. For example, sometimes the head of the library rates an employee, even though he may not be in direct contact with that employee.

Based on the above description, please answer the following questions.

1. Please identify one component in the performance management process at the Balme Library that has not been implemented effectively (there are several; choose only one). 


2. Describe how the poor implementation of the specific component you have chosen has a negative impact on the flow of the performance management process as a whole. 


3. Discuss what should be done to improve the implementation of the component you have chosen in question 1. 


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Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance, Issue 22, 2019 ISSN 1836-0394 | Published by UTS ePRESS | https://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/journals/index.php/cjlg

RESEARCH AND EVALUATION (PEER REVIEWED)

Performance management in Ghana’s local government: a case study of Ada East District Assembly

JusticeSosu.png

Justice Nuse Sosu

University of Ghana Business School

PO Box LG 78 Legon

Email: [email protected]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5130/cjlg.vi22.7376

Article History: Received 28/03/19; Accepted 12/01/20; Published 01/09/20

Citation: Sosu 2020. Performance management in Ghana’s local government: a case study of Ada East District Assembly. Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance 2019, 22: 7376. https://doi.org/10.5130/cjlg.vi22.7376

© 2020 by the author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

Declaration of conflicting interest The author declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Funding The author received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

This article examines performance management in Ghana’s local governments through a case study of the on-the-ground experiences of staff at Ada East District Assembly, in the south-east of the country. The study found that performance management is envisaged in the preparation of action plans. However, the evidence also showed that severe logistical constraints, poor capacity resulting from inadequate training and poor supervision remain key challenges. In practice it was shown that performance management may achieve its intended results when accompanied by continuous employee performance evaluation.

Performance management, district assemblies, evaluation, supervision, Ghana, local government

Introduction

All over the world, governments have implemented productivity-oriented measures in the workplace – including target-setting, league tables, performance information, planning and management techniques – and have developed faith in the potency of performance management ( Andrews 2014 ).

However, over the past 20 years, public sector performance management has proved to be a major challenge for both central and local governments ( Walker and Andrews 2013), and has warranted a great deal of empirical and theoretical research ( Favoreu et al. 2015 ; Van Dooren et al. 2015 ). Within Ghana specifically, the debate on performance management has become a critical issue in the administration of the local government system, particularly as local governments are required to play increasingly important roles in the provision of social services for development ( National Performance Management Advisory Commission 2019 ).

In their scholarly work on rethinking new public management delivery forms and efficiency, Perez-Lopez et al. (2015) have suggested that using performance management tends to increase the efficiency of government institutions and agencies. Performance management is widely acknowledged as an effective managerial tool, and has become an integral part of the management system of many local governments ( Woolum 2011 ; Martin and Spano 2015 ; Favoreu et al. 2015 ). Growing pressures such as budgetary and financial constraints, public demand for improved services, and the need for greater accountability have combined to force public organisations to pay more attention to performance in order to achieve results ( Favoreu et al. 2015 ). Local governments have sought to step up the productivity of their employees and do more with less.

There is also a growing consensus among public administration scholars that making organisations efficient is central not only to improving performance, but also to creating value for the general public ( Van Dooren et al. 2015 ; Henrich 2002 ). According to Zakaria (2013) , many local governments in Ghana receive performance-oriented grants – such as district development funds and other financial support from donor partners – which are typically tied to improved performance. Deploying performance management would help these local governments make the most of their grants, particularly given their enormous developmental responsibilities. In effect, the need for local governments to manage the performance of their employees is now essential if they are to achieve their objectives and successfully develop both their employees and services for local people. Indeed, Ohemeng (2011) argues that many governments in Africa have introduced performance management to try to turn around poor public services.

Nevertheless, in many African countries, the public sector continues to be seen as “dysfunctional, inefficient and ineffective in meeting and addressing societal demand in a more particularly fast-changing socio-economic environment” ( Davids 2012 , p. 4,587). Davids goes on to argue that poor management, inefficient practices and public criticism of public services have highlighted the need to harness performance management in order to use public resources more effectively. However, there is scepticism amongst some local governments on the effectiveness of performance management ( Baird et al. 2012 ). This paper therefore seeks to explore the reasons for underperformance, via a case study of Ada East District Assembly, a moderately-sized local authority in the Greater Accra Region, south-east Ghana.

Performance management in Ghana

Local governance can be defined as the transfer of resources, power, and responsibility from the centre to the grassroots, which creates an avenue for citizens to take part in decision-making and to ensure the accountability of local authorities ( Faguet and Pöschl 2015 ). In Ghana, this finds expression in the metropolitan, municipal and district assemblies (MMDAs) enshrined in the 1992 Constitution and invested with political, legislating, budgeting and planning authority ( Republic of Ghana 1992 ; (Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) 2018 ).

