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How to Cite a Website and Online/Electronic Resources
The pages outlines examples of how to cite websites and media sources using the Harvard Referencing method .
What are electronic sources?
An electronic source is any information source in digital format. The library subscribes to many electronic information resources in order to provide access for students. Electronic sources can include: full-text journals, newspapers, company information, e-books, dictionaries, encyclopaedias, economic data, digital images, industry profiles, market research, etc.
Should I include extra information when I cite electronic sources?
Referencing electronic or online sources can be confusing—it's difficult to know which information to include or where to find it. As a rule, provide as much information as possible concerning authorship, location and availability.
Electronic or online sources require much of the same information as print sources (author, year of publication, title, publisher). However, in some cases extra information may be required:
- the page, paragraph or section number—what you cite will depend on the information available as many electronic or online sources don’t have pages.
- identify the format of the source accessed, for example, E-book, podcast etc.
- provide an accurate access date for online sources, that is, identify when a source was viewed or downloaded.
- provide the location of an online source, for example, a database or web address.
Cite the name of the author/ organisation responsible for the site and the date created or last revised (use the most recent date):
(Department of Social Services 2020)
According to the Department of Social Services (2020) ...
List of References
Include information in the following order:
- author (the person or organisation responsible for the site
- year (date created or revised)
- site name (in italics)
- name of sponsor of site (if available)
- accessed day month year (the date you viewed the site)
- URL or Internet address (between pointed brackets). If possible, ensure that the URL is included without a line-break.
Department of Social Services 2020, Department of social services website , Australian government, accessed 20 February 2020, <https: //www .dss.gov.au/>.
Specific pages or documents within a website
Information should include author/authoring body name(s) and the date created or last revised:
(Li 2004) or:
(World Health Organisation 2013)
- author (the person or organisation responsible for the site)
- year (date created or last updated)
- page title (in italics)
- name of sponsor of site (if available)
- accessed day month year (the day you viewed the site)
- URL or Internet address (pointed brackets).
Li, L 2014, Chinese scroll painting H533 , Australian Museum, accessed 20 February 2016, <https: // australianmuseum.net.au/chinese-scroll-painting-h533>.
Organisation as author:
World Health Organisation 2013, Financial crisis and global health , The United Nations, accessed 1 August 2013, <http: //www .who.int/topics/financial_crisis/en/>.
Webpages with no author or date
If the author's name is unknown, cite the website/page title and date:
( Land for sale on moon 2007)
Land for sale on moon 2007, accessed 19 June 2007, <http: // www . moonlandrealestate.com>.
If there is not date on the page, use the abbreviation n.d. (no date):
List if References
ArtsNSW n.d., New South Wales Premier’s Literary Awards , NSW Department of the Arts, Sport and Recreation, accessed 19 June 2007, <http: // www . arts.nsw.gov.au/awards/ LiteraryAwards/litawards.htm>.
Kim, M n.d., Chinese New Year pictures and propaganda posters , Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences, accessed 12 April 2016, <https: // collection.maas.museum/set/6274>.
Media articles (print)
If there is no author, list the name of the newspaper, the date, year and page number:
( The Independent 2013, p. 36)
If there is an author, cite as you would for a journal article:
(Donaghy 1994, p. 3)
Articles can also be mentioned in the running text:
University rankings were examined in a Sydney Morning Herald report by Williamson (1998, p. 21), where it was evident that ...
- year of publication
- article title (between single quotation marks)
- publication title (in italics with maximum capitalisation)
- date of article (day, month)
- page number
Williamson, S 1998, ‘UNSW gains top ranking from quality team’, Sydney Morning Herald , 30 February, p.21.
Donaghy, B 1994, ‘National meeting set to review tertiary admissions’, Campus News , 3-9 March, p. 3.
An unattributed newspaper article:
If there is no named author, list the article title first:
- Article title, between single quotation marks,
- Publication title (in italics with maximum capitalisation)
- Date published (date, month, year)
- Page number (if available)
‘Baby tapir wins hearts at zoo’, The Independent , 9 August 2013, p. 36
Online media articles
A news article from an electronic database:
If the article has a named author:
- author (if available)
- newspaper title (in italics)
- date of article (day, month, page number—if given—and any additional information available)
- accessed day month year (the date you accessed the items)
- from name of database
- item number (if given).
Pianin, E 2001, 'As coal's fortunes climb, mountains tremble in W.Va; energy policy is transforming lives', The Washington Post, 25 February, p. A03, accessed March 2001 from Electric Library Australasia.
A news article without a named author:
No named author:
( New York Daily Times 1830)
The article can also be discussed in the body of the paragraph:
An account of the popularity of the baby tapir in The Independent (2013) stated that ...
If there is no named author, list the article title first.
'Amending the Constitution', New York Daily Times , 16 October 1851, p. 2, accessed 15 July 2007 from ProQuest Historical Newspapers database.
'Baby tapir wins hearts at zoo', The Independent , 9 August 2013, Accessed 25 January 2014, <http: // www . independent.ie/world-news/and-finally/baby-tapir-wins-hearts-at-zoo-30495570.html>.
An online news article:
Cite the author name and year:
Coorey, P 2007, ‘Costello hints at green safety net’, Sydney Morning Herald , 10 May, accessed 14 May 2012, <http: // www . smh.com.au/news/business/costello-hints-at-green-safety-net/2007/05/09/1178390393875.html>.
While a URL for the article should be included, if it is very long (more than two lines) or unfixed (from a search engine), only include the publication URL:
Holmes, L 2017, 'The woman making a living out of pretending to be Kylie Minogue', The Daily Telegraph , 23 April, accessed 22 May 2017, <http: // www . dailytelegraph.com.au>.
Cite the author (the person responsible for the release) and date:
Prime Minister Howard (2007) announced plans for further welfare reform...
- author name or authoring organisation name
- title of release (in italics)
- accessed day month year
- URL (between pointed brackets)
Office of the Prime Minister 2007, Welfare Payments Reform , media release, accessed 25 July 2007, <http: // www . pm.gov.au/media/Release/2007/Media_Release24432.cfm>.
How to cite broadcast materials and communications
- How to cite different sources
- How to cite references
- How to cite online/electronic sources
- Broadcast and other sources
- Citing images and tables
- FAQs and troubleshooting
- About this guide
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- How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples
How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples
Published on March 5, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.
To cite a page from a website, you need a short in-text citation and a corresponding reference stating the author’s name, the date of publication, the title of the page, the website name, and the URL.
This information is presented differently in different citation styles. APA , MLA , and Chicago are the most commonly used styles.
Use the interactive example generator below to explore APA and MLA website citations.
Note that the format is slightly different for citing YouTube and other online video platforms, or for citing an image .
Table of contents
Citing a website in mla style, citing a website in apa style, citing a website in chicago style, frequently asked questions about citations.
An MLA Works Cited entry for a webpage lists the author’s name , the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the site (in italics), the date of publication, and the URL.
The in-text citation usually just lists the author’s name. For a long page, you may specify a (shortened) section heading to locate the specific passage. Don’t use paragraph numbers unless they’re specifically numbered on the page.
The same format is used for blog posts and online articles from newspapers and magazines.
You can also use our free MLA Citation Generator to generate your website citations.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
Citing a whole website.
When you cite an entire website rather than a specific page, include the author if one can be identified for the whole site (e.g. for a single-authored blog). Otherwise, just start with the site name.
List the copyright date displayed on the site; if there isn’t one, provide an access date after the URL.
Webpages with no author or date
When no author is listed, cite the organization as author only if it differs from the website name.
If the organization name is also the website name, start the Works Cited entry with the title instead, and use a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation.
When no publication date is listed, leave it out and include an access date at the end instead.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
An APA reference for a webpage lists the author’s last name and initials, the full date of publication, the title of the page (in italics), the website name (in plain text), and the URL.
The in-text citation lists the author’s last name and the year. If it’s a long page, you may include a locator to identify the quote or paraphrase (e.g. a paragraph number and/or section title).
Note that a general reference to an entire website doesn’t require a citation in APA Style; just include the URL in parentheses after you mention the site.
You can also use our free APA Citation Generator to create your webpage citations. Search for a URL to retrieve the details.
Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr
Blog posts and online articles.
Blog posts follow a slightly different format: the title of the post is not italicized, and the name of the blog is.
The same format is used for online newspaper and magazine articles—but not for articles from news sites like Reuters and BBC News (see the previous example).
When a page has no author specified, list the name of the organization that created it instead (and omit it later if it’s the same as the website name).
When it doesn’t list a date of publication, use “n.d.” in place of the date. You can also include an access date if the page seems likely to change over time.
In Chicago notes and bibliography style, footnotes are used to cite sources. They refer to a bibliography at the end that lists all your sources in full.
A Chicago bibliography entry for a website lists the author’s name, the page title (in quotation marks), the website name, the publication date, and the URL.
Chicago also has an alternative author-date citation style . Examples of website citations in this style can be found here .
For blog posts and online articles from newspapers, the name of the publication is italicized. For a blog post, you should also add the word “blog” in parentheses, unless it’s already part of the blog’s name.
When a web source doesn’t list an author , you can usually begin your bibliography entry and short note with the name of the organization responsible. Don’t repeat it later if it’s also the name of the website. A full note should begin with the title instead.
When no publication or revision date is shown, include an access date instead in your bibliography entry.
The main elements included in website citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the author, the date of publication, the page title, the website name, and the URL. The information is presented differently in each style.
In APA , MLA , and Chicago style citations for sources that don’t list a specific author (e.g. many websites ), you can usually list the organization responsible for the source as the author.
If the organization is the same as the website or publisher, you shouldn’t repeat it twice in your reference:
- In APA and Chicago, omit the website or publisher name later in the reference.
- In MLA, omit the author element at the start of the reference, and cite the source title instead.
If there’s no appropriate organization to list as author, you will usually have to begin the citation and reference entry with the title of the source instead.
When you want to cite a specific passage in a source without page numbers (e.g. an e-book or website ), all the main citation styles recommend using an alternate locator in your in-text citation . You might use a heading or chapter number, e.g. (Smith, 2016, ch. 1)
In APA Style , you can count the paragraph numbers in a text to identify a location by paragraph number. MLA and Chicago recommend that you only use paragraph numbers if they’re explicitly marked in the text.
For audiovisual sources (e.g. videos ), all styles recommend using a timestamp to show a specific point in the video when relevant.
Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.
- APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
- MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
- Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
- Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.
Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.
The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved December 1, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/cite-a-website/
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APA Citation Guide
- Paper Formatting
- Reference Components
- Book Examples
- Article Examples
- Media Examples
Webpages / Web Documents
Entire websites, entry in an online dictionary, entries in online encyclopedias, online videos ( e.g. youtube, ted), online lecture notes or powerpoint slides, fact sheets & brochures, press releases, film or video review, online maps, chatgpt/generative ai.
- Other Examples
- In-Text Citations
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of page . Website. http://xxxxx
General copyright dates are not sufficient to use as the publication date. If no creation or publication date is given, use n.d. If the author and website are the same, omit the website.
Example 1: Author, No Date
Corcodilos, N. (n.d.). Keep your salary under wraps . Ask the Headhunter. http://www.asktheheadhunter.com/hasalary.htm
Example 2: Corporate Author
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010). Facing down PTSD, vet is now soaring high . http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/featureArticle_Feb.asp
(U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2010)
Example 3: Multiple Pages from One Website
If you are using multiple pages from one website that all have the same author and date, differentiate the dates with letters. Be sure that the citations are listed alphabetically by webpage title.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014a). Be safe after a hurricane . http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/be-safe-after.asp
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014a)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014b). Make a plan . http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/plan.asp
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b)
If both items have n.d. instead of a year, include a hyphen before the differentiating letter:
Santa Fe College. (n.d.-a). Priority admissions dates . http://www.sfcollege.edu/admissions/index.php?section=priority_dates
(Santa Fe College, n.d.-a)
Santa Fe College. (n.d.-b). SF to UF: A true story . http://www.sfcollege.edu/gators/true-story/index
(Santa Fe College, n.d.-b)
Example 4: No Author
Appeal to authority . (n.d.). Logical Fallacies. https://www.logicalfallacies.org/appeal-to-authority.html
When citing as an in-text citation, you may abbreviate the title to the first few words, in quotations, unless the title is short:
("Appeal to Authority," n.d.)
Source: Publication Manual , 10.16 (examples 111-114); Webpage on a Website References [APA Style]
Simply give the URL of the website in the text:
The Lawrence W. Tyree Library website (http://www.sfcollege.edu/library) provides many resources for the students and faculty at Santa Fe College.
Source: Publication Manual , 8.22; Whole Website References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. (Year). Entry name. In Title of online dictionary . Retrieved Day Month, Year, from http://xxxxx.
Most online dictionaries will not have a date; include a retrieval date in this case.
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Chapfallen. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary . Retrieved March 10, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/chapfallen
West, S. (2007). Online bully. In Urban dictionary. https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=online%20bully&defid=2639710#2639710
Source: Dictionary Entry References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed.). Website. http://xxxxx
Example 1: Individual Author
Masolo, D. (2006). African sage philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2008 ed.). Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/african-sage/
Example 2: Group Author
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (n.d.) Antisemitism. In Holocaust encyclopedia . Retrieved October 7, 2019, from https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/antisemitism
(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, n.d.)
Note: If the author is the same as the website, omit the website component. If an encyclopedia is continuously updated and does not have an archived version, include the retrieval date.
Source: Publication Manual , 10.3 (examples 47-48)
Author, A. or ScreenName. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog Title . http://xxxxx
Please note that for blogs, the post title is formatted normally and the blog title is italicized.
Example 1: Screen Name
Headsman. (2009, August 17). 1909: Madanlal Dhingra, Indian revolutionary. ExecutedToday.com . http://www.executedtoday.com/2009/08/17/1909-madanlal-dhingra-indian-revolutionary/
Example 2: Full Name
Wade, L. (2009, August 7). What makes a person homeless? Sociological Images . http://contexts.org/socimages/2009/08/07/what-makes-a-person-homeless/
Source: Publication Manual , 10.1 (example 17); Blog Post and Blog Comment References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx). Website. http://xxxxx
Haugen, S. E. (2009). Measures of labor underutilization from the current population survey (Working Paper No. 424). Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/osmr/pdf/ec090020.pdf
Example 2: Organizational Author
For agencies that are part of a hierarchy, you can use the specific agency instead of including the full hierarchy. If you introduce an abbreviation in your first in-text citation, you may use that abbreviation in subsequent citations.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2011). Your guide to anemia (NIH Publication No. 11-7629). http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/blood/anemia-yg.pdf
First Time: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2011)
All Subsequent Times: (NHLBI, 2011)
Note: if the author and website are the same, omit the website.
Example 3: Report Retrieved from Other Site
Matese, M. A. (1997, March). Accountability-based sanctions (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Fact Sheet No. 58). National Criminal Justice Reference Service. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/fs-9758.pdf
Source: Publication Manual , 10.4 (examples 50-52); Report by a Government Agency References ; Report with Individual Authors References [APA Style]
Use this for videos posted on websites or blogs, such as YouTube, TED, a news website, etc. If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation (see Example 1).
Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Website. http://xxxxx
Example 1: Full Name
Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03McKEg9ASA
(Jones, 2009, 1:15)
Example 2: User Name Only
Vercamath. (2011, July 25). Parallel universes explained [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWaB3SksOQU
Example 3: TED Talk
Gavagan, E. (2012, April). A story about knots and surgeons [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/ed_gavagan_a_story_about_knots_and_surgeons
TED. (2016, August 30). Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Un2yBgIAxYs
Note: If citing from the TED website, list the speaker as the author. If citing from YouTube, list TED (or the account) as the author and include the speaker's name in the title.
Sources: Publication Manual , 9.8 and 10.12 (examples 88 and 90); YouTube Video References ; TED Talk References [APA Style]
You may also need to provide an attribution if you include the image in your paper. See Figures and Images .
