Banner

APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

  • Information for EndNote Users
  • Authors - Numbers, Rules and Formatting

Everything must match!

Types of citations, in-text citations, quoting, summarising and paraphrasing, example text with in-text referencing, slightly tricky in-text citations, organisation as an author, secondary citation (works referred to in other works), what do i do if there are no page numbers.

  • Reference List
  • Books & eBooks
  • Book chapters
  • Journal Articles
  • Conference Papers
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Web Pages & Documents
  • Specialised Health Databases
  • Using Visual Works in Assignments & Class Presentations
  • Using Visual Works in Theses and Publications
  • Using Tables in Assignments & Class Presentations
  • Custom Textbooks & Books of Readings
  • ABS AND AIHW
  • Videos (YouTube), Podcasts & Webinars
  • Blog Posts and Social Media
  • First Nations Works
  • Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries
  • Personal Communication
  • Theses and Dissertations
  • Film / TV / DVD
  • Miscellaneous (Generic Reference)
  • AI software
  • APA Format for Assignments
  • What If...?
  • Other Guides

Coins showing Heads and Tails

There are two basic ways to cite someone's work in text.

In narrative citations , the authors are part of the sentence - you are referring to them by name. For example:

Becker (2013) defined gamification as giving the mechanics of principles of a game to other activities.

Cho and Castañeda (2019) noted that game-like activities are frequently used in language classes that adopt mobile and computer technologies.

In parenthetical citations , the authors are not mentioned in the sentence, just the content of their work. Place the citation at the end of the sentence or clause where you have used their information. The author's names are placed in the brackets (parentheses) with the rest of the citation details:

Gamification involves giving the mechanics or principles of a game to another activity (Becker, 2013).

Increasingly, game-like activities are frequently used in language classes that adopt mobile and computer technologies (Cho & Castañeda, 2019).

Using references in text

For APA, you use the authors' surnames only and the year in text. If you are using a direct quote, you will also need to use a page number.

Narrative citations:

If an in-text citation has the authors' names as part of the sentence (that is, outside of brackets) place the year and page numbers in brackets immediately after the name, and use 'and' between the authors' names:  Jones and Smith (2020, p. 29)

Parenthetical citations:

If an in-text citation has the authors' names in brackets use "&" between the authors' names :  (Jones & Smith, 2020, p. 29).

Note: Some lecturers want page numbers for all citations, while some only want page numbers with direct quotes. Check with your lecturer to see what you need to do for your assignment. If the direct quote starts on one page and finishes on another, include the page range (Jones & Smith, 2020, pp. 29-30).

1 author

Smith (2020) found that "the mice disappeared within minutes" (p. 29).

The author stated "the mice disappeared within minutes" (Smith, 2020, p. 29).

Jones and Smith (2020) found that "the mice disappeared within minutes" (p. 29).

The authors stated "the mice disappeared within minutes" (Jones & Smith, 2020, p. 29).

For 3 or more authors , use the first author and "et al." for all in-text citations

Green et al.'s (2019) findings indicated that the intervention was not based on evidence from clinical trials.

It appears the intervention was not based on evidence from clinical trials (Green et al., 2019).

If you cite more than one work in the same set of brackets in text , your citations will go in the same order in which they will appear in your reference list (i.e. alphabetical order, then oldest to newest for works by the same author) and be separated by a semi-colon. E.g.:

  • (Corbin, 2015; James & Waterson, 2017; Smith et al., 2016).
  • (Corbin, 2015; 2018)
  • (Queensland Health, 2017a; 2017b)
  • Use only the   surnames   of your authors   in text   (e.g., Smith & Brown, 2014) - however, if you have two authors with the same surname who have published in the same year, then you will need to use their initials to distinguish between the two of them (e.g., K. Smith, 2014; N. Smith, 2014).   Otherwise, do not use initials in text .

If your author isn't an "author".

Whoever is in the "author" position of the refence in the references list is treated like an author in text. So, for example, if you had an edited book and the editors of the book were in the "author" position at the beginning of the reference, you would treat them exactly the same way as you would an author - do not include any other information. The same applies for works where the "author" is an illustrator, producer, composer, etc.

  • Summarising
  • Paraphrasing

apa citation author mentioned in text

It is always a good idea to keep direct quotes to a minimum. Quoting doesn't showcase your writing ability - all it shows is that you can read (plus, lecturers hate reading assignments with a lot of quotes).

You should only use direct quotes if the exact wording is important , otherwise it is better to paraphrase.

If you feel a direct quote is appropriate, try to keep only the most important part of the quote and avoid letting it take up the entire sentence - always start or end the sentence with your own words to tie the quote back into your assignment. Long quotes (more than 40 words) are called "block quotes" and are rarely used in most subject areas (they mostly belong in Literature, History or similar subjects). Each referencing style has rules for setting out a block quote. Check with your style guide .

It has been observed that "pink fairy armadillos seem to be extremely susceptible to stress" (Superina, 2011, p. 6).

NB! Most referencing styles will require a page number to tell readers where to find the original quote.

apa citation author mentioned in text

It is a type of paraphrasing, and you will be using this frequently in your assignments, but note that summarising another person's work or argument isn't showing how you make connections or understand implications. This is preferred to quoting, but where possible try to go beyond simply summarising another person's information without "adding value".

And, remember, the words must be your own words . If you use the exact wording from the original at any time, those words must be treated as a direct quote.

All information must be cited, even if it is in your own words.

Superina (2011) observed a captive pink fairy armadillo, and noticed any variation in its environment could cause great stress.

NB! Some lecturers and citation styles want page numbers for everything you cite, others only want page numbers for direct quotes. Check with your lecturer.

apa citation author mentioned in text

Paraphrasing often involves commenting about the information at the same time, and this is where you can really show your understanding of the topic. You should try to do this within every paragraph in the body of your assignment.

When paraphrasing, it is important to remember that using a thesaurus to change every other word isn't really paraphrasing. It's patchwriting , and it's a kind of plagiarism (as you are not creating original work).

Use your own voice! You sound like you when you write - you have a distinctive style that is all your own, and when your "tone" suddenly changes for a section of your assignment, it looks highly suspicious. Your lecturer starts to wonder if you really wrote that part yourself. Make sure you have genuinely thought about how *you* would write this information, and that the paraphrasing really is in your own words.

Always cite your sources! Even if you have drawn from three different papers to write this one sentence, which is completely in your own words, you still have to cite your sources for that sentence (oh, and excellent work, by the way).

Captive pink fairy armadillos do not respond well to changes in their environment and can be easily stressed (Superina, 2011).

NB! Some lecturers and citation styles want page numbers for all citations, others only want them for direct quotes. Check with your lecturer.

This example paragraph contains mouse-over text. Run your mouse over the paragraph to see notes on formatting.

Excerpt from "The Big Fake Essay"

You can read the entire Big Fake Essay on the Writing Guide. It includes more details about academic writing and the formatting of essays.

  • The Big Fake Essay
  • Academic Writing Workshop

When you have multiple authors with the same surname who published in the same year:

If your authors have different initials, then include the initials:

As A. Smith (2016) noted...

...which was confirmed by J.G. Smith's (2016) study.

(A. Smith, 2016; J. G. Smith, 2016).

If your authors have the same initials, then include the name:

As Adam Smith noted...

...which was confirmed by Amy Smith's (2016) study.

(Adam Smith, 2016; Amy Smith, 2016).

Note: In your reference list, you would include the author's first name in [square brackets] after their initials:

Smith, A. [Adam]. (2016)...

Smith, A. [Amy]. (2016)...

When you have multiple works by the same author in the same year:

In your reference list, you will have arranged the works alphabetically by title (see the page on Reference Lists for more information). This decides which reference is "a", "b", "c", and so on. You cite them in text accordingly:

Asthma is the most common disease affecting the Queensland population (Queensland Health, 2017b). However, many people do not know how to manage their asthma symptoms (Queensland Health, 2017a).

When you have multiple works by the same author in different years:

Asthma is the most common disease affecting the Queensland population (Queensland Health, 2017, 2018). 

When you do not have an author, and your reference list entry begins with the title:

Use the title in place of the author's name, and place it in "quotation marks" if it is the title of an article or book chapter, or in italics if the title would go in italics in your reference list:

During the 2017 presidential inauguration, there were some moments of awkwardness ("Mrs. Obama Says ‘Lovely Frame’", 2018).

Note: You do not need to use the entire title, but a reasonable portion so that it does not end too abruptly - "Mrs. Obama Says" would be too abrupt, but the full title "Mrs. Obama Says 'Lovely Frame' in Box During Awkward Handoff" is unecessarily long. You should also use title case for titles when referring to them in the text of your work.

If there are no page numbers, you can include any of the following in the in-text citation:

  • "On Australia Day 1938 William Cooper ... joined forces with Jack Patten and William Ferguson ... to hold a Day of Mourning to draw attention to the losses suffered by Aboriginal people at the hands of the whiteman" (National Museum of Australia, n.d., para. 4).
  • "in 1957 news of a report by the Western Australian government provided the catalyst for a reform movement" (National Museum of Australia, n.d., The catalyst for change section, para. 1)
  • "By the end of this year of intense activity over 100,000 signatures had been collected" (National Museum of Australia, n.d., "petition gathering", para. 1).

When you are citing a classical work, like the Bible or the Quran:

References to works of scripture or other classical works are treated differently to regular citations. See the APA Blog's entry for more details:

Happy Holiday Citing: Citation of Classical Works . (Please note, this document is from the 6th edition of APA).

In text citation:

If the name of the organisation first appears in a narrative citation, include the abbreviation before the year in brackets, separated with a comma. Use the official acronym/abreviation if you can find it. Otherwise check with your lecturer for permission to create your own acronyms.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, 2013) shows that...

The Queensland Department of Education (DoE, 2020) encourages students to... (please note, Queensland isn't part of the department's name, it is used in the sentence to provide clarity)

If the name of the organisation first appears in a citation in brackets, include the abbreviation in square brackets.

(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2013)

(Department of Education [DoE], 2020)

In the second and subsequent citations, only include the abbreviation or acronym

ABS  (2013) found that ...

DoE (2020) instructs teachers to...

This is disputed ( ABS , 2013).

Resources are designed to support "emotional learning pedagogy" (DoE, 2020)

In the reference list:

Use the full name of the organisation in the reference list.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2017).  Australia's welfare 2017 . https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-welfare/australias-welfare-2017/contents/table-of-contents

Department of Education. (2020, April 22). Respectful relationships education program . Queensland Government. https://education.qld.gov.au/curriculum/stages-of-schooling/respectful-relationships

Academically, it is better to find the original source and reference that.