Some notable efforts have been made to incorporate performance management systems in the Ghanaian Civil Service, under a flagship programme known as the Civil Service Performance Improvement Plan (CSPIP). Since it was operationalised ministries, departments and agencies, including all local governments, have continued to use it. According to Ohemeng (2011 , p. 475) this was the first serious attempt by the Ghanaian government to “revolutionize public service organizations by focusing specifically on institutionalizing a performance-driven culture similar to those already found in developed countries”.

These processes include:

  • Annual budgeting within the context of Ghana’s Medium-Term Expenditure Framework
  • Publication of service standards and charters, annual organisational performance reviews and reporting
  • Publication of performance league tables
  • Systematic consultation with clients
  • Composite performance monitoring reviews.

These kinds of measures make it imperative to use performance management to take timely and informed decisions, carry out corrective action if required, and measure progress against planned activities. Even more importantly, using performance management also allows the state to be held accountable for the allocation and use of resources against predetermined objectives.

A second initiative worthy of note is that of Ghana’s Local Government Service, which has a performance management system which involves the signing of performance contracts between the relevant regional minister, regional coordinating director and district chief executive. Performance appraisals are also in place for all staff in the Local Government Service, which helps in identifying individual training needs and also with career and succession planning.

Performance management in Ghana’s local governments

In Ghana, decentralisation and local governance in principle create a platform for ordinary people to participate in setting the agenda for local development ( Ahwoi 2010 ). By transferring some powers from the centre to the periphery, decentralisation and grassroots local governance make room for non-state actors, civil society and private individuals and organisations to become involved in local governance ( Crook and Manor 1998 ). It is believed that local governments will be more efficient in the provision of poverty-reducing public goods and services than the central government ( Manor 1999 ). Awortwi (2011) has even suggested that because local governments are theoretically accountable and responsive, citizens should benefit disproportionately from socio-economic development projects tailored to meet local needs.

It is now standard practice for local governments worldwide to be results-oriented, given their proximity to citizens and their direct responsibilities for service delivery ( Perez-Lopez et al. 2015 ; Ammons and Roenigk 2015 ; Zakaria 2013 ). It is therefore not surprising that local governments are using strategic planning to identify and prioritise community needs, and have turned to performance management as a means of pursuing their goals and avoiding the trap of merely complying with procedures in their work ( Ammons and Roenigk 2015 ).

In Ghana, despite concerns about limited impact, interest in the performance of local government authorities continues to grow. This is largely because their constitutional mandate empowers them to facilitate the country’s development from a bottom-up perspective ( Zakaria 2013 ). Successive governments in Ghana have therefore channelled significant resources into encouraging the use of performance management within local administrations. For example, a local-level performance reporting system was established to enable local assemblies to submit quarterly, mid-year and annual reports about their performance for assessment and feedback ( Adei and Boachie-Danquah 2003 ). As indicated by Adei and Boachie-Danquah (2003) , MMDAs also sign performance contracts, which are tied to institutional goals and outcomes, with their supervisory agencies.

Local assemblies have however suffered some formidable implementation difficulties. For example, both Issachar (2009) and Bawole et al. (2013) found that work was hampered by an absence of guidelines to drive a well-defined and enforceable implementation framework, a lack of objectivity and continuity in system administration, and the absence of any mechanism to link performance to enforceable rewards or sanctions and staff development. Bawole et al. (2013) further found that annual reporting, monitoring and feedback mechanisms were lacking or poorly executed, while Issachar (2009) argued that key executives lacked the commitment to support the system.

Operationalising local government performance

Many functions which hitherto were traditionally performed by local governments are increasingly contracted out to private institutions and non-governmental organisations ( Perez-Lopez et al. 2015 ). With this in mind, Zakaria (2013) has proposed some theoretical perspectives – economic, accountability and service quality – from which to develop benchmarks for measuring and managing performance systematically.

The economic perspective focuses on value for money, which directly impacts grassroots performance and to a great extent shapes the perceptions of citizens, because if local assemblies execute their functions in an efficient manner, it shows in the availability and cost of services they provide. The accountability perspective makes public officials who are entrusted with public resources answerable to citizens, who not only prioritise performance but are often also actively involved in governance issues. The service quality perspective, finally, argues that services provided to citizens must meet certain minimum specifications (although it is accepted that quality is a subjective concept).