Photographer, A. A. (copyright year). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Website. http://xxxxx
Zemlianichenko, A. (1997). Russian President Boris Yeltsin dancing at a rock concert [Photograph]. The Pulitzer Prizes. https://www.pulitzer.org/winners/alexander-zemlianichenko
Artist, A. A. (copyright year). Title of work [Medium: Painting, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.]. Museum, Location. http://xxxxx
Flack, A. (1988). Islandia, goddess of the healing waters [Sculpture]. Harn Museum of Art, Gainesville, FL, United States. http://www.harn.ufl.edu/collections/8_e.html
Source: Publication Manual , 10.14 (examples 97 & 101); Clip Art or Stock Image References ; Artwork References [APA Style]
Only include a full reference to lecture notes or class materials that are behind a login screen (such as Canvas) if you are writing for an audience that will be able to retrieve them. Otherwise, cite it as a personal communication .
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides]. Website. http://xxxxx
Preskill, J. (n.d.). Chapter 4: Quantum entanglement [Lecture notes]. Caltech Particle Theory Group. http://www.theory.caltech.edu/people/preskill/ph229/notes/chap4.pdf
Matthews, D. (2019). [Lecture notes on evaluating Internet resources]. Canvas at Santa Fe College. https://courses.sfcollege.edu/login
Source: Publication Manual , 10.14 (example 102); Classroom or Intranet Resources ; PowerPoint Slide or Lecture Note References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of brochure or fact sheet [Type]. Website. http://xxxxx.
If the author and website names are the same, omit the website component
Cancer Research UK. (2014). World cancer factsheet [Fact sheet]. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/sites/default/files/cs_report_world.pdf
(Cancer Research UK, 2014)
Nissan. (n.d.). 2020 Altima [Brochure]. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from https://www.nissanusa.com/content/dam/Nissan/us/vehicle-brochures/2020/2020-nissan-altima-brochure-en.pdf
Source: Fact Sheet References ; Brochure References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title of press release [Press release]. http://xxxxx
Santa Fe College. (2010). Film production classes and casting agent coming to SF [Press release]. http://news.sfcollege.edu/read.php/2010/09/03/film-production-classes-and-casting-agent-coming-to-sf.html
(Santa Fe College, 2010)
Source: Publication Manual , 10.4 (example 59); Press Release References [APA Style]
Reviewer, A. A. (Year). Title of review [Review of the film Film , by A. A. Director, Dir.]. Website. http://xxxxx
Barsanti, C. (2011). The Muppets [Review of the film The Muppets , by J Bobin, Dir.]. Filmcritic. http://www.filmcritic.com/reviews/2011/the-muppets/
Source: Publication Manual , 10.7 (examples 67-68)
Author, A. A. (Role). (Year). Title of map [Map]. Website. http://xxxxx
Wise, G. D. (Cartographer). (1857). Preliminary survey of the mouth of the Apalachicola River, Florida [Map]. University of Florida. http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/maps/MAPFLL018.JPG
Source: Publication Manual , 10.14 (example 100)
Only cite an interview if it is retrievable. If it is a personal interview that is not able to be accessed by the reader, follow the guidelines for personal communication .
Interviewee, A. A. (Year, month day interviewed). Title of interview [Interview]. Website. http://xxxxx
Miller, C. (2019, October 7). Chanel Miller - Turning her pain into a rallying cry with Know My Name - Extended interview [Interview]. Comedy Central. http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-september-18-2012/salman-rushdie
Source: Publication Manual , 10.13 (example 95)
Please note: Wikipedia is a good resource for learning about a topic, but it is usually not an acceptable source to cite in a paper or research project for a class at Santa Fe College. This is due to the fact that it can be very unreliable and is not considered a reputable source.
Title of entry. (Year, Month Day). In Wiki Name . http://xxxxx
Example 1: Wikipedia
Constitution of the United States. (2019, October 7). In Wikipedia . https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constitution_of_the_United_States&oldid=920036236
Note: Provide the link to the archived version of the entry you use. Click View history and the time/date corresponding to the entry version you used.
Example 2: Another Wiki
Greek mythology. (2008). In Citizendium . Retrieved August 12, 2019, from http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Greek_mythology
("Greek Mythology," 2008).
Note: If there is no link to an archival version of the page, provide the retrieval date that you accessed the entry.
Source: Publication Manual , 10.3 (example 49); Wikipedia Entry References [APA Style]
Author. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx
Florida Memes. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/morefloridamemes/
(Florida Memes, n.d.)
Specific Posting On Facebook Profile or Page
If you cite a particular post, you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.
- Include the author name as written (name or an organization).
- You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
- Provide the entire posting, up to the first 20 words.
- Include the URL of the specific post if possible.
Author. (Year, Month Day). Text of Facebook post, up to 20 words [Image attached] [Status update/Video/Infographic/Image]. Facebook. http://xxxxx
CNN. (2013, October 22). Could a mouse's back potentially hold the cure for baldness? A breakthrough may be on the horizon, researchers say. http://on.cnn.com/1cTftYk [Thumbnail link] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/cnn/posts/10152027847166509
Source: Publication Manual , 10.15 (examples 105-106); Facebook References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. [@twittername]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx
Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://twitter.com/neiltyson
If you cite a particular post ('tweet'), you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.
- Include the Twitter username as written (be it a name or an organization).
- Since tweets are limited to 140 characters, you should include the entire text , including URLs.
- The URL should be for the specific tweet, not the entire feed.
- Replicate emojis if possible.
- If an image or video are included, add square brackets before the Tweet indication.
Author, A. A.. [@twittername]. (Year, Month Day). Full text of tweet [Image attached/Thumbnail with link attached/etc] [Tweet]. Twitter. http://xxxxx
Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Twitter. http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366
Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (2019, July 15). I love the smell of the universe in the morning [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/neiltyson/status/1179714452553420802
Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 103-104); Twitter References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of caption [Photograph(s)/Video(s)]. Instagram. http://xxxxx
Tyree Library [@tyreelibrary]. (2018, October 12). Check out our spooky display for October! All of the books and movies on display are available for checkout [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/Bo1uWOgAZ6b/
(Tyree Library, 2018)
Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 107-108); Instagram References [APA Style]
Author of Model. (Year of AI Version). Title of AI service (Version) [Model]. http://xxxxx
OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat
Source: How to Cite ChatGPT [APA Style]
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Citing information: online sources.
- Why We Cite
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APA: Online Sources
For examples of citations as they should appear in a works cited page, please visit the links below.
These citation examples should be used for books, articles, and other items you access online. For print books and other physical items, please see APA 7th edition Print Sources .
These examples don't cover what you need? Ask a librarian!
- Citing an E-Book
- Citing an Online Journal Article
- Citing an Online Magazine Article
- Citing an Online News Article
- Citing a Website
- Citing Social Media
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APA Website Citation Examples
Using the web to find information for your APA format school paper is the easiest way for students. Since it’s easy to upload content daily or even hourly, the information is current. Follow the APA 7 citation format for the source and add the website address at the end.
Basic APA Citation Format
Websites can offer a plethora of resources for your APA format paper. However, remember that not everything online is a reliable source. For example, you can look at the URL of the website and review the publisher and author. Website addresses that end in edu or .gov are typically reliable.
To cite resources from a website, use the basic APA citation format. Include the URL or DOI but do not place a period after the web address.
Author, A. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Publisher. https://www.xxxxxxx.com
If there is no author, use the organization’s name or the title of the article in its place.