If you do have to quote a secondary source:

  • In the text you must cite the original author of the quote and the year the original quote was written as well as the source you read it in. If you do not know the year the original citation was written, omit the year.
  • In the reference list you only list the source that you actually read.

Wembley (1997, as cited in Olsen, 1999) argues that impending fuel shortages ...

Wembley claimed that "fuel shortages are likely" (1997, as cited in Olsen, 1999, pp. 10-12).

Some have noted that fuel shortages are probable in the future (Wembley, 1997, as cited in Olsen, 1999).

Olsen, M. (1999).  My career.  Gallimard.

  • << Previous: Dates
  • Next: Reference List >>
  • Last Updated: Apr 8, 2024 5:08 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.jcu.edu.au/apa

Acknowledgement of Country

Penn State University Libraries

Apa quick citation guide.

  • In-text Citation
  • Citing Generative AI
  • Citing Web Pages and Social Media
  • Citing Articles
  • Citing Books
  • Citing Business Reports
  • Other Formats
  • APA Style Quiz

Using In-text Citation

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers , use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1). More information on direct quotation of sources without pagination is given on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al., 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech.   Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.

Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech.  Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development , 23 (4), 245-259.

Thomas, H. K. (2004).  Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech  (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.

Citing Web Pages In Text

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author.

For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.). For more information on citations for sources with no date or other missing information see the page on missing reference information on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page. 

Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.

Web page with author:

In-text citation

Heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens (Asmelash, 2019).

Reference entry

Asmelash, L. (2019, August 14). Social media use may harm teens' mental health by disrupting positive activities, study says . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/13/health/social-media-mental-health-trnd/index.html

Web page with organizational author:

More than 300 million people worldwide are affected by depression (World Health Organization, 2018).

World Health Organization. (2018, March 22).  Depression . https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression

Web page with no date:

Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.).

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from disaste r. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recovering-disasters.aspx

General Guidelines

In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.

Author's name in parentheses:

One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).

Author's name part of narrative:

Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.

Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)

Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)

Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote)

One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).

Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).

Note:  For direct quotations of more than 40 words , display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:

This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)

Works by Multiple Authors

APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text. For more information on citing works by multiple authors see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines page on in-text citation .

Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. For multiple authors' names within a parenthetic citation, use &.

One author: (Field, 2005)

Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)

Three or more authors:   (Tremblay et al., 2010)

  • << Previous: Overview
  • Next: Citing Generative AI >>
  • Last Updated: Jul 19, 2023 2:50 PM
  • URL: https://guides.libraries.psu.edu/apaquickguide

Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA In-text Citations

APA In-Text Citations

Welcome to our guide on in-text citations! If you’re looking to learn the ins and outs of APA style in-text citations and how to do in-text citations APA, we’ve got you covered in this thorough guide.

The information below follows the 7th edition of the  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association .

Here’s a run through of everything this page includes:

  • APA Style overview
  • In-text citations and why we use them
  • Two types of APA in-text citations
  • Corresponding entry in reference list
  • In-text citations for direct quotes

Paraphrasing in APA

  • In-text citations for sources with one author
  • In-text citations for sources with multiple authors
  • In-text citations for sources with no author or date
  • Additional in-text citation examples

If you’re simply looking for a quick guide, check out our APA parenthetical citation guide, which serves as a lite-version of this page.

Let’s get started!

What is APA?

This is a term that you might hear your teacher, professor, or librarian throw around a lot. This abbreviation stands for

P sychological

A ssociation

This association is kind of a big deal. They do a lot of things related to psychology, but they’re also famous for creating one of the most popular citation styles, APA format . There are other big names on campus, such as MLA format , and Chicago, but this particular style is commonly used by individuals who are writing a science-related paper.

Even if your paper doesn’t necessarily fall into a “science” category, many educators ask their students to cite in this style since it’s so commonly used.

If you’re trying to find information about other commonly used styles, there are more styles on EasyBib.com.

What is an APA In-text Citation?

In plain and simple terms, APA in-text citations are found in the text of a project. Get it? In text. The purpose of an in-text citation in APA is to show the reader, while they’re reading your work, that a piece of information in your project was found elsewhere. They’re placed IN the wording or body of a project, not on the last page; the last page has full references. To learn more about those types of references, check out APA citation .

We’ve all heard about the word plagiarism , and you already know what it means. Simply put, including APA in-text citations are one way to prevent plagiarism.

Here’s what’s included in an APA 7th edition in-text citation:

  • Last name(s) of the author(s) or Group name
  • Year the source was published
  • Page number (if available)

Depending on the number of authors and the source type, some in-text citations look different than others. Read on to learn how to structure an in-text citation for APA. In fact, if you’re looking for an easy route, EasyBib.com has an in-text citation APA generator, which does the work for you. Use our automatic generator to create your full references, and you’ll see an option on the final screen to format your APA in-text citations. An APA in-text citation generator and full reference generator all in one. What could beat that?

Why do we use in-text citations?

When you do a research project, you’re probably going to include facts from websites, databases, books, and other sources. When you add those facts into your project, you must show where those facts came from. It’s the responsible thing to do. It prevents plagiarism. You always give credit to the original author. It’s kind of like thanking them for their contribution to your paper.

Here’s the neat thing about in-text citations. Since they’re IN your project, readers get a quick idea as to where the information you included came from. In-text citations APA are not long and lengthy, like the full references on the APA reference page  or APA bibliography . In-text citations are cute, little, and give us the perfect amount of information we need to understand where a fact came from. If you want to get the full information about the source, then you can flip to the back page of the paper, where the full reference is listed. The in-text citation APA style provides us with a tidbit of information. Just enough to glance at it and keep on going with reading the paper.

To recap, in-text citations are great because:

  • They credit the original author of a work or information
  • They let readers quickly see where the information is coming from
  • Including helps make you an ethical writer

If you’re looking to learn more about footnotes in Chicago format , MLA in-text & parenthetical citations , or want to learn how to cite websites in MLA , EasyBib.com has the information you need to be a citing superstar.

Types of APA In-text Citations

Just like there are two days in the weekend, two types of peanut butter (creamy and nutty), and two types of foods we crave (salty and sweet), there are (you guessed it) two types of in-text citations.

The in-text citation APA option you include in your paper depends on how you craft your sentences.

Narrative In-Text APA Citations:

In-text citation APA format, in narrative form, is one that shows the author’s name in the sentence itself.

Narrative In-text APA Citation Example:

Tyson, Strauss, and Gott (2016) encourage the use of simplified terms when it comes to discussing and defining the universe. For example, a small white star is simply called a white dwarf. Keep it short and sweet because the universe is confusing enough (p. 22).

Parenthetical Citations:

This is a type of APA in-text citation where the author’s name(s) are in parentheses, usually at the end of the fact or quote.

Parenthetical Citation Example

Use simplified terms when discussing and defining the universe. For example, a small white star is simply called a white dwarf. Keep it short and sweet because the universe is confusing enough (Tyson, Strauss, & Gott, 2016, p. 22).

As you can see, the type of APA in-text citation you include, whether it’s a narrative one or one in parentheses, depends on how you decide to structure your sentences. It doesn’t matter if you use all narrative, all parentheses, or a mix of both.

What is important is that you’re a responsible researcher and you properly cite your sources!

Remember, most facts, quotes, stats, and copied and pasted information NEED an APA in-text citation next to it.

What’s the only type of information you don’t need to create an in-text citation APA for? Anything that’s common knowledge. For example, paper is made from trees. You and most people already knew that. That’s an example of common knowledge. It’s a piece of information that everyone already knows.

Now, before you simply include the author’s name(s), the date, and the page number in your project and think you’ve covered all your bases, you’re not quite done yet. In-text citations APA are only part of the puzzle.

The other piece of the puzzle is found on the last page of the project: the reference page. That’s where all of the full references are found in their entirety. In-text citations only include the author’s name, year published, and the page number.

The reference page, on the other hand, includes the title of each source, the publishers, the website addresses, and other information. Continue reading to learn why in-text citations and references on the reference page are the perfect match.

Before we continue, MLA works cited pages are very similar to the ones in this style. EasyBib.com has resources for many styles, to help you learn the ins and outs of referencing your work. We even have full pages on grammar topics too, to keep your paper in tip-top shape. Brush up on your noun , conjunction , and interjection skills with our easy-to-follow, comprehensive guides.

Corresponding entry in APA reference list

Would you ever put on one shoe and walk around without the other? Of course not. The same goes with in-text citations and full references. You must include both in your paper. Where there’s one there has to be the other.

Each and every in-text citation APA must have a matching full reference on the reference page (American Psychological Association, p. 262 ).

If you’re wondering why, it’s to allow the reader to get that sneak peek about the source while reading your paper (the APA in-text citation), and then learn all about it on the final page (the reference page). If the reader wants to get their hands on a copy of the sources you used, all of the information they need can be found on the reference page.

Remember those APA style in-text citation examples found above? Let’s take a peek at them again.

Here’s the one with the authors’ names in parentheses: Use simplified terms when discussing and defining the universe. For example, a small white star is simply called a white dwarf. Keep it short and sweet because the universe is confusing enough (deGrasse, Strauss, & Gott, 2016, p. 22).

Here’s the full reference, which would be found on the final page of the project:

Tyson, N. D., Strauss, M. A., and Gott, J. R. (2016). Welcome to the universe: An astrophysical tour. Princeton University Press.

Notice that in the above in-text citation APA example, the full title of the book, the place the book was published, and the publisher are displayed. If the reader wants to locate the book themselves, all of the information they need is found in the full reference.

One other important thing we’d like to point out is that the same information from the in-text citation APA (Tyson, Strauss, & Gott) matches the first part of the full reference. This is done to allow the reader to easily find the full reference on the final page.

Remember, always include both in-text citations AND full references in your projects.

In the body of projects, in-text citations APA serve an important purpose. They give the reader a snippet of understanding as to the origin of  information. It’s just enough information to allow the reader to continue reading the paper in a natural and fluid manner, without having to trip over long, clunky references. If the reader wants to get a detailed understanding of a source, they can flip to the back page, the reference page, to scope out all of the nitty gritty details.

In the next two sections of this page, we’re going to switch gears and share how to properly format direct quotes and paraphrases.