Over the years, various legal frameworks and policy interventions have been adopted by successive governments in Ghana as a means of improving the performance of local governments with a view to achieving key policy objectives, delivering social services effectively, and discharging the functions assigned to them. To take one example, according to article 245 ( a ) of Ghana’s 1992 Constitution, the functions of district assemblies include the “formulation and execution of plans, programmes and strategies for the effective mobilization of the resources necessary for the overall development of the district” ( Republic of Ghana 1992). Local governments are therefore mandated to provide an array of functions and critical services to local communities, including waste management and sanitation, public health education, academic education, support for agricultural extension and rural electrification, town and country planning, and construction and maintenance of roads and public buildings ( Walker and Andrews 2013 ). Local governments are also responsible for maintaining markets, social welfare centres, disaster management, tourism development, sports facilities and other recreational services ( CLGF 2018 ). These are very significant responsibilities, and consequently there is now a growing effort by local governments to develop performance management tools to improve service delivery, efficiency and accountability in delivering those functions.

Methodology

A qualitative approach was used to capture the thoughts and experiences of local authorities on performance management, by means of a case study of Ada East District Assembly. Ada East was chosen because this assembly has not been very impressive in the 2018/2019 district league table being scored 42.7%. Also, the researcher lived close to the study area and access to respondents was easy. The study focused primarily on the interpretation of multiple socially and historically constructed employee experiences of and perspectives on performance management as it is used in local governments. The choice of a case study approach was informed by Yin (2009) , who argues that case studies are most appropriate when the focus of the study is to find answers to ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions and where contextual factors are believed to be of importance to the study.

The study commenced with the collection of primary data through face-to-face semi-structured interviews, which allowed both for further discussion and to gain an understanding of what interviewees actually intended to say while answering a question. Prior to the interview, the research participants were contacted to seek their consent and appointments were made for the interviews, which were conducted usually at their offices. In all, 21 respondents from Ada East District Assembly took part in the study, as follows: two each from the planning and auditing units; three each from the environmental health, social welfare and human resource management units; and four each from the central administration and community development units.

The interviews were recorded and analysed thematically using the approach advocated by Miles and Huberman (1994) , to identify broad themes generated from the transcripts within the context of the study. The interview contained open-ended questions which made it flexible enough to guide and probe further whenever respondents’ answers did not answer a question sufficiently. The questions were not asked in a strict order. Rather, follow-up questions were asked where necessary to gain deeper understanding of views expressed by respondents before proceeding to the next item.

Results and discussion

This section presents the results and discussion. The findings are presented using the following themes: the extent of performance management in Ada East District Assembly, and the challenges of performance management implementation.

The extent of performance management in Ada East District Assembly

The broad view of all respondents was that performance is expressed in the preparation of an action plan for the assembly. The action plan outlines the specific actions, activities, steps and processes followed to reach identified performance targets. At the unit level, staff use the action plan as a guide to executing their tasks. An employee’s job and the action plan are inseparable; they go in tandem. The action plan also includes the measurement criteria adopted, a timeline, and a description of the resources needed for the action.

Mechanisms for managing staff performance

In order to optimise staff performance, unit heads employ elaborate and systematic schemes. Firstly, assignments are given to individual staff with respect to rules and work schedules. Since most of the work is done in the field, the ability of a staff member to deliver expected outcomes is used as a yardstick for performance. Unit heads are therefore able to determine whether staff have worked satisfactorily based on the tasks given to them. A manager summarised this well in the following:

I look at the assignment that I give them, the rules and schedules, looking at our code of ethics and what they are expected to do. I also match it against the objectives and goals of the quarter. By that, I am able to determine whether they have worked up to satisfaction by measuring whether the goals are met or not.

It was clear from the interviews that staff are encouraged to adhere to the rules guiding their work for the attainment of goals, which means they tend to follow rules in performing tasks supervisors allocate to them. Apparently, however, the quest for innovative ways to achieve results does not receive corresponding emphasis. This ‘rules-based’ approach departs from recent academic thinking which argues that performance management, as part of public management reform, has witnessed a shift of attention away from input, rules and excessive bureaucracy and towards goal-setting and the use of performance information ( Andrews 2014 ). However, Andrews also found that employees’ performance improves when periodic assessment is undertaken; and that, in such environments, supervisors have a key role to play in focusing on and directing employees’ performance towards planned goals.

Secondly, the district assembly monitors the punctuality and attendance record of staff. Most interviewees acknowledged the significance of performance management in curbing absenteeism from work. This means performance management is functioning as a mechanism to monitor the movements of workers, which helps identify staff who may abandon work to engage in other activities during official work hours. However, even though coming to work is necessary, it is not sufficient to make employees productive. As Ammons and Roenigk (2015) argue, one of the core doctrines that underpins performance management is greater emphasis on results as opposed to procedural compliance. Performance management also needs to ensure that, day in day out, employees’ performance is tracked against measurable outputs.