American College Health Association. (2015). National College Health Assessment II: Spring 2015 reference group executive summary. http://www.acha-ncha.org/reports_ACHA-NCHAII.html
Roth, C. (2019, November 11). Group gathers at state Capitol in support of DACA on eve of Supreme Court case. Arizona Republic . https://www.azcentral.com
Online Magazine Article Citation
Haidt, J. & Rose-Stockwell, T. (2019, December). The dark psychology of social networks: Why it feels like everything is going haywire. The Atlantic . https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2019/12/social-media-democracy/600763/
Online Journal Article Citation
Lakoff, G. (2014). Mapping the brain’s metaphor circuitry: Metaphorical thought in everyday reason. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (8). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4267278/
Electronic Book Citation
Ebook Citation Example
Jha, N. (2011). English speaking and grammar through Hindi . BookRix. https://www.bookrix.com/_ebook-niranjan-jha-english-speaking-and-grammar-through-hindi/
Print/Online Book Citation Example
London, J. (2008). The call of the wild [Ebook #215]. The Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/215/215-h/215-h.htm
Blog Post Citation
Blog Citation Example
Millard, D. (2019, November 8). The Public Domain Review rockets the oddities of the past into the present. The Outline. https://theoutline.com/post/8208/the-public-domain-review-rockets-the-oddities-of-the-past-into-the-present
Blog Comment Citation
Brodsky, J. (2019, November 6). An inspiring story for writers: Could this be you someday [Comment on the blog post “An Inspiring Story for Writers: Could This Be Someday?]. Kathy Steinemann . https://kathysteinemann.com/Musings/impact/#more-4569
Online Forum Message Citation
SocialButterfly. (2018, November 23). How do I tell a family member that they have gained weight in a polite encouraging way. [Comment on the blog post “How to talk to family”]. Quora . https://www.quora.com/
Video Blog Post Citation
Bialik, M. (n.d.). Stigma free [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8gKy5eKupw
Online Map Citation
United States Geological Survey. (1960). Albuquerque West . USGS AASG. https://ngmdb.usgs.gov/img4/ht_icons/overlay/NM/NM_Albuquerque%20West_193696_1960_24000_geo.jpg
Taylor, H. [Executive Producer]. (2019, November 10). Season 14: Theory and technique . [Audio podcast episode]. Writing Excuses. https://writingexcuses.com/
- Do not place a period after the URL
- Include https:// or http:// before the URL
- Use screen names for blog comments or online forums, if needed
APA Format and Citations
Creating a School Project in APA Style
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APA Citation Examples for Peer Reviewed Articles
Apa citation generator (free) & complete apa format guide, how to do in-text citations in apa format, how to cite a legal case, document, or source in apa.
- Library Catalogue
Citing websites & online media: APA (7th ed.) citation guide
On this page, online media, webpages or website.
This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information consult directly a print copy of the style manual.
Check out APA's Guide to what's new for APA 7 .
Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with Citation management software .
For citing blog posts see citing articles in our guide.
Refer to APA's Online media for more reference examples and information or consult the guide directly (Section 10.15, pp. 348-349).
Facebook, Tumblr, LinkedIn, & Reddit
Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month day). Content of the post up to 20 words . Site Name. URL
Reference list example
National Institute of Mental Health. (2020, September 14). Suicide is complicated and tragic, but is often preventable. Knowing the warning signs for suicide and how to get help [Infographic]. Facebook. https://bit.ly/3kkBF5v
Reference in text example
(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020)--[group name first appears in parenthetical citation] (NIMH, 2020) [subsequent use]
- Author can be the name of a group.
- Find more style guidelines when abbreviating the name of a group on APA's Group author abbreviations or directly consult the guide (Section 8.2, p. 268).
- Note any audiovisuals in square brackets [Infographic] after content element.
- Do not alter the spelling and capitalization in posts. Keep hashtags and links.
- Provide emoji's name in square brackets if unable to to replicate, for example [winking face]. Refer to Unicode Emoji Charts for emoji names. An emoji counts as one word.
- If no published date available, use (n.d.).
Twitter & Instagram
Author, A. A. [@username). (YYYY, Month day). Content of the post up to the first 20 words . Site Name. URL
SFU Library (@sfu_library). (2020, September 10). Join us on Sept 22 for the first of our Fall series of hands-on, interactive, online Knowledge Mobilization workshops! [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/sfu_library/status/1303814348775673856?s=21
(SFU Library, 2020)
- Keep @ symbol when part of username and place in square brackets [ ] (Section 9.8, p. 287).
- Provide emoji's name in square brackets if unable to to replicate, for example [winking face]. Refer to Unicode Emoji Charts for emoji names.
- An emoji counts as one word.
- Use (n.d.). if no date available.
Use webpages or website if no other reference category fits for example, journal, blog, conference proceeding (Section 9.2, p.282).
A document or report found on a website
For citing a report found on a website see citing reports in our guide.
Quoting or paraphrasing part of a website
See more examples and details on APA's Webpage on a Website references or directly consult the guide (Section 10.16, pp 350-352).
Not sure how to identify and find the elements you need to cite a webpage? See What information do I need to cite a webpage
American Red Cross. (2019, April 15). Tornadoes - How to stay safe . https://www.redcross.org/about-us/news-and-events/news/2019/tornadoes-how-to-stay-safe.html
American Red Cross. (n.d.). Make a plan . https://www.redcross.org/get-help/how-to-prepare-for-emergencies/make-a-plan.html
Ewoldt, J. S. (2020, August 14). 6 ways to reduce your sugar intake . Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/6-ways-to-reduce-your-sugar-intake/art-20267400
(American Red Cross, 2019) (American Red Cross, 2019, "Tornadoes - How to stay safe") [when quoting]
(American Red Cross, "Make a plan")
- When the author and site name are the same omit the site name [Section 9.33, p. 298].
- For in-text citation, if there is no author the title of the webpage is used in its place [Section 8.14, p. 264-265]. Capitalize major words in the title (Section 6.17, p. 167].
- For the reference list citation, if no author, the title also replaces the author [Section 9.12, p. 289]. Titles in the reference list use sentence case [Section 6.17, p. 168].
- When making in-text citations, use paragraph numbers (abbreviated to “para.”) if page numbers are not available. If there are no paragraph numbers, use the heading. The heading may be shortened if necessary.
- Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material is likely to change over time and there is no archived date. When required use the following format: Retrieved Month Day, YYYY , from https :// xxxxxx after the site name. See APA's Webpage on a website with retrieval date for examples.
- Use bracketed description for works outside of peer-reviewed academic literature: [Letter to the editor], [Audiobook], [Photograph], [Brochure], [Press release], [Computer software], and [Supplemental material]. Refer to Section 9.21, p. 292 and see relevant examples in Chapter 10 of the guide.
- There is no period after the URL .
- Do not insert a hyphen when breaking a long URL.
Webpage on a news website
See more examples and details on APA's Webpage on a news website or consult the guide directly (Section 10.16, Example 110, p. 351).
Weber, B. (2020, September 28). Canada's health inequalities between rich and poor exposed in new study . HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/entry/canada-health-inequality-study_ca_5f71f4fcc5b64deddef13346
- For articles published in an online news source (e.g. Bloomberg, HuffPost, Salon, Vox) not associated with daily or weekly newspapers
Whole site, not a single document or web page
See more examples and details on APA's Whole website references or directly consult the guide (Section 8.8, pp. 268-269 & Section 10.16, pp. 350-352).
- If website is mentioned in general (not any particular information on the site), provide name of website as part of the text and place URL in parentheses.
- No references or in-text citations needed.
- Link the name directly if writing online.
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How to cite a website in a bibliography using MLA
The most basic entry for a website consists of the author name(s), webpage title, website title, *sponsoring institution/publisher, publication date, and DOI or URL.
Author Last Name, First Name. “Webpage Title.” Website Title , *Sponsoring Institution/Publisher, Publication Date, DOI or URL.
Owoseje, Toyin. “Britney Spears Apologizes to Fans for ‘Pretending’ to be OK in her Conservatorship.” CNN , 25 June 2021, cnn.com/2021/06/25/entertainment/britney-spears-conservatorship-instagram-intl-scli/index.html.
*If the sponsoring institution or publisher’s name is the same as the website title, do not include it. MLA prefers to avoid duplicating information in citations.
The first author’s name should be reversed, with a comma after the last name, followed by a period after the first name (or any middle name). The name should not be abbreviated and should be written exactly as it appears on the website. Titles and affiliations associated with the author should generally be omitted. A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr. should appear after the author’s given name, preceded by a comma.
For a page with two or more authors, list them in the order they appear on the website. Only the first author’s name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order. Separate author names by a comma, and place the word “and” before the last author’s name.
Sanchez, Ray, and Eric Levenson. “Derek Chauvin Sentenced to 22.5 Years in Death of George Floyd.” CNN , 25 June 2021, cnn.com/2021/06/25/us/derek-chauvin-sentencing-george-floyd/index.html.