If you’re looking for specific source types, check out APA citation website and APA book citation . These two resources will explain how to format those specific types of references. If you’re stuck and not sure how to start, check out Chapter 10 of the  Publication manual for some sample citations.

Direct Quotes in APA

As Drake states in his lyrics, “We don’t like to do too much explaining,” so we’re going to keep this one short and to the point.

“Direct quotes” are a fancy term used for any text that has been copied and pasted into your paper. That Drake quote above is a direct quote.

Direct quotes are any words or sentences copied and pasted into your project, but they don’t necessarily have to be a person’s quote. Anytime you copy and paste text into your assignment, you must include an APA in-text citation next to it. This shows the reader that:

  • The information came from another source
  • You’re being a responsible researcher and clearly documenting the outside source.

Here are some guidelines to keep in mind when it comes to direct quotes:

  • Direct quotes are a solid way to show evidence and prove your point, but use them sparingly. Your paper shouldn’t be riddled with copied and pasted text.
  • Put quotation marks around the copied and pasted information. (The exception are APA block quotes , which are direct quotes longer than 40 words and are formatted differently.)
  • Always include the page number for direct quotes, if one is available. When formatting APA page numbers for an in-text citation, include p. before the number. Use pp. for a page range.

To create a narrative APA in-text citation, include the author’s last name in the sentence like this:

  • As Drake (2013) once said “We don’t like to do too much explaining.”
  • In the above APA in-text citation example, the Drake quote was taken from the song, “Started From the Bottom,” in 2013. The title of the source would be included in the reference page.

Or, you include the author’s name in parentheses:

  • “We don’t like to do too much explaining” (Drake, 2013).

If you are looking for more examples, go to page 272 of the American Psychological Association’s official Publication manual .

We said above that your entire paper shouldn’t have direct quotes everywhere. So, another way to include information from a source is by adding a paraphrase . Simply put, a paraphrase is restated information, but formed using your own words and writing style

APA paraphrases still need an in-text citation since the information was obtained elsewhere. Check out this quote from the song, “For Time,” by Drake:

“I like it when money makes a difference, but don’t make you different.”

To include it in your paper, without using the exact quote, make a paraphrase. Here’s one that would work:

Money has the ability to benefit things in your life, but it’s truly great when it doesn’t cause the person to act differently or change who they are (Drake, 2013).

The above APA in-text citation example is one with Drake’s name in parentheses. If you’d like to include the author’s name narratively, here’s an option:

In Drake’s (2013) lyrics, he shares that money has the ability to benefit things in your life. It’s truly great when it doesn’t cause the person to act differently or change who they are.

It is recommended to include page numbers for paraphrased material, but isn’t required.

Here’s more on paraphrases and direct quotes.

Organizing APA In-text Citations

Ready to learn how to structure your in-text citations? The next section dives deep into developing them and answers “How to do in-text citations APA.” Keep in mind that how each one is formed depends on the number of authors and other factors. All the examples below follow rules laid out in Chapter 8 of the Publication manual.

Even though the structure varies, most in-text citations APA are placed in this manner for narrative in-text citations:

Author’s Last Name (Year) “Quote or Paraphrase” (p. number).

For ones in parentheses, most are placed in this manner:

“Quote” or Paraphrase (Author’s Last Name, Year, p. number).

Notice that whether you choose to include a narrative in-text citation APA or one in parentheses, the author names and the year published are always together. They’re pretty much holding hands. Cute, huh?

Read on to learn the ins and outs of structuring various in-text citations.

Don’t forget, EasyBib.com has an in-text citation APA generator. Wondering what it’s all about? Here’s a quick explanation: We work for you so citing is easy for you. Yep, you read that correctly.

Our tools structure your in-text citations the way they’re supposed to be structured. Use our automatic generator to create your full references, and on the final screen you’ll see the option to create your in-text citations. An APA in-text citation generator that’s easy as pie!

Something else we do for you? We have a plagiarism checker that scans your paper for any instances of accidental copying. We also have tons of grammar pages to keep your page in check. Check out our adverb , preposition , and verb pages.

APA In-Text Citations for Sources with One Author

If your source has one author.

If your source has one author, lucky you! Your in-text citation is pretty simple to structure.

Narrative In-text APA Citation:

Author’s Last Name (Year published) are found in the sentence with a “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

Parenthetical APA Citation:

“Direct quote” or Paraphrase (Author’s Last Name, Year published, p. number).

Citing multiple sources by the same author in the same year

You may have a bunch of case studies, articles, or books that you’re referencing, all by the same author. Let’s say you’re analyzing two works by Sigmund Freud, Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious and also Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria , both of which were published in 1905. Placing (Freud, 1905) in the text would be confusing for the reader. How would the reader determine which source you’re referencing?

If this is the situation you’re in, there’s a pretty simple fix.

Place a lowercase a next to the year in the first source (Freud, 1905a). Place a lowercase b next to the second source (Freud, 1905b). Include those same lowercase letters in the full references on the reference page, like so:

Freud, S. (1905a). Fragment of an analysis of a case of hysteria . https://staferla.free.fr/Freud/Freud%20complete%20Works.pdf

Freud, S. (1905b). Jokes and their relation to the unconscious . https://staferla.free.fr/Freud/Freud%20complete%20Works.pdf

But there’s a catch. When you do this et al. can’t stand for only one author. After all it literally means “and others.” If you have two sources that are identical except for the last author, then you have to write out all the names every time. For example:

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch, and Smith (2017)

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch, and Johnston (2017)

These references are completely the same except for the very last name so you’d have to write all 4 names every time.

If your source has multiple works by the same author

What if you had 2 sources with the same author(s) and same publication year? Lucky for us the solution here is a lot simpler. Just a letter to the publication year!

Gunderman, Slack, and Rausch (2017)

Gunderman, Slack, and Rausch (2017a)

Gunderman, Slack, and Rausch (2017b)

Just remember to also follow this format in your works cited page even if there is an exact publication date available. See page 267 of your Publication Manual (American Psychological Association, 2020) for a further breakdown.

Need to create an APA in-text citation for a source without an author? How about an APA in-text citation for multiple authors? Continue reading to see the other ways to structure an APA style in-text citation.

APA In-Text Citations for Sources with Multiple Authors

Apa in-text citation for sources with two authors.

If your source has two authors, place them in the order they appear on the source. Do not place them in alphabetical order.

Use the word “and” in between the authors’ names.

1st Author’s Last Name and 2nd Author’s Last Name (Year published) are found somewhere in the sentence with a “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

If you choose to include both authors’ names in parentheses, use an ampersand in between their names.

“Here is the direct quote” or Here is the paraphrase (1st Author’s Last Name & 2nd Author’s Last name, Year, p. number).

APA in-text citation for sources three or more authors

Only include the first author’s last name and then add ‘et al.’ Et al. is a fancy way of saying “and others” in Latin.

1st Author’s Last Name et al. (Year published) are found somewhere in the sentence with a “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Here is the direct quote” or Paraphrase (1st Author’s Last Name et al., Year published, p. number).

If you have author of multiple works (with multiple authors)

Now here is where things can get a tad bit tricky. Sometimes authors with multiple works can cause some confusion in your citations. Generally when that happens you can tell the difference by the publication year, but when you can’t, that’s when you have to list as many authors as necessary to clear up the confusion.

Say you had the two sources below:

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch, and Maule (2017)

Gunderman, Byrnes, Oxner, Wigginton, and Draeger (2017)

Normally, they’d be written as:

Gunderman et al. (2017)

If you reduced both sources to Gunderman et al. (2017) you wouldn’t be able to tell which source you’re talking about. Instead cite it this way:

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch et al. (2017)

Gunderman, Byrnes, Oxner et al. (2017)

If you’re looking for more information on structuring journal articles, check out our APA journal page.

If you’re looking for a simple solution to referencing multiple authors, EasyBib.com creates in-text citations APA for you! Whether you need to create a reference for one or two authors, or an APA in-text citation for multiple authors, we’ve got you covered!

APA In-text citation no author or date

It’s common to come across sources without any authors. Movies, brochures, website pages often do not have a visible author’s name.

Citing a source with no author

If you find that the source you’re attempting to reference does not have an author, use the first few words from the reference list entry in the APA in-text citation with no author. Most often, it’s the title of the source.

Place the source name in quotation marks if the source is a:

  • website page

Simply italicize the source name if the source is a:

  • Or the full reference starts with italicized information

Remember, you do not have to use the entire title in your in-text citation APA no author. You can use only the first few words from the reference list.

“First few words of the webpage, article, or chapter Title” (Year) along with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number). OR First few words of book, newspaper, report, or brochure (Year) along with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Here is the direct quote” or paraphrase (“Web page, Article, or Chapter Title,” Year, p. number). OR “Here is the direct quote” or paraphrase ( Book, Newspaper, Report, or Brochure Title , Year, p. number).

Citing source with no date

No date? No problem! An APA in-text citation no date situation is easier to solve than you think. Only include the author’s name and the page number.

APA in-text citation no date example:

(Foster, p. 35).

Additional APA In-Text Citation Examples

Source by a group, organization, company, or government agency.

There are two types of groups: Ones that are abbreviated often and ones that are not abbreviated.

For example, think about these two citation style types: APA and Chicago. One is abbreviated (for the American Psychological Association) and the other is usually written as is (Chicago style).

Abbreviated groups

If the company is often abbreviated, in the first mention in text, display the full name and the abbreviation. In the second and any other subsequent mentions, only use the abbreviation.

1st mention:

Full Company’s Name (Abbreviation, Year) with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

2nd mention:

Company Abbrev. (Year) “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Direct quote” or paraphrase (Full Company’s Name [Abbreviation], Year, p. number).

“Direct quote” or paraphrase (Abbreviation, Year, p. number).

Non-abbreviated groups

Always include the full group, company, or organization’s name in each and every mention in text.

Full Name of Group (Year) with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Direct quote” or paraphrase (Full Name of Group, Year, p. number).

Citing sources with different authors with the same last name

We’re not quite sure how the author of The Baby-Sitters Club (Ann M. Martin) could be used in a paper that’s also referencing the author of Game of Thrones (George R. R. Martin), but hey, it could happen! It’s a Martin party! It’s important to show the reader the difference between the two individuals to prevent any confusion. To differentiate between the two authors in the text, include their first initials.

Example of in-text citation APA:

“Here’s a quote” (A. Martin, Year, p. 6). G. Martin (Year) also states “this direct quote” (p. 45).