Another finding was that some unit heads simply observe their staff as they perform their tasks and the extent of their involvement in departmental activities. According to an official in one of the units:

Oh, this one is just observation. She uses observation. She sees how you are working by looking at you.

It seems likely therefore that formal and informal observation of employee performance also forms an important part of the performance evaluation process. Nevertheless, there was a general consensus among heads of department that although observation is essential, it becomes more effective when combined with other important criteria such as departmental goals, staff capabilities, readily available logistics and time limits. A unit head gave an overview of their approach thus:

So what we do is that we look at your problem and we try to know what are the contributing factors, those that we can work on, we work on them; those that we cannot work on, we cannot force you that by all means you have to achieve that target. So the best way to do is review it for you to be able to achieve it.

Performance and rewards or sanctions: tracing the link

While high performance is linked to incentives and rewards, poor performance should in principle be linked with sanctions such as demotion, pay reduction and reassignment. However, the evidence from Ada East District Assembly was that such actions are not satisfactorily applied. A senior official was straightforward, stating:

I’ve never seen anyone queried in this department for not delivering, for non-performance, no. I have not come across it yet. You may be queried for not coming to work but regarding your core activities, I’m yet to see one. So maybe sometimes, make sure you come to work. If you come to work and just sit down and stare into the air from eight to five, you are okay.

The concern raised in the above submission suggests that too much emphasis is placed on mere adherence to administrative procedures at the expense of performance; for example, staff’s regular attendance at work rather than the outcomes of their work. While they believe in results, some employees are not really focused on delivering actual outputs largely because management has not been strict. An employee may report daily to work without doing any meaningful work and yet may not be questioned by their supervisor(s). It is important therefore, for unit heads and other senior managers to ensure that employees are productive.

The findings also suggest that most senior local government staff assign tasks and performance targets to their subordinates, but then neglect performance monitoring and fail to provide results-oriented leadership. This is in line with the findings of Andrews (2014) , who asserts that work-related initiatives tend to focus on the development of performance contracts based on specified targets, but with little emphasis on whether or not employees actually deliver on what they have been engaged to do. To be effective, a performance management system needs to link continued employment with satisfactory performance. This is supported by Bawole et al. (2013) who in their study of the culture of rhetoric in performance management in Ghana civil service found that poor implementation of supervisory and monitoring mechanisms in the use of performance management sabotages overall performance and that district assemblies seem not interested in making employees work for results.

Poor monitoring and supervision also make it difficult for managers to differentiate between good and bad performers, and hence reward or sanction appropriately. It has also been observed that many public services do not have appropriate mechanisms in place to identify, utilise and reward top performers ( Martin and Spano 2015 ). Even if rewards or sanctions do not encourage improved performance, they are essential prerequisites for employee performance and development. A research participant stated hence:

I think one major challenge is at the management level. They are not, I think they are not really interested in, how would I put it, I think there is lack of monitoring, proper monitoring.

It appears from the above quote that sanctions are not applied in managing performance of employees. A combination of positive and negative incentives designed to encourage or discourage employees’ actions is important in making staff more open to performance management, and essential to improving service delivery for the assembly.

Challenges of performance management implementation

Responses gathered by the study suggest that introducing performance management is not a guarantee of organisational effectiveness, and, furthermore, that the implementation process has faced some formidable challenges in the case study assembly.

Firstly, respondents unanimously agreed that logistical constraints are one of the biggest challenges to the implementation of performance management. Prior to performing tasks, employees are supposed to be provided with tools and equipment, and if these are not readily available, it becomes almost impossible to perform to a standard that could achieve organisational goals. This is exactly the situation in Ada East District Assembly. Equipment as diverse as laptops, printers, photocopiers, paper, motorbikes, cars, rakes and boots were cited as inadequate when it comes to both general administration activities and field inspection. As a senior official in one of the units said:

If you request for a report on time … you know I cannot use carbon paper to write the report. I must print and the printer is not there, you blame me if there is no paper? … I am not happy as an individual of what I have achieved, not because I cannot do it but rather because things to work with are not there.

Likewise, the lack of and delay in release of funds needed to execute activities, programmes, and services in a manner most likely to achieve desired results remains a huge obstacle.

Secondly, office transport is a major problem. For instance, when the office pick-up vehicle is needed to take officers or documents to national headquarters, or for other official assignments, the only other vehicle may be broken down, so cannot take other officers to the field. Interestingly, however, although the assembly often grapples with inadequate official transport, workers felt that it is not right for them to abandon their work, and many find means of transporting themselves to work using their own money to pay fares, often without reimbursement.