For pages with three or more authors, reverse the first author’s name as described above and follow it with a comma and the abbreviation “et al.” Do not italicize “et al.” in parenthetical citations or works-cited list entries.
Rebaza, Claudia, et al. “John McAfee Was Not Suicidal, Says Widow of Antivirus Software Magnate.” CNN , 25 June 2021, cnn.com/2021/06/25/tech/john-mcafee-wife-janice-intl/index.html.
If the article was written by a news service or organization, include the name in the author position and remove any introductory articles (e.g., A, An, The) from the name.
Associated Press. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN , 21 Jan. 2009, cnn.com/2009/01/21/politics/obama-inaugurated-as-president/index.html.
If no author is available, begin the citation with the webpage title.
“Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN , 21 Jan. 2009, cnn.com/2009/01/21/politics/obama-inaugurated-as-president/index.html.
The webpage title should be placed within quotation marks. Place a period after the webpage title within the quotation marks. The webpage title is followed by the name of the larger website container in italics, and it’s usually followed by a comma and any additional information such as version, number, publisher, publication date, or URL. The punctuation before the version element varies depending on whether the webpage is part of a larger work or “container.” When it is part of a larger work, use a comma followed by the version. When it is a work that stands alone, use a period followed by the version.
Smith, John. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN , Version 12.1.1., 21 Jan. 2009, cnn.com/2009/01/21/politics/obama-inaugurated-as-president/index.html.
Include the sponsoring institution or publisher with a comma after the website title (or version number, if available). The sponsoring institution/publisher can usually be found at the bottom of the website in the footer. You may omit the publisher’s name when there is no publisher or when the publisher name isn’t required (for example, when the publisher title matches the website title or the website doesn’t list the publisher responsible for producing the work).
Smith, John. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN , 21 Jan. 2009, cnn.com/2009/01/21/politics/obama-inaugurated-as-president/index.html.
Next, state the publication date of the webpage. In works-cited list entries, use only the day-month-year style. Month names should be abbreviated, except for May, June, and July, and followed by a period. In some cases, a specific date might not be available, and the date published may only be specific to a month or even year. Provide whatever date information is available. When using seasons in the date, lowercase the season (spring 2021 not Spring 2021). If there is no date available, you may omit the publication date element from your citation. However, you may wish to include an access date in the supplemental element slot after the URL.
Smith, John. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN , cnn.com/2009/01/21/politics/obama-inaugurated-as-president/index.html.
Smith, John. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN , cnn.com/2009/01/21/politics/obama-inaugurated-as-president/index.html. Accessed 21 Jan. 2021.
According to MLA’s 9th edition, updated in 2021, you may usually leave out http:// or https:// from URLs unless you want to hyperlink them or unless instructed otherwise. When in doubt, ask your instructor. If a DOI is available, use that instead of the URL. For DOIs, use http:// or https:// before the DOI: https://doi.org/xx.xxxx/xxx.xxxx.xxxx. Use a period after the DOI and the URL.
Smith, John. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN , 21 Jan. 2009, https://doi.org/12.3456/789.1011.1213.
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For an online news source with more than two authors (3+), use “ et al ” after the first author to indicate “ and others ” in your works cited entry. With this format, you do not have to write all the authors’ names since you are indicating the same using “et al.”
Last Name, First Name1, et al. “Title of the article.” Title of the newspaper , Date of publication, URL.
Kamelion, North, et al. “How do Zebras stay awake in the forest amidst a scavenger hunt?” Taj Road Journal , 9 Aug. 2020, www.tajroadjournal.com/posts/253839.
If you have the same author as the first author in more than one entry, then distinguish these entries by listing two authors in the entries and using “et al” for the other authors.
If there is no author given for an online news source, then the in-text citation should include the first main word or words of the article title within the quotation marks. For example:
In a works-cited entry, you will include the article title, newspaper name, publication date, and URL. See below for the format and example.
“Article Title.” Newspaper , Date, URL.
“High Winds Blow Michigan Anglers, Ice Shanty about a Mile across Saginaw Bay.” Detroit Free Press , 2022 March 7, https://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/2022/03/07/saginaw-bay-ice-shanty-winds/9411709002/.
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Citing internet sources, internet sources - general information, special demands of internet sources.
- Copying Text without Plagiarizing
How to Cite Internet Sources
Print sources posted online, online versions of print periodicals, databases (like lexis-nexis), online journals, organization websites, topic websites, private websites, online video (like youtube), forums, listservs, chats, & bulletin boards, email & instant messages, i nternet vs. print sources.
Some professors will discourage you from using sources you find or access over the Internet. Although such restrictions may be excessive, there are reasons to be wary. It’s much easier to publish information on the Internet than to publish a book or periodical in print. Since it’s easier, Web posters are not always as careful to make sure that the information is accurate. For one thing, print publishing is more expensive, so many print publishers are careful not to make mistakes or to cut corners, in case what they publish turns out to be unreliable—and therefore useless. The seeming anonymity of the Internet also encourages some people to write things quickly, without checking to be sure of their facts or their conclusions. Most of us have had the experience of sending by email something we wrote quickly—perhaps when rushed or angry. Often these are things we wouldn’t print, sign, and mail, because those extra steps give us time to consider our words more carefully, and also because we recognize a higher expectation that things in print should be trustworthy.
N o Author, No Authority
In the context of writing in college, material from much of the Internet is less reliable than print sources because it’s hard to tell who wrote or posted it. As discussed in the section Why Cite? , the essence of academic scholarship is a conversation among authors. On many websites, it’s difficult to determine the author of the material. If the site creator’s name is listed, it’s still sometimes hard to tell whether the information has been reprinted from some other source. If you reach a website through a search engine, you may have to find the site’s homepage or search around in the “contact” information in order to identify the author or the organization that sponsors the site. Even if you find the author’s name, Internet sources make it harder to tell what status that person has in his or her field. Is the author an expert, a fan, or just a crackpot? After finding a website that seems useful and tracking down the author’s name, you may need additional research (perhaps using Google) to learn whether the author has any claim to credibility.
But of course, countless reliable sources can be accessed on the web, and even unreliable sources have some uses in research writing. (See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more about unreliable sources.) These days, many students and scholars use Web sources extensively in research and teaching. But they take extra care to assess and report the provenance of these sources.
Types of Websites
In this guide’s discussion of Internet sources, we draw distinctions between various kinds of websites: those sponsored by organizations , those devoted to a single topic , and private websites that are maintained by a single person—often a devoted fan of the topic under discussion. To some degree, these categories distinguish more and less reliable sources of information. But the distinctions are neither clear nor entirely stable. Some organizations, while established leaders in their fields, have very few resources available to maintain and update their websites. Some private individuals, although hosting websites as a hobby, are experts in their fields and consider accuracy on their sites to be the highest priority. It’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use material from the Internet. If you give a sense of what kind of Web source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence.
Basics of Citing Websites
When listing Internet sources in your References or Works Cited, the most important thing to remember is that your goal is to make it easy for a reader to consult your sources. (This same goal is paramount when listing print sources.) For most sites, that means you should include the full URL for the page you cite in your paper (the web address that begins “http”). But websites change, and the address you used won’t always be active when your reader tries to view a source. For that reason, it’s important to include both the date you accessed the site and also a full account of the person, group, or organization that sponsors the site. Knowing more about the author helps readers to assess the source and also, sometimes, to find the source when the website has been moved or revised.
The general form of a citation from an Internet source is:
Author’s name. Title of Document. Title of Website. Sponsor of Website. Date of Document. Date of Access. URL.
As you will see in the discussion of specific categories, however, some of these items may be hard to determine.
The ease of using electronic sources of any kind can make it harder to keep track of where the source ends and your original contribution begins—and you must always keep that distinction clear. See How to Copy and Paste but Not Plagiarize for advice about how to use electronic sources wisely.
Most of this guide focuses on helping you subordinate sources to your own ideas. In general, we highlight your need to respect authors’ intellectual or property rights, explaining how to give people credit for their ideas while distinguishing your own original contributions. But the ease of using electronic sources also raises dangers about what might be called privacy rights, leading you to make public words that the original author intended only as private communication. When someone speaks in public, participates in an interview, or publishes a piece of writing, he or she implicitly agrees that other people may refer to this material in research. But some electronic sources blur the line between public and private communication. (Private communications also have a different force of authority than deliberately published material; see Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.)