As always, keep the author names and the dates directly next to each other. They love being together and it’s a best practice.

Citing multiple sources in the same in-text citation

List sources alphabetically and separate with a semicolon.

Be sure to list authors alphabetically.

Johnson (2019), Smith and Adams (2015), and Washington (2017), examined…

“Direct quote” or Paraphrase (Author 1 Last Name, Year published, p. number if needed; Author 2 Last Name, Year published, p. number if needed)

Parenthetical Citation Examples:

(Johnson et al., 2019; Smith & Adams, 2015; Washington, 2017)

(Honda, 2006, p. 107; Sato, 1980)

If you want to emphasize a source because it is particularly important or relevant, add “see also” before the source’s citation. Think of “see also” as synonymous with “for more information see…”

(Johnson et al., 2019; see also Smith & Adams, 2015; Washington, 2017).

Citing a source within a source

Did you stumble upon the perfect quote that’s quoted in another source? It happens all of the time and it can be a little tricky to figure out how to quote a quote.

The American Psychological Association recommends locating the original quote, if possible. Instead of relying on secondary sources, take the time to locate the original source to make sure the quote is accurate. Finding and reading through the original source also provides you with further information on your research topic!

If finding the original source isn’t possible, due to out of print titles, web pages taken down, or other factors, then it’s okay to quote the secondary source. In your writing, use the phrase “as cited in Secondary Author’s Last name, Year.”

On the reference page, include the reference for the secondary source.

As cited in Shapiro’s (2019) article, Carranza stated, “Districts 3 and 15 are showing how we can have the important conversations and take bold action on this issue.”

Carranza stated, “Districts 3 and 15 are showing how we can have the important conversations and take bold action on this issue” (as cited in Shapiro, 2019).

On the reference page, Shapiro’s article would be referenced in its entirety.

Citing audiovisual material

APA in-text citations for YouTube videos , songs, podcasts, television shows, and other audiovisual materials look a bit different than other types of sources. They include an extra piece of information: a time stamp.

Bill Nye (2017) shares that the sun is over four-hundred septillion watts (13:15).

The sun is over four-hundred septillion watts (Bill Nye, 2017, 13:15).

If you’re still scratching your head, and feeling the urge to type “how to do in-text citations APA” into Google, click here for a website that we dig.

If you’re looking for a quick fix to developing your references, EasyBib.com has you covered! Our tools can help you create an APA in-text citation multiple authors, one author, no authors, plus more!

Overview of APA Parenthetical Citations for Websites

Here’s a quick overview of how to create an in-text citation for websites. Notice that since these are for online sources, the in-text citation has no page number.

Once again, if grammar isn’t your thing, and you’re looking for help related to specific parts of speech, check out our adjective , pronoun , and determiner pages, among many, many others!

Follow our EasyBib Twitter feed to find more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.

apa citation author mentioned in text

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) https:doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Published May 21, 2019. Updated October 25, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau . Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and one of the in-house EasyBib librarians. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

APA Formatting Guide

APA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Multiple Authors
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Parenthetical Citations
  • Reference Page
  • Sample Paper
  • APA 7 Updates
  • View APA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all APA Examples

How useful was this post?

Click on a star to rate it!

We are sorry that this post was not useful for you!

Let us improve this post!

Tell us how we can improve this post?

An in-text citation is a shortened version of the source being referred to in the paper. As the name implies, it appears in the text of the paper. A reference list entry, on the other hand, details the complete information of the source being cited and is listed at the end of the paper after the main text. An example of an in-text citation and the corresponding reference list entry for a journal article with one author is listed below for your understanding:

In-text citation template and example:

Only the author name and the publication year are used in in-text citations to direct the reader to the corresponding reference list entry.

Author Surname (Publication Year)

Elden (2003)

Parenthetical

(Author Surname, Publication Year)

(Elden, 2003)

Reference list entry template and example:

Complete information of the reference is used to guide the reader to locate the source for further reference. In the below template, “F” and “M” are first and middle initials, respectively. #–# denotes the page range.

Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the article: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (Issue), #–#. DOI

Elden, S. (2003). Plague, panopticon, police. Surveillance & Society, 1 (3), 240–253. https://doi:10.24908/ss.v1i3.3339

When you use APA style, all sources need to have in-text citations. In-text citations direct a reader to the reference entry to get more information on the source being cited in the text. If an in-text citation is not provided, your reader doesn’t know whether there is a source available in the reference list for the idea or topic being discussed in the text. Even if all the basic elements to cite a source are not available, try to provide an in-text citation with the information you do have. For example, if a source does not have an author, use a shortened version of the title in place of the author in your in-text citation. An example is given below for a parenthetical citation.

Author name available:

(Author Surname, Publication Year, p.# for direct quote)

Author name not available:

(“Title of the Work,” Publication Year, p.# for direct quote)

Therefore, in-text citations are essential to guide a reader to locate the corresponding sources in the reference list for the topics discussed in the text.

APA Citation Examples

Writing Tools

Citation Generators

Other Citation Styles

Plagiarism Checker

Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.

Get Started

University Libraries      University of Nevada, Reno

  • Skill Guides
  • Subject Guides

APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation

  • Audiovisual Media
  • Books and eBooks
  • Dictionaries, Thesauruses and Encyclopedias
  • Figures and Tables
  • Government Documents
  • Journal, Magazine and Newspaper Articles
  • Personal Communications
  • Presentations and Class Notes
  • Social Media
  • Websites and Webpages
  • Generative AI

In-Text Citation

  • Reference List and Sample Papers
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Citation Software

What Is In-Text Citation?

In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the text of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the Reference list.

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. In the author-date method, the writer includes the author and date within the body of the paper and includes a corresponding reference in the Reference list. This method allows the reader to identify sources used in the paper by reviewing the author and date within the text of the paper, and then easily locate the corresponding reference in the alphabetical Reference list.

Create an in-text citation whenever you quote another work, or whenever you paraphrase another work in your own words.

In-text Citations Have Two Formats

  • Parenthetical - the author name and publication date (or equivalent information) appear in parentheses. For example: Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of expert consensus on an issue (Burnside, 2016).
  • Narrative - the author name appears in running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. For example: Burnside (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.

If you are referring to an idea from another work (paraphrasing or summarizing) but NOT directly quoting the material, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

If you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. For example, (Burnside, 2016, p. 199).

In-Text Citation Styles

The table below shows several examples of parenthetical and narrative citations.

Paraphrasing and Quoting: What Is the Difference?

There are two ways to integrate sources into your assignment:

  • Paraphrasing  is used to show that you understand what the author wrote. You must reword the passage, expressing the ideas in your own words, and not just change a few words here and there. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.
  • Quoting is copying a selection from someone else's work, phrasing it exactly as it was originally written. When quoting, place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. Make sure to include an in-text citation.

Signal Phrases

If you refer to the author's name in a sentence, you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation; instead, include the date after the name and the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or the paraphrased section. For example:

Hunt (2011) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (p. 358).

Short Quotations

If a quotation consists of fewer than 40 words , treat it as a short quotation:

  • Incorporate the quote into the text and enclose it within double quotation marks.
  • Include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference.
  • For example, Smith (2019) demonstrated how to "..." (p. 112).
  • For example, "..." (Smith, 2019, p. 112).

Long (Block) Quotations

If a quotation contains 40 words or more , treat it as a long (block) quotation:

  • Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation.
  • Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 inches from the left margin.
  • If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each subsequent paragraph an additional 0.5 inches.
  • Double-space the entire block quotation; do not add extra space before or after it.
  • Either (1) cite the source in parentheses after the quotation's final punctuation, or (2) cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses after the quotation's final punctuation. Do NOT add a period after the closing parenthesis in either case.
  • See section 8.27 in the Publication Manual for examples of the block quotation.

Direct Quotation Without Page Numbers

When you quote from electronic sources that do not provide page numbers (e.g., webpages, websites, some e-books), provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage. Use any of the following approaches that will best help readers find the quotation:

  • Provide a heading or a section name.
  • Provide a paragraph number (count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered).
  • Provide a heading or section name in combination with a paragraph number.

In-Text Citation for More than One Source

If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. List the sources alphabetically by author's last name or first word used from the title if no author is given, in the same order they would appear in the Reference list. For example:

(Jones, 2015; Smith, 2014). 

( Beckworth, 2016;  "Nursing,"  2015).

  • << Previous: Generative AI
  • Next: Reference List and Sample Papers >>

APA 7th Style Citation Guide: In-text Citations

  • Reference List
  • In-text Citations
  • Finding the Author
  • Formatting Your Paper
  • Information on Using Images Found on the Web This link opens in a new window
  • When Information Is Missing
  • Common APA Errors

APA In-text citation

NARRATIVE OR PARENTHETICAL CITATION STYLES

Citations must be used when you include a direct quote, refer to, summarize, or paraphrase from another source. Narrative or parenthetical citations must correspond to entries in your reference list.

For a direct quote, include the page number as well. APA does encourage the inclusion of a page number when paraphrasing when it would help interested readers locate the relevant passage within a long or complex work (e.g., a book).

Narrative Citation: The author appears in the running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name.

Smith (2017) noted that the sun was setting very low in the sky.

Parenthetical Citation: The author and date, separate by a comma, placed in parentheses. A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence.

The sun was setting very low in the sky (Smith, 2017).

The sun was setting very low in the sky (Smith, 2017) and time was running for the possibility of a successful rescue attempt.

Source without Named Persons as Authors

If a source has an organization as the author, rather than a named person as the author, use the name of the organization.

Narrative: According to the American Psychological Association (2018). 

Parenthetical: (American Psychological Association, 2018)

Source without a Date

If there is no date, use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year.

(Smith, n. d.)

Source without Page Numbers

Some electronic sources may not have page numbers. Provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage. Give a heading or section name, if provided.

(Gecht-Silver & Duncombe, 2015, Osteoarthritis section).

You may also give a paragraph number (count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered). Give the paragraph number with the abbreviation "para." (Smith, 2017, para. 5).

Direct quote 40 words or more:

Display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the author’s name(s), year and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. Double space the entire quotation. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and page number in parentheses after the final punctuation mark.

Students often have difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources.  This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to  ask their teacher for assistance. (Jones, 1998, p.199)     

apa citation author mentioned in text

American Psychological Association. (2019). Table 8.1 Basic in-text  citation styles . Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.)