Thirdly, staff need training and capacity-building. On-the-job training enables employees to acquire new skills and update their knowledge in order to keep abreast of current issues. Fortunately, most of the 21 staff interviewed had undergone performance management-oriented training at some point in their employment, although they argued that such training did not happen often. This suggests that managers and supervisors pay lip service to the idea of improving performance, but are not doing much in practice. When asked about this point, management staff noted that they are unable to organise regular training programmes because of insufficient funds.

Fourthly, the study found poor monitoring and supervision as another barrier to performance management implementation. Essentially, monitoring and supervision should be about comparing the actual output of staff with their performance targets as specified in the action plan. However, if monitoring and supervision are inconsistent or intermittent, staff may be present at work regularly, but not working for improved service delivery. As this respondent said:

… the truth is, it all boils down to supervision because if my supervisor is being supervised, he’ll supervise me. He’ll ensure that I will not do things that will get him into trouble. And the thing is when you don’t do it, you know, without consequences, you know, I can do anything and wait for last minute. Even when they know that I am filling it last minute, there will be no consequences. That’s the thing – so supervision is key, supervision is key. Without supervision, everybody will do what they want.

This demonstrates that flexible but decisive monitoring and supervision is a sine qua non for improving employees’ performance and accountability; and confirms the argument of Bawole et al. (2013) that in Ghana leadership that is proactive, committed and results-oriented is indispensable in achieving results.

Another challenge the study uncovered was undue interference. It was observed that managers use their positions to interfere with and change the action plan. They influence the officers involved and try to include new items, but often without the accompanying budgetary allocations. As one respondent pointed out:

You decide on anything which is inside the plan for you to do, but you see them doing things which are not in the plan. Then, they will call you later, try and put this in the plan; try and put that one in the plan. Meanwhile, initially, it wasn’t part of it and the things which are in the plan, then we don’t get money to carry them out but they do things which are outside the plan. So the DCE (mayor) and the director have to understand the fact that as an assembly, we are going by this system; anything you want to do, you have to put it in the plan and you do it. If it is not in the plan, don’t do it.

With this, original items in the action plan are compromised for those added by management. It can be argued that including items which are originally excluded from the action plan may contribute to some employees falling short of their performance targets.

It is also interesting to note that most of the challenges are attributed to financial constraints because it is considered one of the challenges of district assemblies. Mandatory fund transfers from central government, as respondents concurred, are irregular and always arrive late. One respondent vividly noted:

The thing is the release of the funds, timely release. I mean, yes, the funds will be released all right but at what time are they going to release the funds? That’s key, it’s the timing that does it all. If I am supposed to do a project in the first quarter and … the release for first quarter comes in the fourth quarter… I mean, you practically kill my targets. So they also have a key role to play.

The late release of District Assemblies’ Common Fund (DACF) money can virtually bring many operations to a halt. It also suggests that the time the fund is released is a determining factor in whether or not it is possible to achieve all performance targets specified in the action plan. As studies by Adei and Boachie-Danquah (2003) and SEND-Ghana (2015) showed, many local assemblies are unable to optimise their performance largely owing to late release of funds.

Generally, performance management at the local government level in Ghana is still at its introductory stage and has a long way to go to support employees’ commitment to developing more efficient and effective local government administration. It needs to be understood that performance management is not an end in itself; it is a means to an end, but a vital tool in addressing the factors that make or mar performance, in local government as elsewhere.

Performance management has many benefits. It enables close monitoring of the progress and performance of staff on a regular basis and the identification of deviations, enabling corrective steps to be taken. Performance management however needs to be undertaken continuously, with quarterly and annual reviews, in order to keep performance on track. This study’s findings suggest that it has enabled local assemblies to step up their performance.

While staff recognise the benefits of performance management, they experience many difficulties in effectively aligning it with their culture. Additionally, the implementation of performance management is hampered because resources needed to boost performance are not readily available. A key problem is that the equipment, transport and logistics required to meet performance expectations are not reliably available. Furthermore, training and capacity development workshops which could help improve staff performance are rarely organised, and the supervision of employees is below par. For all these reasons, staff do not perform to their full potential.

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National Performance Management Advisory Commission. (2019) A performance management framework for state and local government: From measurement and reporting to managing and improving. Chicago: NPMAC.

Ohemeng, F.L.K. (2011) Institutionalising performance management system in public organisations in Ghana, chasing a mirage? Public Performance and Management Review, 34 (4), 467–488. https://doi.org/10.2753/pmr1530-9576340402

Perez-Lopez, G., Prior, D. and Zafra-Gomez, J.L. (2015) Rethinking new public management delivery forms and efficiency: Long-term effects in Spanish local government. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 25, 1157–1183. https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/muu088

Republic of Ghana. (1992) Constitution of the Republic of Ghana. Tema: Ghana Publishing Corporation.