If in doubt about whether a given text should be considered public or private, we urge you to check with the original author before quoting it in your own work. Although the following categories overlap, they may help you decide when more care is warranted to avoid an invasion of privacy. (1) Web versions of sources that also appear in print are generally safe to quote, since most print publishers take care to secure rights before publication. (2) Publicly accessible websites are generally safe to quote. You may occasionally find a website reposting information that’s clearly from category 3, in which case you may wish to contact the original author before using the material. But if you can access the information through regular surfing, without passwords, it’s probably safe to use. (3) Communications sent via email or accessed by membership in a specific group are generally considered private, and you should exercise care in quoting from them in your papers.
Even in this last category, there’s not a hard and fast rule you can follow. If your university sends an announcement to all students via email, you may reasonably consider this public information. If your best friend reveals something damaging or embarrassing in an email sent only to you, it’s clearly private. But what if a professor writes to you about something related to the course? Or if you receive a message that’s sent only to the members of a small club? What about the discussion forums that many courses set up for students to exchange ideas about the readings? These cases are all ambiguous. Unless there’s been an explicit agreement that the material is public, we encourage you to check before using such messages in your work.
Copying Text Without Plagiarizing
One convenience of using electronic sources is the ability—once you’ve selected the passages you wish to quote—to copy and paste quotations instead of having the retype them into your paper. Even before you begin drafting a paper, copying and pasting sections from your sources seems an easy way to take notes, so that you can look the material over later without surfing back to the website. This very convenience, however, also leads writers into danger. In the midst of researching and taking notes, it’s just too easy to paste quotations into your file with the intention to go back later and note down the source. When you return to your draft, it can be hard to distinguish your own writing from the passages you’ve copied.
As discussed in Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism , the worst consequence of failing to acknowledge sources is to yourself: if you paste in someone’s words as your own, you will miss the opportunity to add your commentary, and therefore miss an opportunity to grow as a thinker and writer. Most of this guide focuses on such intellectual reasons for working properly with sources, rather than emphasizing the penalties of plagiarism. But because the copy and paste technique is so common, it’s especially important to warn you about its potential for abuse. Every year students come before the Yale Executive Committee having committed plagiarism through pasting material from the Internet into their papers and then forgetting to go back and identify the sources. Even when the oversight seems unintentional, these students are guilty of plagiarism, and must face penalties.
But you can avoid this danger with one very simple precaution:
Every time you highlight material from a website to use in your paper, save the material to a new file. Copy the URL (the full web address that begins with “http”) at the top of the new file, and give the file a name that briefly identifies the website.
Taking this extra step will allow you to review your sources when you’ve made more progress with your paper. So if you were thinking of using a piece of this web page in your paper, you’d copy the relevant portion into a Word file, add the URL, and perhaps call the file “Writing at Yale Copy/Paste Advice.” You’ll still be able to avoid retyping by copying and pasting from the new file you’ve made. But you will have created a record of your excerpts to help you distinguish your sources from your own work. For your own convenience, you may also want to add other citation information below the URL—such as author and date of access—before moving on to examine the next website. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information about how to cite websites. See also Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for advice about how to use Internet sources effectively.
Note: Even when you properly identify Internet sources, the very pasting that feels like a time-saver can lead you to use block quotations that are longer and less precise than necessary. Many writers, especially beginning academic writers, are better served by retyping quotations, because this extra step leads them to edit quotations and to paraphrase. You could still cut and paste to help you keep track of interesting passages before deciding which ones to quote in your paper (remembering, as suggested above, to create a new file for each website you work with).
MLA: Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics . 350 B.C.E. Trans. W. C. Ross. The Internet Classics Archives . Ed. Daniel C. Stevenson. 1994. Web. 20 May 2015. [author.] [ title .] [original publication date.] [ website name .] [website author.] [update date.] [medium.] [date of access.]
APA: Aristotle. (1994). Nicomachean ethics . (W. C. Ross, Trans.). In D. C. Stevenson (Ed.), The internet classics archives . (Original work published 350 B.C.E.). Retrieved from http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen(link is external) [author, by last name.] [(posting date).] [ title. ] [website author, (“Ed.”),] [ website name .] [(original publication date).] [ Retrieved from URL]
Note: in APA style, no access date is necessary for information that will not be changed or updated, like an electronic book or a journal or newspaper article.
Also note: when a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.)
Chicago: 16. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics . [fn. #.] [author last name, shortened t itle .] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access.
Also note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information.
MLA: Scott, Janny, and David Leonhardt. “Shadowy Lines That Still Divide.” New York Times 15 May 2005. Web. 20 May 2015. [author.] [“article title.”] [ periodical title ] [publication date.] [medium.] [date of access.]
APA: Scott, J., & Leonhardt, D. (2005, May 15). Shadowy lines that still divide. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/15/national/class/OVERVIEW-FINAL.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0(link is external) [author.] [(publication date).] [article title.] [ periodical title. ] [ Retrieved from URL]
Note: in APA style, no date of access is necessary for information that will not be changed or updated, like an electronic book or a journal or newspaper article.
Chicago: 17. Scott and Leonhardt, “Shadowy Lines.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
If a print journal, magazine, or newspaper maintains a version of its publication URL online, articles that you cite are listed in your Works Cited or list of References by the name of the article’s author. In MLA style, the name is followed by the title of the article—in APA, the publication date comes after the author. (If no author is identified, list by the article’s title. In that case, be sure to give at least a few key words from the title in the body of your paper, so that readers know how to find the source in your bibliography.) Next list the title of the journal, magazine, or newspaper. Give the publication date of the article next for MLA, followed by the date that you accessed the site. For APA , give the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.” When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.)
Note: If you use a database service (such as Lexis-Nexis) to access electronic sources, you must credit the database. See Databases (like Lexis-Nexis) for more information.
Also note: Although online versions of print sources are often more reliable than online journals or private websites, their reliability is no greater than that of their print versions. See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.
MLA: Wallis, Claudia, et al. “The New Science of Happiness.” Time 17 Jan. 2005: A1-A55. Academic Search Premier . Web. 20 May 2015. [author, by last name.] [“article title.”] [ periodical title ] [publication date]: full page numbers for article.] [ database name .] [medium.] [date of access.]
APA: Wallis, C., Coady, E., Cray, D., Park, A., & Ressner, J. (2005, January 17). The new science of happiness. Time , A1-A55. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier [author(s), by last name, initial).] [(publication date).] [article title.] [ periodical title ,] [full page numbers for article.] [ Retrieved from database name or URL]
Chicago: 18. Wallis et al., “The New Science.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
Also note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style adds the URL (the Web address that begins with “http”), and does not name the database service directly if that name is part of the Web address. For Chicago, as for APA„ when a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.)
Several companies maintain databases that make it easier to find articles on the topic you’re researching. Using these databases is especially helpful for connecting you to scholarly sources, which have been vetted by experts in their field before publication. The Yale library system subscribes to many such databases, allowing you to access them for free. See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information about using scholarly sources. If you use a service like this—such as Lexis-Nexis—to find an article that you then cite in your paper, you must include the database name in your Works Cited or list of References. (The principle is that you want your reader to know how to retrieve your source for further research.)
Note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information.
Also note: Although online versions of print sources are often more reliable than Online Journals or Private Websites , their reliability is no greater than that of their print versions. See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.
Hitchens, Christopher. “Unfairenheit 9/11.” Slate 21 June 2004. Web. 20 May 2015. < http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/fighting_words/2004/06/unfairenheit_911.single>.(link is external)>. [author, by last name.] [“article title.”] [ online journal title ] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]
Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access.
APA: Hitchens, C. (2004, June 21). Unfairenheit 9/11. Slate . Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/fighting_words/2004/06/unfairenheit_911.single(link is external) [author.] [(posting date).] [article title.] [ online journal title. ] [ Retrieved from URL]
Chicago: 19. Hitchens, “Unfairenheit 9/11.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
An online journal is a website that publishes new material on a regular schedule (often weekly or monthly), with a journal title or other masthead, but that does not release a print publication. An online journal is not the same as the online version of a periodical that also publishes in print. (See Online Versions of Print Periodicals .) The distinction matters, because online journals—while often more reliable than private websites —are often considered less reliable than print sources or Internet versions of print sources. See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.