Secondary source: (original quote used in article you referenced)

Use secondary sources as little as possible. If the original work is out of print or not available through usual sources, or not available in English, give the secondary source in the reference list; in-text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Cushing's work is cited in Martin and you did not read Cushing's work, list Martin's work in the reference list. In the text use the following:

Cushing's diary (as cited in Martin, 1938).

  • << Previous: Reference List
  • Next: Finding the Author >>
  • Last Updated: Sep 11, 2023 10:22 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.stonehill.edu/apa7th

Banner Image

APA Citation Style Guide (7th Edition)

  • In-text: Multiple Authors
  • In-text: First and Subsequent Citations
  • In-text: Authors and Dates Matching
  • APA Examples- Print
  • APA Examples- Electronic
  • APA Examples- Multimedia
  • Step 1- Author
  • Step 2- Date
  • Step 3- Title
  • Step 4- Source
  • Guide to Citing Sources This link opens in a new window

How to Use This Guide

Citations are a two-part system: in-text citations connected to reference list citations .

This guide will help you create in-text citations that correlate with the corresponding reference list citations.

Follow the assignment formatting instructions provided by your professors.  They often dictate which style and edition they prefer you use.  If you are uncertain, it's usually best to ask them directly what they prefer. 

If you have questions, let us know!

Chat Service

Phone : 606-783-5491

Email : [email protected]

  • Research Help Desk (walk-in)
  • Make An Appointment

Handling In-text Citations:

  • When mentioning the author in the text of your sentence, provide the author's last name, immediately followed by the date in parentheses. Example : Johnson (2019) argues that...
  • When not mentioning the author in the text of your sentence, provide the author and date at the end of the sentence in parentheses.  Example : ... hypothetical results (Johnson, 2019).
  • When quoting or paraphrasing a specific detail, include the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Example : "... forgetfulness" (p. 678). Alternative example : "... forgetfulness (Johnson, 2019, p. 678).   

When writing your paper, you have two basic choices to make when presenting a source to the reader.   You can choose to refer to a work in general or you can specifically quote or paraphrase the words and content of that source.  You can also choose to mention the author in the text of your sentences or you can choose to leave his or her name out. 

* Source: Gackenbach, J. (2009). Electronic media and lucid-control dreams: Morning after reports. Dreaming 19 (1), 1-6. doi : 10.1037/a0013781

  • << Previous: About APA
  • Next: In-text: Multiple Authors >>
  • Last Updated: Aug 18, 2023 11:43 AM
  • URL: https://research.moreheadstate.edu/apa7th

apa citation author mentioned in text

© Morehead State University MSU is an affirmative action, equal opportunity, educational institution .

Buena Vista University

APA Citations (7th ed.)

  • General Formatting
  • Student Paper Elements - Title Page
  • Professional Paper Elements - Title Page
  • In-text Citation Basics
  • In-text Citation Author Rules
  • Citing Multiple Works
  • Personal Communications
  • Classroom or Intranet Resources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Periodicals
  • Books & Reference Works
  • Edited Book Chapters & Entries in Reference Works
  • Reports & Gray Literature
  • Conference Sessions & Presentations
  • Dissertations & Theses
  • Data Sets & Software
  • Tests, Scales, & Inventories
  • Audiovisual Works
  • Audio Works
  • Visual Works
  • Social Media
  • Webpages & Websites
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Basics & Formatting
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

Library contact information

Email: [email protected]

Text us: 712-794-4288

Chat online with a BVU Librarian

Schedule an appointment with a BVU librarian (This can be an electronic meeting or F2F)

Author Rules

APA has different rules for in-text citations depending on:

  • The number of authors of a work
  • Whether you are citing a group author that has an abbreviation
  • If an author is unknown or anonymous
  • If more than one work has the same author and date
  • If multiple authors share surnames

Number of Authors to Include in In-text Citations

For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation.

     (Boucher, 2017)

     (Dawson & Lee, 2021)

     Fitzsimmons and Ibarra (2019)

For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation:

     (Maldonado et al., 2019)

Unless using one author would create ambiguity:

     Weiss, Dryden, Prentiss, et al. (2018)

     Weiss, Dryden, Baptiste, et al. (2018)

To learn more about avoiding ambiguity with in-text citations, see pp.266-267 of the manual.

Group Authors, With and Without Abbreviations

Authors may be groups. For example, you may cite a work written by the Centers for Disease Control, or CDC.

If a work is authored by one or two groups, include the group author name(s) in every citation.

     (Buena Vista University, 2021)

     (Harvard University & Cambridge College, 2018)

     (U.S. Department of Agriculture et al., 2019)

If a group author has an abbreviation, introduce the abbreviation in the first citation. In subsequent citations, use the abbreviation in place of the full group name.

      First citation:  (North Atlantic Treaty Organization [NATO], 2017)

      Subsequent citations:  (NATO, 2017)

Unknown or Anonymous Author

For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation.

If the title of the work is italicized in the reference list, also italicize the title in the in-text citation. If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference list, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation.

Capitalize titles in in-text citations using title case, even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry.

      Book with no author:  ( The Business of Life , 2018)

      Magazine article with no author:  ("Parental Involvement and Academic Growth," 2021)

When the author of a work is overtly designated as "Anonymous," this takes the place of the author name in the in-text citation.

     (Anonymous, 2023)

Works With the Same Author and Same Date

When multiple references have an identical author (or no authors) and publication year , include a lowercase letter after the year. This lowercase letter is also included in the reference entry.

Use only the year with a letter in the in-text citation, even if the reference list entry contains a more specific date.

     (Cohen & Crozier, 2019a)

     (Cohen & Crozier, 2019b)

     (Stendahl, n.d.-a, n.d.-b)

Authors With the Same Surname

If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname but have different initials , include the first author's initials in all in-text citations, even if the year of publication differs.

     (J. R. Clancey & Thorgard, 2021; M. Clancey, 2019)

If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname and the same initials , cite the works in the standard author-date format.

     (Judge, 2022; Judge & Willard, 2021)

If multiple authors within a single reference share the same surname , the initials are not needed in the in-text citations.

     (Chen & Chen, 2023)

  • << Previous: In-text Citation Basics
  • Next: Citing Multiple Works >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 1, 2024 2:08 PM
  • URL: https://bvu.libguides.com/apa

Need help? Email [email protected] or chat with a BVU Librarian .

Banner

  • KEY RESOURCES
  • LIBRARY CATALOG

APA Style Guide

General overview for in-text citations, rules for direct quotes, rules for multiple authors and sources, what is a doi, artwork and images, audiovisual materials, chapter in an edited book or anthology, code of ethics, journal articles, personal communication, power point slides or lecture notes, citations with missing information, secondary sources, tests, scales, and inventories, websites and webpages.

  • Reference Pages / Bibliographies
  • Formatting Your Paper

Any time you include in your writing a direct quote, paraphrase, statistic, or idea derived from another resource, you must credit the authors/creators of the resource. In APA style, in-text citations use an author-date citation which directs readers to a full reference list entry. Along with giving credit to the originator of an idea, this system enables readers to locate the corresponding entry in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the paper.

  • Each work cited must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text.
  • The leading author name in an in-text citation must be the same as the leading element of that resource's reference page entry.
  • Narrative: You use this form of in-text citation when you are introducing the authors of the work within your writing. The citation therefore is listed after the authors' names and only includes the date.
  • Parenthetical: You use this form of in-text citation when you are not indicating any information about the work within your writing itself. The complete citation therefore goes at the end of the sentence.

Be sure to provide citations for any facts, figures, or statistics that you include in your writing.

If you use a direct quote from the source include a page number in the parentheses at the end of your sentence.

Multiple Authors and Sources

  • Long strings of citations may be disruptive to the flow of your writing and difficult for readers to understand (especially those using assistive technology like a screen reader). To avoid such disruption, include only citations needed to support your immediate point.
  • When citing a text with two authors, include both authors' last names (connected by an ampersand) in the citation.
  • When citing a work with three or more authors, you need only to name the first author (as listed on the reosurce), followed by the abbreviation "et al.", followed by the date.
  • When multiple studies support the point you are making, you may include a citation for each of them inside the same set of parentheses. Within the parentheses, alphabetize the citations, so that they are listed in the same order in which they're listed on your references page, and separate them with semicolons.

Supplying a DOI with a citation is required unless that object was never assigned one.

DOI stands for digital object identifier. It is a unique ID number ideally given to all digitized journal articles and ebooks. The DOI is listed along with the article citation in many databases. DOI numbers are also sometimes found on the first page of an article PDF. Alternately, DOI numbers can be found by searching the Crossref website.

What If I Can't Find the DOI?

If no DOI is available for an article that is widely available, such as an article found in an academic research database or in a print journal, end the citation with the page numbers. If the article does not have a DOI but is freely available on a website, include the URL for the work.

  • CrossRef Website
  • Artwork from a Museum
  • Clip Art or Stock Images
  • Photographs

General Rule

Artwork from a museum (either in their physical or online collections).

  • Use this format to cite all types of museum artwork, including paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings, and installations; always include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title.
  • For untitled art, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.
  • Use this format to cite (but not reproduce) most clip art or stock images. To reproduce clip art or stock images, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference. No citation, permission, or copy-right attribution is necessary for clip art from programs like Microsoft Word or PowerPoint.
  • Use this format to cite (but not reproduce) photographs or other artwork not connected to a museum. To reproduce a photograph, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference (see Section 12.15).
  • The source is the name of the site from which the photograph was retrieved.
  • For an untitled photograph, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.
  • Citation Examples
  • Who to List as the Author

Notes on Formatting

  • Follow the same case rules for book titles as you do for article titles (only leading letters of first words of title, first words of subtitles, and proper nouns should be capitalized).

Punctuation

  • Book titles should be italicized.

Author Elements and Abbreviations

  • Abbreviations for group authors are not required in the APA style but may be used if the abbreviation is common or the group author is mentioned multiple times.
  • The first time you name the American Psychiatric Association in your paper, spell the whole name out.
  • Afterwards, you can use the abbreviation "APA." 

Entry in a Reference Work

  • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the article's title (even if that word is an article or preposition), the first letter of the first word of the article's subtitle, and the first letter of any proper nouns. The rest of the title should be lowercase.
  • Use title case for the journal's title (capitalize the first letter of all words except for short prepositions and articles)
  • A period should follow each element in the citation (author, date, title, journal info...).
  • No period should follow the DOI or URL element.
  • Italicize the title of the journal and the volume number (break from italics with the first parenthesis enclosing the issue number).