SEND-Ghana. (2015 ) Bringing development to the doorsteps of citizens. Accra: Ghana News Agency.

Van Dooren, W., Bouckaert, G. and Halligan, J. (2015) Performance management in the public sector. (2nd edition). London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315817590

Walker, R.M. and Andrews, R. (2013) Local government management and performance: A review of evidence. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 25, 101–133. https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mut038

Woolum, J. (2011) Citizen involvement in performance measurement and reporting. Public Performance & Management Review, 35 (1), 79–102. https://doi.org/10.2753/pmr1530-9576350104

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Performance Management and Local Government Administration in Ghana: The Case of the District Development Facility and the Functional Organisational Assessment Tool

  • Hamza Bukari Zakaria
  • Global Development Institute

Student thesis : Phd

  • Public Management, Functional Organisational Assessment Tool
  • Performance Management, Local governance, Balance Scorecard, Accountability, Ghana

File : application/pdf, -1 bytes

Type : Thesis

Evelyn Dede Oboshie Annan Customer Experience Center, Access Bank Ghana PLC, Ghana

Ms. Evelyn Dede Oboshie Annan is a dedicated, skilled, and detail-oriented Customer Service specialist with over 6 years of customer service experience and currently serving at Access Bank Ghana. Ms Annan, with an academic background from the University of Ghana with a bachelor’s degree in Economics and information studies and equally taking up roles delivering service to customers, has prepared her for her role as a contact Centre representative with a renowned financial institution Access Bank Ghana. She is committed to smooth transitioning of service delivery shares a keen interest in customer satisfaction and is a firm believer of service quality over quantity, lives the mantra “quality service is remembered long after price is forgotten” and with expertise in the field of customer relationship management, well known for her exceptional communication and interpersonal skills which is very essential in carving her into an asset for any institution.

ORCID: orcid.org/0009-0009-4884-4468

Doreen Tsotsoo Ashai Customer Experience Center, Access Bank Ghana PLC, Ghana

Ms. Doreen Tsotsoo Ashai is a very competent and driven individual and motivated Customer Experience Officer currently with Access Bank Ghana Ltd, having completed a master's program in management and administration at the University of Ghana Business School. She has the strategic thinking required to plan, execute, and supervise initiatives with accuracy and efficiency, as well as manage people. Ms. Ashai also holds a bachelor's degree in arts with a major in Social Work with Sociology from the University of Ghana and a project management certificate from the Cambridge School of Excellence. She offers a special blend of interpersonal skills and project management expertise to every venture as a seasoned customer service professional with a sharp eye for detail and a passion for guaranteeing client pleasure. Her ability to foresee needs and offer customized solutions has been sharpened through managing a variety of client interactions. Ms. Ashai has a solid educational foundation and experience in customer service. Ms. Ashai thrives in fast-paced settings and uses her abilities to not just meet but also surpass expectations. She is eager to complement her diverse skill set and help each firm succeed by delivering excellent customer service and effective operations. She is respected for her exceptional interpersonal and communication skills, and both her coworkers and superiors praise her for her determination and drive to complete tasks quickly and accurately. Ms. Ashai has pushed and inspired most of her coworkers to continue their studies because she wants to make a difference in the world. Her dedication and loyalty make her an asset to any organization.

ORCID: orcid.org/0009-0002-4194-6022

Faustina Nana Yaa Boatemaa Hostel Department, Accra Technical University, Ghana

Ms. Faustina Nana Yaa Boatemaa is a highly skilled and motivated Assistant Registrar, currently serving at the New Hostel. With a Master's degree in Business Administration, specializing in Human Resource Management from the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), and a Bachelor of Science in Management from Central University College, Ms. Boatemaa has a strong academic background that has prepared her for her role as an Assistant Registrar. Ms. Boatemaa has a keen interest in the impact of organizational change on employee performance in achieving organizational goals. She firmly believes that organizational change can be a catalyst for improving employee performance and achieving organizational success. She is committed to exploring and implementing innovative strategies that ensure a smooth transition during periods of organizational change, while also ensuring that employees are equipped with the skills and resources they need to perform at their best. Ms. Boatemaa's expertise in the field of Human Resource Management and organizational change has been recognized by her colleagues and peers. She is known for her exceptional organizational and planning skills, as well as her ability to develop and implement effective HR policies and procedures. Ms. Boatemaa is also well-regarded for her excellent communication and interpersonal skills, which have been critical in ensuring the success of various HR initiatives related to organizational change. Overall, Ms. Faustina Nana Yaa Boatemaa is an accomplished Assistant Registrar with a strong interest in the impact of organizational change on employee performance. Her extensive knowledge and experience in this field, combined with her exceptional organizational and communication skills, make her an asset to any organization.