When including an article from an online journal in your Works Cited or list of References, list it by the name of the article’s author. This information is followed in MLA style by the article’s title, by the publication date in APA style. (If no author is identified, list by the article’s title.) Next list the online journal’s name. Give the publication date of the article (for MLA), followed by the date that you accessed the site. Finally, give the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.” When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.)
MLA: Fangmann, Alexander. “Illinois Supreme Court Strikes Down Pension Cuts.” 11 May 2015. World Socialist Web Site . Web. 20 May 2015. < https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2015/05/11/illi-m11(link is external) >. [author, by last name.] [“section or page title.”] [posting date.] [ organization name. ] [date of access.] [.]
APA: Fangmann, A. (2015, May 11). Illinois Supreme Court strikes down pension cuts. Retrieved 20 May 2015, from the World Socialist Web Site: https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2015/05/11/illi-m11(link is external) [author, by last name, initial.] [(posting date).] [page title.] [ Retrieved date of access,] [ from organization name:] [URL]
Chicago: 20. Fangmann, A. “Illinois Supreme Court.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
Many organizations maintain websites hosting information about the organization or about the field that they work in. Some examples include commercial companies, universities, non-profit organizations, political groups, and government agencies. The reliability of these websites varies widely, as these organizations often use their websites to promote specific causes and may therefore emphasize only the facts and ideas that support their goals. See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.
But sometimes these organizations have the most comprehensive coverage of topics that pertain to them. For certain topics, it’s also useful to examine what the interested parties say, even if you must remember to balance it with research into other points of view. If you are conscientious about identifying who sponsors the site, your reader will be better prepared to examine the material you present. Websites hosted by university departments and programs would generally be considered reliable sources, especially in their areas of scholarly expertise. (More caution is warranted when the site discusses politics or issues of university governance. Be careful, too, to distinguish sites created by individual faculty members from those sponsored by the larger institution.)
Whenever possible, you should identify the author of the material you use from a website. Some pages you access will have separate titles or sub-titles, which can be used like the titles of an article in a journal . This title is followed by the name of the main website, if there is one, and the name of the sponsoring organization. After this comes the full URL for the material you’re using.The final item is the date that you accessed the site.
Note: It’s sometimes hard to find the author of material on an organization website. In that case, list by the title of the site—if there is one—or by the name of the organization. If you can’t find any of this information, even after searching through the site’s links, you may be using a private website or topic website , and should review the information for those sources.
MLA: “The Horcrux of Love.” Mugglenet.com: The #1 Harry Potter Site . 3 Jan. 2013. Web. 20 May 2015. < http://www.mugglenet.com/2013/01/the-horcrux-of-love(link is external) >. [“section or page title.”] [ website name .] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]
APA: The horcrux of love. (2013, Jan. 3). Mugglenet.com: The #1 Harry Potter site . Retrieved 20 May 2015, from http://www.mugglenet.com/2013/01/the-horcrux-of-love(link is external) [section or page title.] [(posting date).] [ website name .] [ Retrieved date of access,] [ from URL]
Chicago: 21. “The Horcrux of Love.” [fn. #.] [“shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
Websites that are print sources posted online , online versions of print periodicals , online journals , or organization websites are discussed separately. By “topic websites,” we mean sites that are dedicated to a single issue, such as the life of a famous person, the main ideas of a social movement, or the details of a popular television show. This category is a little hard to define. Unlike online journals or other periodicals, topic websites are not usually revised on a regular schedule, although material may be added from time to time. And unlike organization websites, topic websites do not usually promote the products or mission of a particular institution—which means they also don’t have the organization’s reputation to back up their authority. Finally, topic websites may also overlap with private websites, which often focus on a single issue that their author is passionate about.
Still, the category is worth knowing about, because a lot of background information on general topics like “Medieval Literature” or “Film Noir” is found on websites that don’t easily fit any of the other categories. You’ll want to double-check material you find on Topic Websites, and you may need to treat them as popular sources rather than scholarly sources . If you take these precautions, topic websites are sometimes useful for giving a broad overview or putting you on the track of more authoritative sources. (See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information.)
When these websites appear to be wholly or primarily the work of one author, list by the author’s name, followed by the title of the article or specific page you’re using (if there is one), the website title (often the name of the topic), the date of posting (if known), the date you accessed it, and the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.”
If the site you’re using is sponsored by an organization of some kind (like a company, a university department, or a political group), it may qualify as an organization website , and you should review the information for those sources.
MLA: Mohanraj, Mary Anne. “The Early Years: 1971-1985.” Mary Anne Mohanraj . 20 May 2015. Web. < http://www.mamohanraj.com/BioPhotos/bio1.html> . [author.] [“section or page title.”] [ website name. ] [date of access] [medium.] [.]
APA: Mohanraj, M. A. The early years: 1971-1985. Mary Anne Mohanraj . Retrieved May 20, 2015, from http://www.mamohanraj.com/BioPhotos/bio1.html [author.] [section or page title.] [ website name .] [ Retrieved date of access,] [ from URL]
Chicago: 22. Mohanraj, “The Early Years.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
Private websites come in many forms. Some dabble in multiple topics, about which the site’s author may not even profess any special expertise. Some announce themselves as fan sites, indicating that the author has an intense interest but no special background or credentials. Still others are quite professional in presentation, with authors who profess or demonstrate vast experience.
Just a few years ago, unreliable websites were often riddled with typographical errors or burdened with amateurish design and graphics. But it’s increasingly easy to host websites that look polished and professional, which can make it hard to judge whether the site’s sponsors take seriously the responsibility to check and update their information. For the purpose of academic research, most private websites should be considered popular sources, which can be useful as sources of opinion but should generally not be relied on for authoritative information. (See Popular vs. Scholarly Sources for more information.)
It’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use private websites. If you give a sense of what kind of web source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. Private websites also raise issues of privacy, as some sites that require password access may not invite republication of their material in scholarly research. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information.
When using material from a private website, list by the author (if known), then by the title of the article or specific Webpage you’re using (if known), and the date of posting (if listed). Follow this by the title of the website, if applicable. If the site is part of an identifiable online group (like “Facebook” or “tumblr”), include that title next. Next, list the date that you accessed the site and the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.”
Some of these details may be hard to identify. In the example above, for instance, it was not possible to determine when the specific section of the website was last updated. Only the date of access is given.
MLA: Martin, George R. R. “A Few More Last Words.” Not a Blog . 8 May 2010. Livejournal. Web. 20 May 2015. < http://grrm.livejournal.com/152340> . [author, by last name.] [“title of entry.”] [ title of weblog .] [posting date.] [site sponsor or publisher.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]
APA: Martin, G. R. R. (2010, May 8). A few more last words [Weblog post]. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from Livejournal: http://grrm.livejournal.com/152340 [author, by last name, initial.] [(posting date).] [title of entry [format description].] [Weblog post.] [ Retrieved date of access,] [ from site sponsor or publisher:] [URL]
Chicago: 23. Martin, “Last Words.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
Blogs—an abbreviation of “weblogs”—are websites or areas of websites devoted to dated reflections by the site’s author. Many blogs are hosted on or presented as private websites where the author claims little special expertise or no professional affiliation relevant to the blog’s topic. In these cases, see the discussion of Private Websites , and use the same care when evaluating the material you access.
But blogs are increasingly included as a feature of organization websites (Amazon.com, for instance, now invites authors to post blogs on their work) or as elements of online versions of print periodicals (the New York Times website hosts several blogs by reporters and editors). When using a blog that’s identified with a larger journal or organization, follow the advice listed for those general sources.
Even when hosted by a recognized organization, most blogs should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.