Personal communications should be cited in your text. However, since they are not published works which are retrievable by your reader, they do no need to be cited on the references page.

Note on Source Element

If the slides come from a classroom website, learning management system ( e.g., Populi), or company intranet and you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring login; see Section 8.8 of APA Manual).

When no author's name (group author or individual author) is attached to a resource, substitute the author element in the citation with the title of the resource.

  • When no date is attached to a resource, replace the year in the date element with the abbreviation n.d.

Avoid citing secondary sources when possible. The library can assist in locating a primary source referenced or quoted in a resource you are reviewing. However, when you must cite a secondary source follow the format: author of primary source, date of primary source, as cited in author of secondary source, date of secondary source. Then on your references page, include a citation for the secondary source only.

Manual for a test, scale, or inventory

Test, scale, or inventory itself.

Cite the test, scale, or inventory itself only if a manual or other supporting literature is not available to cite; if a manual is available for a test, cite the manual, not the test (see Example 81 in APA Manual).

Examples  

Webpage with individual author(s), webpage with a group of authors.

  • << Previous: Home
  • Next: Reference Pages / Bibliographies >>
  • Last Updated: Apr 10, 2024 2:14 PM
  • URL: https://qml.libguides.com/apa

APA Citation Style 7th Edition: In-Text Citation

  • Advertisements
  • Books & eBooks
  • Book Reviews
  • Class Handouts, Presentations, and Readings
  • Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
  • Government Documents
  • Images, Charts, Graphs, Maps & Tables
  • Journal Articles
  • Magazine Articles
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Personal Communication (Interviews, Emails)
  • Social Media
  • Videos & DVDs
  • Paraphrasing
  • No Author, No Date etc.
  • Sample Papers
  • Annotated Bibliography

On This Page

  • About In-Text Citations
  • Video: APA 7th Edition: In-Text Citations
  • How do I cite two or more works by the same author with the same year of publication?
  • Do I need to cite after each sentence in a paragraph?
  • How do I cite a work quoted in another source?
  • How do I cite more than one source in one in-text citation?
  • Quoting and Paraphrasing: What's the Difference?
  • In-text citations for two or more authors

APA 7th Edition: In-Text Citations

About In-Text Citation

In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  • In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a comma and the publication year enclosed in parentheses: (Smith, 2007).
  • If you are quoting directly the page number should be included, if given. If you are paraphrasing the page number is not required.
  • If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the title, such as italics: ( Naturopathic , 2007).

Signal Phrase

If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation. Instead include the date after the name and the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or paraphrased section. For example:

Hunt (2011) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (p. 358).

FAQ - How do I cite two or more works by the same author with the same year of publication?

When you are citing two different sources that share the same author and year of publication, assign lowercase letters after the year of publication (a, b, c, etc.). Assign these letters according to which title comes first alphabetically. Use these letters in both in-text citations and the Reference list.

Example In-Text :

Paraphrasing content from first source by this author (Daristotle, 2015a). "Now I am quoting from the second source by the same author" (Daristotle, 2015b, p. 50).

Example Reference List entries:

Daristotle, J. (2015a). Name of book used as first source . Toronto, ON: Fancy Publisher.

Daristotle, J. (2015b). Title of book used as second source . Toronto, ON: Very Fancy Publisher.

FAQ - Do I need to cite after each sentence in a paragraph?

Unfortunately citing only once at the end of the paragraph isn't enough, as it doesn't clearly show where you started using information from another person's work or ideas. The good news is you can avoid having to write full in-text citations each and every time by using a lead-in to your paragraph. For a detailed example of how to use lead-in sentences, please see  Rasmussen College's FAQ page .

FAQ - How do I cite a work quoted in another source?

Sometimes an author of a book, article or website will mention another person’s work by using a quotation or paraphrased idea from that source. The work that is mentioned in the article you are reading is called the primary source. The article you are reading is called the secondary source.

For example, suppose you are reading an article by Brown (2014) that cites information from an article by Snow (1982) that you would like to include in your essay. For the reference list, you will only make a citation for the secondary source (Brown). You do not put in a citation for the primary source (Snow) in the reference list. For the in-text citation, you identify the primary source (Snow) and then write "as cited in" the secondary source (Brown). If you know the year of the publication of the primary source, include it in the in-text citation. Otherwise, you can omit it. See below for examples.

Examples of in-text citations:

According to a study by Snow (1982, as cited in Brown, 2014), 75% of students believe that teachers should not assign nightly homework.

Note: If you don't have the publication date of Snow's article, you just omit it like this: According to a study by Snow (as cited in Brown, 2014), 75% of students believe that teachers should not assign nightly homework.

In fact, 75% of students believe that teachers should not assign nightly homework (Snow, 1982, as cited in Brown, 2014).

Snow (1982, as cited in Brown, 2014) concluded that "nightly homework is a great stressor for many students" (p.34).

Example of Reference list citation:

Brown, S. (2014). Trends in homework assignments.  Journal of Secondary Studies ,  12(3) , 29-38. http://doi.org/fsfsbit

FAQ: How do I cite more than one source in one in-text citation

If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. List the sources alphabetically by author's last name or first word used from the title if no author is given, in the same order they would appear on the References List.

(Bennett, 2015; Smith, 2014). 

( Brock, 2016;  "It Takes Two,"  2015).

Quoting and Paraphrasing: What's the Difference?

There are two ways to integrate others' research into your assignment: you can paraphrase or you can quote.

Paraphrasing  is used to show that you understand what the author wrote. You must reword the passage, expressing the ideas in your own words, and not just change a few words here and there. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.

Quoting  is copying a selection from someone else's work, phrasing it exactly it was originally written. When quoting place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. Make sure to include an in-text citation.

In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors

  • << Previous: Websites
  • Next: Quoting >>
  • Last Updated: Apr 8, 2024 4:30 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.msubillings.edu/apa7

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).

Note:  This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .

APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.

Citing an Author or Authors

A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. APA style calls for capitalizing important words in titles when they are written in the text (but not when they are written in reference lists).

Note : In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list (viz., alphabetically), separated by a semi-colon.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works from the same author, list the years of publication in sequence, with the earliest first. Provide in-press citations last. Only list authors' surnames once for each list of dates. 

Following this pattern, multiple works from multiple authors can be contained within a single parenthetical. Separate authors' sources with a semicolon. Note, however, that the authors' names should be provided in the order they appear in the reference list regardless of when their sources were published.

Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.

(Funk & Kolln, 1992)

Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

Citing Indirect Sources

If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.

Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.

Electronic Sources

If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.

Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").

Sources Without Page Numbers

When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like webpages, people can use the "find" function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.

Note: Never use the page numbers of webpages you print out; different computers print webpages with different pagination.

Other Sources

The APA Publication Manual describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the manual does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.

In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of APA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard APA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite. For example, a sensible way to cite a virtual reality program would be to mimic the APA's guidelines for ordinary computer software .

You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers⁠ —an author category that does not appear in the APA Manual . In cases like this, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.

Banner

APA Style Guide (7th Edition)

  • APA Resources
  • Formatting Your Essay
  • Building an Article Reference Entry
  • Building Specialized Reference Entries

In-text citations: The basics

Examples of in-text citations, formatting titles within in-text citations.

  • The Annotated Bibliography in APA

Books for APA questions

We have print books that you can access at all of our campuses and eBooks that you can access anywhere!

Cover: Publication Manual of the APA, 7th edition

This print copy of APA's  official publication  lays out every aspect of APA style formatting.  We have copies at every campus!

Cover: The Concise APA Handbook ebook

We also have eBooks, like this  online guide  that can be accessed anywhere through our library! 

Cover: Estilo APA en Accion

¡Incluso hay una guía APA en español disponible en línea!

Anytime you use information, ideas, facts, or phrases from a source you must include an in-text citation directing the reader to the full citation on the References page. There should be a reference for each in-text citation and a citation for each resource on the References page. You must have first created the full citation for the resource to create the in-text citation. Follow these guidelines when creating in-text citations:

  • Example: "Smythe mentioned in her 2021 article that these facts exist…"
  •  Example: "These facts exist (Smythe, 2021)…"
  • The parenthetical portion of the in-text citation may appear anywhere in the sentence, though if you put it at the end of the sentence put the period AFTER the closing parentheses.
  • Example: "According to Smythe (2021) these facts exist…"
  • In this circumstance, the parenthetical Date must appear immediately after the Author’s name.
  • When your use of a paraphrased or summarized resource extends beyond a single sentence, cite the resource in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat it while the source of the information remains clear.
  • The Author for the in-text citation is the first phrase of the Reference citation.
  • For the in-text citation, use only the author’s last name unless you cite multiple authors with the same last name, then simply add the initial of the first name, etc. until you’ve distinguished between the authors.
  • See the examples below for assistance determining the Author for a variety of situations.
  • The Date used for the in-text citation will only include the year, even when the Reference page citation includes more extensive date information.
  • For works with no date, use “n.d.” in place of the date for both in-text and reference citations.
  • While APA doesn’t require that page numbers be added to a citation for paraphrased or summarized content, it is encouraged, as a page range will help your reader find the information in a longer work.
  • Example: (Smythe, 2021, pp. 28-35) or "According to Smythe (2021)... (p. 18)." or "Smythe said in her 2021 article...(p. 10) . "  Note that the page number goes in parentheses at the end of the sentence followed by a period when the rest of the citation appears in the narrative.
  • See the ‘ Quotations ’ portion of this guide for information on Pages and Parts requirements for direct quotations.

The pattern for in-text citations is straightforward in APA:

  • Note the use of the ampersand (“&” symbol) which happens within parenthesis in APA style citations.
  • Write out the organization’s name in the first citation and use standard abbreviations for subsequent citations, regardless of whether you are using a narrative or parenthetical citation. If there is no abbreviated form, continue to use the full name of the organization.

Except when it isn’t!

  • ("APA Style Guide", 2021)
  • (Jonas, 2002; Smythe, 1983)     
  • (Smythe, n.d., 1995, 2002)
  • (E. Jones, 2001; L. Jones, 1998)
  • Research by Smythe (1981a) revealed strong correlations. However, a parallel study (Smythe, 1981b) resulted in inconclusive findings.
  • Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with library instruction ("Teaching student research", n.d.). 
  • Jonas argued that...  (as cited in Smythe, 2003, p. 102).
  • (Jonas, 1985, as cited in Smythe, 2003, p. 102).