ORCID: orcid.org/0009-0004-3608-2922

case study performance management at the university of ghana

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Alemika, E. (2008). Human resources management in the Nigeria Police Force Challenges and imperative. Paper presented at the Police Service Commission Retreat on Understanding the Mandate and Operations of the Police Service Commission, Nigeria, August 18-20, 2008. Retrieved from https://www.scribd.com/doc/82817819/Human-Resources-Management-in-the-Nigeria-Police-Force-Challenges-and-Imperative

Ankita, K. (2010). Human resource management. Retrieved October 25th 2011 from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/human-resource-management-hrm-ankita-sharda

Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of human resource management practice, (13th Edition) London, Kogan Page Publishing, p. 264.

Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of human resource management practice. 10th (ed). London

Armstrong, M. (2007). Employee reward management and practice, London Kogan Page.

Armstrong, M. (2013). A handbook of human resource management practice, 9th Ed. London, UK: Cambrian Printers Ltd.

Berette Koehler. Kulkarni, P.P. (2013). A literature review on training and development and quality of work life. Journal of Arts, Science, and Commerce, IV(2), 136-143.

Cole, G.A. (2002). Personnel and human resource management (5ed). London: Continuum.

Creswell, J. (2004). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Creswell, J.W. 2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (3rd ed). Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc.

Dessler, G. (2000). Human resource management. Prentice Hall, 8th Edition.

Dessler, J.E., & Doty, D.H. (1996). Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: Tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 802- 835.

Elena P. Antonacopoulou (2000). Employee development through self-development in three retail banks, Journal of Personnel Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 491-508.

Ellingeic, A.D., A.F. Ellinger and S.B. Keller (2003). Supervisory coaching behaviour, Employee satisfaction, and warehouse employee performance: A dyadic perspective in the distribution Industry. Human Resource Development Quarterly, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp. 435-458.

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Performance Management at the University of Ghana

The University of Ghana in Legon, Ghana, was established in 1948 as an affiliate college of the University of London called University College of the Gold Coast. In 1961, the university was reorganized by an act of Parliament into what it is today: the independent, degree-granting University of Ghana (http:// www.ug.edu.gh/).

The Balme Library is the main library in the University of Ghana library system. Situated on the main Legon campus, it coordinates a large number of libraries attached to the university’s various schools, institutes, faculties, departments, and halls of residence, most of which are autonomous.

The library was started as the College Library in 1948 and was then situated in Achimota College, which was about 8 kilome- ters from the present Legon campus. In 1959, the College Library moved into its brand-new buildings at the Legon campus and was named after the University College of the Gold Coast’s first principal, David Mowbrary Balme.

As in the case of many other modern university libraries worldwide that face resources challenges and the need to serve an increasingly diverse customer base, the Balme Library has implemented numerous initiatives. One such initiative is a performance management system. However, several of the components of the performance management process at the Balme Library are in need of improvement. First, there is no evidence that a systematic job analysis was conducted for any of the jobs at the library. Second, the forms that the employees are rated on contain vague items such as “general behavior.” The forms include no specific definition of what “general behavior” is or examples explaining to employees (or managers) what would lead to a high or a low rating in this category. In addition, all library employees are rated on the same form, regardless of their job responsibilities. Third, there is no evidence that managers have worked with employees in setting mutually agreed-upon goals. Fourth, there is no formal or informal discussion of results and needed follow-up steps after the subordinates and managers complete their form. Not surprisingly, an employee survey revealed that more than 60% of the employees have never discussed their performance with their managers. Finally, employees are often rated by different people. For example, sometimes the head of the library rates an employee, even though he may not be in direct contact with that employee.

Based on the above description, please answer the following questions.

1. Please identify one component in the performance management process at the Balme Library that has not been implemented effectively (there are several; choose only one). 


2. Describe how the poor implementation of the specific component you have chosen has a negative impact on the flow of the performance management process as a whole. 


3. Discuss what should be done to improve the implementation of the component you have chosen in question 1. 


Source: This case study is loosely based on Martey, A. K. (2002). “Appraising the performance of library staff in a Ghanaian Academic Library.” Library Management, 23, 403–416.

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  1. Case Study: Performance Management At The University Of Ghana

    Answer 1 The one component pertaining to the performance management process that is used ineffectively by Balme Library of the University of Ghana in Legon; suburb of city of Accra in Ghana, is predominantly Coaching And Feedback.