The example above also lists “Livejournal” as the site’s sponsor. This information might be considered analogous to the organization that sponsors an organization website . But in some cases, it may not be necessary to give the site sponsor. Livejournal, for instance, does not supervise posters’ comments very closely. A sponsor like “Facebook” has more rules and some restrictions to access, but is still doesn’t stand behind the material as much as an online journal would. When deciding whether to include the site sponsor, use your judgment: if the blog pursues a theme in common with the sponsor, list the sponsor.
Note: It’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use blogs. If you give a sense of what kind of web source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information.
The formats below cover the most common ways to cite video clips that were published online (on sites like YouTube and Vimeo). Video that was first published elsewhere but accessed online (on sites like Netflix and Hulu) is cited differently. See the notes that follow for more information.
MLA: TED. “Philip Zimbardo: The Psychology of Evil.” Online video clip. YouTube . YouTube, 23 Sept. 2008. Web. 8 Aug 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OsFEV35tWsg> [author’s name or screen name.] [“title of video.”] [media type.] [ name of website .] [site sponsor or publisher,] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]
APA: TED. (2008, Sept. 23). Philip Zimbardo: The psychology of evil [Video file]. Retrieved Aug. 8, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OsFEV35tWsg [author’s name or screen name.] [(posting date).] [ title of entry [format description].] [ Retrieved date of access,] [ from URL]
Note: If you know both the author’s name and his or her screen name (and they are different from one another), APA style cites the author’s name first (last name, first initial) followed by the screen name in square brackets (e.g. Booker, J [jbook].).
Chicago: 24. TED, “Philip Zimbardo.” [fn. #.] [author name or screen name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
Like other film and video formats, conventions for citing online video are less fixed than those for print or other kinds of online sources. The citation for a video clip that was first published online typically attributes the clip to the individual who posted it on the Internet. Video that was first published elsewhere before being posted online, is usually attributed to the individuals most responsible for making it—the director or performers. See the citation formats for Film & Video and Television, Radio Program, or Music Video for more information. Depending on who seems most responsible for the existence of the video you’re citing, you may choose to attribute an online video to its creators rather than the individual who posted it. For example, a film that is released online or an ongoing web series, may be more accurately attributed to the director or actors than the person who uploaded it to the Internet. For citation formats that attribute video to the actors or director, see Film & Video and Television, Radio Program, or Music Video .
MLA: Levy, Michael. “Re: your canon?” Science Fiction Research Association, 19 Apr. 2006. Web. 26 June 2006. < firstname.lastname@example.org (link sends e-mail) >. [author, by last name.] [“title or subject line.”] [discussion group,] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]
APA: Levy, M. (2006, April 19). Re: your canon? [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved June 26, 2006 from email@example.com (link sends e-mail) . [author, by last name, initial.] [(posting date).] [title or subject line [format description].] [ Retrieved date of access from address.]
Chicago: 24. Levy, “Re: your canon?” [fn. #.] [author last name, ”title or subject heading.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
There are many electronic forums that allow users with a specific interest or affiliation to discuss topics with each other. Some of these are restricted to members of a group, or of a specific course. (Many Yale courses, for instance, provide forum discussions through the Classesv2 server.) Other such discussions are open to any interested party. Although discussions limited to professionals in a field may be more authoritative, in general you should probably treat material from these forums as popular rather than scholarly sources. See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.
Note: Many such forums expect communications to be private. Be sure to check the group’s policies on reproduction of such material. Even if an FAQ or moderator seems to make reproduction permissible, a decent respect for privacy suggests that you secure the poster’s permission before making the material public.
If you use material from an electronic forum, list by author’s name. Follow that with the most specific identifying information you can give about the particular post. Depending on the type of discussion, there may be subject headings or specific message numbers on a given post. You may or may not be able to tell the posting date.
In MLA style, include the name of the sponsoring forum. Since most of these discussions do not supervise postings, do not put the sponsor name in italics. Follow this with the date you accessed the material. Even when membership is restricted to a particular organization, most listervs should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.
The last item in your listing—the electronic address—brings up one point on which MLA and APA styles differ starkly: in APA, if the posting cannot be retrieved, you cite it in your paper as a personal communication and do not include it in your list of References. Even in MLA style, it’s better to cite the message in the form that’s most easily accessible to your reader: many listservs archive their messages on the web, for instance, even though the original postings are delivered by email. Try to include the archive address.
Also note: As discussed in Signaling Sources , it’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use listservs. If you give a sense of what kind of Websource you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information.
MLA: Donahue, Tiane. “Re: Your WPA Question.” Message to the author. 14 Dec. 2004. Email. [author, by last name.] [“title or subject line.”] [message recipient.] [message date.] [medium.]
APA: Do not include in list of References. Cite in your paper as a personal communication.
Chicago: 25. Tiane Donahue, “Re: Your WPA Question,” email message to author, December 14, 2000. [fn. #.] [author full name, “subject heading,”] [type of message,] [date of message.]
Note: Chicago style footnotes give full information for private messages, but does not list them in the Bibliography.
It’s probably obvious that the authority of material that comes in private communications varies greatly with the status of the source. What someone writes to you by email may be useful as a source of opinion, but can seldom be relied on as definitive information, unless you’re in correspondence with a recognized expert. And even in these cases, the informality of email makes most authors much less careful about checking facts and conclusions, rendering the information less authoritative. Most email messages should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.
Note: Most people consider email to be private. Even if the message is sent to more than one recipient, a decent respect for privacy suggests that you secure the sender’s permission before making the material public. If you received the message as a forward, the obligation to seek permission is even more urgent, as the original author likely has no reason to expect you to use the message in your own work. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information.
If you do use material from an email, the format for listing in MLA style is fairly simple, as in the example above: Author, Subject, “Email to the author,” and Date.
In APA style, you do not include in your list of References any source that can’t be retrieved by your reader. If you use email in your paper, cite it as a personal communication in your text, and do not list it at the end. For Chicago style, private messages are given full citation in a footnote, but not included in the Bibliography.
Note: As discussed in the section on Signaling Sources , it’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use private messages. If you give a sense of what kind of source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information.
MLA: “King Arthur.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia . Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 18 May 2015. Web. 20 May 2015. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Arthur(link is external) >. [“page title.”] [ website name. ] [site sponsor or publisher,] [date of last revision.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]
APA: King Arthur. (n.d.). In Wikipedia . Retrieved July 26, 2006, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Arthur(link is external) [page title.] [(“n.d.”).] [ In website name.] [ Retrieved date, from: URL]
Chicago: 26. “King Arthur.” [fn. #.] [“title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.]
To list material from Wikipedia, you should review the advice for organization websites . But Wikipedia merits additional attention because of its recent growth and popularity. Some professors will warn you not to use Wikipedia because they believe its information is unreliable. As a community project with no central review committee, Wikipedia certainly contains its share of incorrect information and uninformed opinion. And since it presents itself as an encyclopedia, Wikipedia can sometimes seem more trustworthy than the average website, even to writers who would be duly careful about private websites or topic websites . In this sense, it should be treated as a popular rather than scholarly source. See Popular vs. Scholarly Sources for more information.
But the main problem with using Wikipedia as an important source in your research is not that it gets things wrong. Some of its contributors are leaders in their fields, and, besides, some print sources contain errors. The problem, instead, is that Wikipedia strives for a lower level of expertise than professors expect from Yale students. As an encyclopedia, Wikipedia is written for a common readership. But students in Yale courses are already consulting primary materials and learning from experts in the discipline. In this context, to rely on Wikipedia—even when the material is accurate—is to position your work as inexpert and immature.
If you use Wikipedia for general background, check several other sources before using the material in your essays. Some of the facts you find may be attributable to common knowledge (see Common Knowledge for more discussion). You may also be able to track opinions or deeper ideas back to their original sources. In many cases, your course readings will contain similar ideas in better, more quotable language. Many student writers are tempted to use Wikipedia for definitions of terms (the same way a beginning writer might quote a dictionary). But in most cases, a definition drawn or paraphrased from the primary course readings—or from other scholarly sources—will be more effective. See Why Cite? for more discussion of definitions and keyterms.
Of course, if you do use language or information from Wikipedia, you must cite it—to do otherwise constitutes plagiarism. The advice here is not to hide what Wikipedia contributes to your ideas, but rather to move beyond Wikipedia and write from a more knowledgeable, expert stance.
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