When you use the Title of a work in the body of your text, you'll follow one of these rules. Look at the Title in the Reference entry:

  • If the Title in the Reference entry is italicized, then italicize the Title in the text and use title case rather than sentence case (i.d. capitalize any word in the title longer than 4 letters in addition to capitalizing the first word, the first word after a colon or dash, and proper nouns).
  • If the Title in the work is not italicized in the Reference entry, use quotation marks and title case capitalization.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th edition). 

Purdue OWL. (n.d.).  In-text citations: Author/authors . Purdue Writing Lab.   https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_style_introduction.html.

  • << Previous: Building Specialized Reference Entries
  • Next: Quotations >>
  • Last Updated: Oct 12, 2023 10:01 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.gateway.kctcs.edu/APACitationStyle7th

Banner

  • Thompson Rivers University Library
  • Research Guides

APA Citation Style Guide (7th Edition)

  • In-Text Citations
  • Formatting a Paper

About In-text Citations

Two or more authors, corporate author, secondary sources, citing a source multiple times in one paragraph.

  • Reference List
  • Audiovisual Media
  • Other Sources
  • Citing Business Resources

An in-text citation appears in parentheses within the text of a paper, in order to indicate that a source is being cited. Every in-text citation must correspond to a reference at the end of the paper.

In-text citations include the author's last name and the publication date. 

If the author's name is already given in the text of the paper, then it is not given again inside the parentheses.

Example: Williams (2002) claims that keeping pets is beneficial for seniors.

If the author's name is not   in the text of the paper, then it is given inside the parentheses.

Example: Research suggests that keeping pets is beneficial for seniors (Williams, 2002).

If the citation is for a direct quotation, then the page number is included at the end of the quotation.

Example (with author's name already given in the text): According to Williams (2008),  "keeping companion animals has been shown to have a positive impact on the general well being of older adults" (p. 10).

Example (with author's name not already given in the text): Research on seniors and pets suggests that that keeping pets has a "positive impact on the general well being of older adults" (Williams, 2008, p. 10).

Two Authors:

When the authors' names occur inside of the parentheses, they are connected with the symbol "&”; but when they occur outside of the parentheses, they are connected with the English word “and".

It has been found that sleep is related to academic performance (Gray & Watson, 2002).

Gray and Watson (2002) found that when students had good quality sleep, they performed better academically.

Three or more Authors:

Cite only the last name of the first author followed by "et al." and a year

Elagra et al. (2016) found that poor sleep quality in dental students related to poor academic performance.

Poor sleep quality in dental students is related to poor academic performance (Elagra et al., 2016).

  • APAStyle Authors in In-Text Citations In-depth description of how to use authors' names in in-text citations.

When an organization, rather than an individual, takes responsibility for the creation of a work, that organization is treated as a collective or corporate author.

Example: ...(Statistics Canada, 2013).

Examples with corporate author already named in the text:

According to Statistics Canada (2013) ...

Figures from Statistics Canada (2013) indicate that..

Example of a corporate author with an abbreviation:

First citation:

...(Secwépemc Child & Family Services Agency [SCFS], 2020).

or, named in the text:

Secwépemc Child & Family Services Agency (SCFS, 2020)...

Subsequent citations:

...(SCFS, 2020).

SCFS (2020)...

Note: Only use an abbreviation in the in-text citation. Full corporate name must be used in the reference list.

  • APAStyle Corporate Authors in In-Text Citations Examples of using corporate authors in in-text citations.

Sometimes an author will refer to another author's research.  If the original source is relevant to your research, then you should make every effort to find it and read it.  If this is not possible, then the in-text citation should include both the source that you have read and the source that you have not read, but only the source that you have actually read should be included in the references.

In-text citation:

...(Author Surname, as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read] , Year)

...(as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read] , Year)

If you read Jones' work, in which Culver was cited, cite Culver's work as the original source, and Jones' as the secondary source. Only Jones' work is in the reference list.

The mastery of APA increases an author's chance of scoring well on an assignment (Culver, as cited in Jones, 2009).

According to Culver (as cited in Jones, 2009), learning APA "can be tough, but like any skill, it just takes practice" (p. 23).

Note: Cite only the secondary source [the source you read] in the reference list.

Jones, J. (2009). Scholarly writing tips. Minneapolis, MN: Publishing House.

  • APAStyle Secondary Sources In-depth description of how to cite secondary sources.

When citing the work of the same author multiple times in one paragraph, you do not need to reference the author at the end of each sentence. That would look clunky and make your writing stilted. Instead, introduce the author with a full in-text citation at the beginning of the paragraph and then, again, at the end. For the body of the paragraph, you can refer to the author by name or pronoun.

According to Spitzer's (2010) study the effects of radiation on humans presents...Spitzer's study developed the guidelines needed to test...The most important find in his study was that....Spitzer concluded the benefit of radiation...The evidence that proves these guidelines work (Spitzer, 2010).

  • << Previous: Formatting a Paper
  • Next: Reference List >>
  • Last Updated: Mar 26, 2024 3:59 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.tru.ca/apa

Pasco-Hernando State College

  • APA In-Text Citations
  • Finding and Evaluating Sources (Critical Analysis)
  • Synthesizing Information from Sources
  • MLA Documentation
  • APA Page Format
  • Writing a Research Paper
  • APA Handout

How to cite when a person is named as an author

In APA, the general rule is to use the last name of the author, the year of publication and the page numbers to give credit to the source. APA is called an author-date documentation system because of the use of author and date. Here’s a sample quotation:

“While tattoos may be popular today, few realize that tattooing was also popular in some ancient societies” (Anderson, 2002, p. 112).

Anderson is the name of the author of the source. The source was published in 2002. The information is on page 112.

Here’s the information from the source paraphrased instead of quoted. Note there is no page number when paraphrasing.

Tattoos are popular today and were common even in old civilizations (Anderson, 2002).

Here’s a combination of a quote and a paraphrase. See how the parentheses goes at the end of the sentence, not the end of the quote. Note that the page number goes only after the quoted information

“While tattoos may be popular today (p. 342),” they were common in some old civilizations (Anderson, 2002).

Note also that it is only the last name of the author, not the first name or any title. The end quotation mark goes after the words quoted, not the parentheses. The documentation is part of the sentence, but it is not part of the quote. There is no punctuation before the parentheses except for the end quotation mark: no comma or period goes before the parentheses.

You can tell the reader the name of the author in the sentence. If you do, you should not put the name in the parentheses.

Signal tags with quotes

According to Anderson (2002), “While tattoos may be popular today, few realize that tattooing was also popular in some ancient societies” (p. 344). 

Use of the word  that  before a quote

The addition of the word  that  changes a signal phrase to just the beginning of a sentence so that what is in the quotation marks is a continuation of the sentence and is not considered a separate sentence.

Anderson’s (2002) research that “[w]hile tattoos may be popular today, few realize that tattooing was also popular in some ancient societies” (p.344).

Now the quoted words are part of a sentence which begins outside the quote. I put the letter  w  in brackets since I changed something in a quote. Changing a quote is allowed as long as you show the reader by putting brackets around the change and the change does not alter the meaning of the quote.

If there is more than one study by the author on that point, list the year of the other studies.

Anderson (2002, 2000) shows that …. (p. 32).

To cite more than one study that shows the point, list the other authors and years of study.

The incidence of spontaneous combustion in the external layers is insignificant (Anderson, 2002, p. 33; Xiu, 1998, p. 56). Note: this list should be alphabetical.

More than one author

If there are two authors, use both last names.  The authors should be listed in the same order as they are listed in the source.

“There is increasing evidence that birds descended from dinosaurs” (Simpson & Bernini, 2002, p. 43).

According to Simpson and Bernini (2002), “There is increasing evidence that birds descended from dinosaurs” (p. 43).

If there are three authors, use all three last names as follows:

According to Simpson, Bernini, and O’Reilly (2002), “There is increasing evidence that birds descended from dinosaurs” (p. 43).

“There is increasing evidence that chickens did not come from chicken eggs (Simpson, Bernini, & O’Reilly, 2002, p. 67).

See how the word  and  is used when the source is reffered to in a sentence and an  &  is used when parenthetical documentation is used.

After the first time mentioned for references with three or four authors, use the first name with et al.

Simpson et al (2002) also found that some chickens did not have feathers (p. 43).

If there are more than four authors named, use the first name with et al consistently except for the Referencess page which should list all authors.

How to cite sources in the paper when there is no person named as an author

Sometimes, a source has no named author. This is common when a document or study is produced by a governmental agency or corporation.

“The most accepted theory of dinosaur extinction is that a comet or asteroid hit the earth causing megatons of debris to be hurled in to the air blocking the sunlight” (US Department of Dinosaur Studies, 2004, p. 15).

The reference to the source could be in the sentence.

“Dinosaur Extinction” explains that “[t]he most accepted theory of dinosaur extinction is that a comet or asteroid hit the earth causing megatons of debris into the air blocking the sunlight” (p. 587).

How to List a Title

When referred to in the paper, titles of short published works such as articles should be in quotation marks and titles of long, published works should be in italics or underlined. All words of more than four letters and all proper nouns should have the first letter capitalized.

(Note: In the References page, quotation marks should not be used for short published works, and only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns should be capitalized.)

Quoting a Quote from a source – indirect quotes

Sometimes, an author quotes another author in his or her paper. Just the standard way to refer to those sources.

Here’s a couple of ways to cite that information:

According to Smith (2005) the results of the Maloney (2004) study showed a “significant difference in traveling time for the Norwegian geese” (p. 23).

Length of Quotations

Quotes longer than 40 words should be indented 1/2″ from the left and should not have quotation marks.

The theory that dinosaurs became extinct as a result of climate changes from a huge meteor impact has far reaching implications. There is always the possibility such an impact will happen again. There are many meteors that come close to earth’s gravitational pull. Scientists closely watch to identify potential problems. There is some discussion about an organized effort to launch a missile to either explode such meteors or defect them away from our orbit. (Jones, 1997, p. 277)

Paraphrasing and Summarizing also Requires Citation

Quoting is only one way of bringing information into a paper from a source. You can also paraphrase or summarize which is to put the source’s ideas into your own words. Quotation marks are not used, but you still have to give credit to the source the same way as with quotes. It is still plagiarism if you don’t use APA or other documentation for paraphrased information.