  2. CASE STUDY 2-3 University of Ghana

    CASE STUDY 2-3 University of Ghana | PDF | Performance Management | Ghana CASE STUDY 2-3 University of Ghana - Free download as Word Doc (.doc), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Case study

  3. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT CASE STUDY .docx

    CASE STUDY 3: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF GHANA Question 1 Balme Library is one of the well-known research libraries in Africa and is the main library of the University of Ghana (Aguinis, 2009). The library consists of six departments, employs more than 50 people and has more than 100,000 books, 500 microfilms, CDs and tapes as well as access to extensive electronic resources ...

  4. PDF Performance Management in the Public Sector: An Action-Research Based

    The entity under study, a statutory public sector organization, operates in a volatile economic environment due to its primary commodity, cocoa. Our research identified that The Entity (name anonymized) primarily used financial performance management and measurement systems and only nominally employed non-financial measures of performance.

  5. Case Study 2 Performance Mgt. at the University of Ghana 1 .docx

    Case Study (2) ( Book p.56-57) Performance Management at the University of Ghana The University of Ghana in Legon, Ghana, was established in 1948 as an affiliate college of the University of London called University College of the Gold Coast. In 1961, the university was recognized by an act of Parliament into what it is today: the independent, degree-granting University of Ghana ().

  6. University of Ghana Performance Management

    The Balme Library, University of Ghana's performance management system has the following shortcomings in its process: 1) There was lack of systematic job analysis at Balme Library. Job analysis is an essential part of a PM system; it features what constitutes the duties for a particular job, without this knowledge, it becomes difficult to ...

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    Case Study: Performance Management at the University of Ghana Answer 1 The performance management component that was not effectively implemented in the performance management of the Balme Library at the University of Ghana according to the description that came in the case study, is the Performance Planning and Reviewing.

  8. Performance Management at the University of Ghana

    Case Study. Performance Management at the University of Ghana. The University of Ghana in Legon, Ghana, was established in 1948 as an affiliate college of the University of London called University College of the Gold Coast. In 1961, the university was reorganized by an act of Parliament into what it is today: the independent, degree-granting ...

  9. An Investigation into Performance Management Practices in Ghana: Case

    The study adopted a multi-method qualitative case study approach using both primary and secondary data sources. A stratified random sampling technique was used with a sample size of 111 ...

  10. Performance management in Ghana's local government: a case study of Ada

    This article examines performance management in Ghana's local governments through a case study of the on-the-ground experiences of staff at Ada East District Assembly, in the south-east of the country. The study found that performance management is envisaged in the preparation of action plans.

  11. Performance Management and Local Government Administration in Ghana

    Abstract For the past two decades, interest in the performance of local governments has become high in public management. The wave of performance consciousness has thus far diffused from developed countries to developing countries where decreasing public confidence and trust in government has made the implementation of performance management policies a way of improving public perception of ...

  12. Read Case 2-3: Performance Management at the

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  13. Case Study 2-3 University of Ghana (PR)

    Case Study 2-3 University of Ghana (PR) | PDF | Performance Appraisal | Human Nature Case Study 2-3 University of Ghana (Pr) - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. University of Ghana

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  15. Effects of Employee Development and Welfare on Performance: a Case

    This study was designed to assess the effects of employee development and welfare on the performance of the staff of Accra Technical University, Ghana. A total of 100 respondents comprising 21 senior staff and 79 junior staff were used in the study and a questionnaire was used to gather data.

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    The case about the performance management in the University of Ghana is a good one for analyzing details about performance management. The focus is on the University's management including its university the Balme University. The university conducts a large number of libraries that are attached to the various schools of the university.

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    Click Here to view: "Performance Management at the University of Ghana ". Please answer the questions that are at the end of the case study. -Use the APA style guidelines, citing references as appropriate. -Submit your findings in a 2-4 page documentNOTE THAT, I have the short answer and what I need to make the half page answer to be at least 2.5 pages and using at least 3  credible  ...

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    dynamic performance obstacles annotated bibliography REITs food preparation case study managamenet management management theory Individual assessment tools ESCI. Please answer the questions that are at the end of the case study. Use academic writing standards and APA style guidelines, citing references as appropriate.Case study.pdf.

  20. Read Case 2-3: Performance Management at the University of Ghana

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  21. Performance Management at the University of Ghana

    Case Study. Performance Management at the University of Ghana. The University of Ghana in Legon, Ghana, was established in 1948 as an affiliate college of the University of London called University College of the Gold Coast. In 1961, the university was reorganized by an act of Parliament into what it is today: the independent, degree-granting ...