Use of Ellipsis to Show Omitted Words or Sentences from a Quote

You may remember seeing a series of three periods … in a quote. This is called an ellipsis and is used to represent an omission. Even though you may omit something from the beginning of a sentence you quote from, the general rule is not to use an ellipsis at the beginning of a quote. They are generally used in the middle of a quote to take out unnecessary words in a sentence or between sentences which are being quoted. You may use an ellipsis at the end of a quote if you don’t complete the sentence.

You may also use an ellipsis between quoted sentences to indicate that a sentence or sentences were omitted.

Identifying Internet Sources

Increasingly, the Internet is being used for research. Because everything looks the same on the screen, it is important to figure out what exactly you are looking at. Sometimes, a website is limited to a group of pages that are written for the site. There is no named author, and you are using the whole site even though there may be separately named pages. In that case, you are using the entire site, and if there is no person named as author of the site, then we refer to the source by the name of the website.

Sometimes, websites have many pages and you are using just one page or article, also called a document in a website. In that case, the source is the page (article) in the website, just like an article in a newspaper.  If there is a separate author, refer to the source by the author’s last name and year or publication. If there is no person named as an author, refer to the source by the title of the page in quotation marks.

There are situations where articles from various authors are posted in a specific website. If you are using one of those articles, the source is that article.

When you don’t know the actual page number

The last important point about APA citations in the paper is that sometimes we don’t know the page number the information was originally printed on. This commonly happens when we access a source through the Internet which was originally published in hard copy. There are also no page numbers for sources published only on the Internet. If you do not know a page number, APA says not to use one.

If an Internet source has paragraph numbers, you can use the paragraph number: (Jones, 2002, par. 35). However, you should not start counting paragraphs to use a paragraph number. The custom is that if you know a page number, you should not repeat the author’s name if you are using information from the same source in the same paragraph unless you use information from another source in between. However, if you don’t have a page number to use, you’ll have to repeat the author’s last name or title for all references to that particular source. Since sometimes there is no page number or paragraph number to reference, you might not have a parenthesis at all if the source is referred to as part of the sentence. The Internet has created situations where we don’t use parenthesis for citing sources.

  • Printer-friendly version

Printer Friendly, PDF & Email

  • Utility Menu

University Logo

fa3d988da6f218669ec27d6b6019a0cd

A publication of the harvard college writing program.

Harvard Guide to Using Sources 

  • The Honor Code
  • In-Text Citations

In APA style, you use parenthetical citations within the text of your paper to credit your sources, to show how recently your sources were published, and to refer your reader to a more detailed citation of the source in the reference list at the end of your paper. You should use parenthetical citations when you paraphrase, quote, or make any reference to another author's work. A parenthetical citation in APA style includes the author's last name as well as the year in which the work was published, with a comma between them. If you are referring directly to a specific page in the source, you should also include the page number in your parenthetical citation. APA requires you to cite page numbers when you are quoting directly from the source. If you are paraphrasing, which is more common in the social sciences, you generally do not need to include a page number. If you have questions about whether you should include page numbers when citing in APA, you should consult your instructor.

If you mention the author's name and/or the year of publication in the sentence preceding the citation, you do not need to include them in the parenthetical citation. When you name the author in the sentence, you should include the publication year in parentheses right after the author’s name—do not wait until the end of the sentence to provide that information.

When you include a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence, the punctuation for your sentence appears after the citation.

Citing author and date in a parenthetical citation

When you don’t mention either the author or the date of publication in your sentence, you should include both the author and the year, separated by a comma, in the parenthetical citation. 

Colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students (Jack, 2019).         

Citing when author’s name is mentioned in body of paper

When you mention the author’s name in your sentence, the year of publication should immediately follow the author’s name.

Anthony Jack’s (2019) study of low-income students on an elite college campus revealed that these schools are often unprepared to support the students they admit.

Jack (2019) studied the ways low-income students experience elite college campuses.

Citing page numbers

When you cite a direct quote from the source or paraphrase a specific point from the source, you should include the page number in the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. When you refer to a specific page or pages of the text, first list the year of publication and then list "p." followed by the page number or "pp." followed by the range of pages. If you refer to a specific chapter, indicate that chapter after the year.              

The author contends that “higher education in America is highly unequal and disturbingly stratified” (Jack, 2019, p. 4).

Jack (2019) contends that “higher education in America is highly unequal and disturbingly stratified” (p. 4).

Citing sources with more than one author

When you cite a source that has two authors, you should separate their names with an ampersand in the parenthetical citation.

The authors designed a study to determine if social belonging can be encouraged among college students (Walton & Cohen, 2011). 

If a work has three or more authors , you should only include the first author's name followed by et al. ( Et al. is the shortened form of the Latin et alia , which means “and others.”)

The implementation of postpartum contraceptive programs is both costly and time consuming (Ling et al., 2020).

Attributing a point to more than one source  

To attribute a point or idea to multiple sources, list them in one parenthetical citation, ordered alphabetically by author and separated by semicolons. Works by the same author should be ordered chronologically, from oldest to most recent, with the publication dates separated by commas.

Students who possess cultural capital, measured by proxies like involvement in literature, art, and classical music, tend to perform better in school (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977; Dumais, 2002; Orr, 2003).

Citing multiple works by the same author 

If your reference list includes multiple works by the same author in the same year, identify them in your parenthetical citations and in your reference list by a lowercase letter after the year, assigning each letter in alphabetical order by the title of the work. When establishing the alphabetical order of works in your reference list, do not count the words "A" or "The" when they appear as the first word in a title.

One union-endorsed candidate publicly disagreed with the teachers' union on a number of issues (Borsuk, 1999a).

Citing multiple authors with the same last name        

If your reference list includes sources by multiple authors with the same last name, list each author's initials before their last name, even when the works were published in different years.

The question of whether a computer can be considered an author has been asked for longer than we might expect (B. Sobel, 2017).

Citing when no author is listed           

To refer to a work that is listed in your reference list by title rather than by author, cite the title or the first few words of the title.

The New York Times painted a bleak picture of the climate crisis (“Climate Change Is Not Negotiable,” 2022).

Citing when no date is listed

If the work you are citing has no date listed, you should put “n.d.” for “no date” in the parenthetical citation.

Writing research papers is challenging (Lam, n.d.). 

Citing a specific part of a source that is not a page number

To refer to a specific part of a source other than page number, add that after the author-date part of your citation. If it is not clear whether you are referring to a chapter, a paragraph, a time stamp, or a slide number, or other labeled part of a source, you should indicate the part you are referring to (chapter, para., etc.).

In the Stranger Things official trailer, the audience knows that something unusual is going to happen from the moment the boys get on their bicycles to ride off into the night (Duffer & Duffer, 0:16).

  • Citation Management Tools
  • Reference List Format
  • Examples of Commonly Cited Sources
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Cite Sources in APA Format
  • Sample Reference List

PDFs for This Section

  • Citing Sources
  • Online Library and Citation Tools

Generate accurate APA citations for free

  • Knowledge Base
  • APA Style 6th edition

A complete guide to APA in-text citation (6th edition)

Published on November 4, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on May 19, 2022.

An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication, for example: (Smith, 2020). When quoting , also include page numbers, for example (Smith, 2020, p.170).

Here’s what an in-text citation looks like in a sentence:

  • The author claims that “plagiarism is becoming a bigger problem” (Smith, 2014, p. 170) .
  • As Smith (2014) has shown, plagiarism is a serious issue for universities.
  • In 2014 , Smith found that plagiarism is becoming increasingly widespread.

Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr

Table of contents, apa in-text citations with multiple authors, in-text citations explained in under 4 minutes, punctuation in apa in-text citations, when to include page numbers, apa in-text citations with lists, exceptions and missing information.

Multiple author names are separated using a comma. Only the final name in the list is preceded by an ampersand (“&”), for example: (Taylor, Johnson, & Parker, 2019) . Use “ et al .” to shorten in-text citations of sources with 6+ authors (first in-text citations) and 3+ authors (subsequent in-text citations), for example: (Taylor et al., 2019) .

Using “et al.” in APA in-text citations

Sources with three, four or five authors are shortened after the first citation. From the second citation onwards, include only the first author name followed by “et al.” (“and others”). Sources with six or more authors are always shortened, including in the first citation.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

  • When using the abbreviation “et al . ,” always include a period (“.”).
  • Include a comma between “et al.” and the publication date (e.g. Taylor et al., 2018).
  • There should be no punctuation between “et al.” and the author’s name preceding it.
  • The period ending the sentence always comes after the citation (even when quoting).

Never use an ampersand symbol (“&”) in the running text. Instead, use the full word “and.”

  • According to research by Taylor & Kotler … (2018).
  • Taylor and Kotler conclude … (2018).

Including the page number(s) in the in-text citation is required when quoting a source in APA . It is encouraged, but not required, when paraphrasing a source . Don’t include page numbers when referring to a work as a whole, e.g. “the study shows…”.

If the quote or paraphrase covers just one page, use “ p. 16. ” If it covers two or more pages, use a double ‘p’ followed by a page range (e.g.  pp. 16-18 ).

The in-text citation can be included in three different ways:

  • This is also confirmed by the business plan: “creating an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work but many students benefit from it” (Smith, 2014, pp. 14-15) .
  • Smith (2014) states: “making an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work but many students benefit from it” (pp. 14-15) .
  • In 2014 , Smith wrote: “making an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work but many students benefit from it” (pp. 14-15) .

Sources with no page numbers

When quoting a source that has no pages or page numbers, you can include a chapter or paragraph number instead.

If the source uses headings, cite the heading and the paragraph number following it. Long headings may be shortened, but then they should be enclosed in quotation marks.

  • (Johnson, 2019, Chapter 3)
  • (McCombes, 2016, para. 4)
  • (Smith, 2014, Conclusion, para. 2 )
  • (Streefkerk, 2019, “No Page Numbers,” para. 2)

Are your APA in-text citations flawless?

The AI-powered APA Citation Checker points out every error, tells you exactly what’s wrong, and explains how to fix it. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment!

Get started!

apa citation author mentioned in text

If the cited list originates from one source, put the in-text citation after the last list item. If the list comes from several different sources, add the in-text citations after each list item.

  • Wired lifestyle
  • Time pressure
  • Risk aversion
  • Internet experience
  • Social interaction (Johnson, 2016, p. 18) .
  • Consumers experience greater risk for online purchases (Writers et al., 2016, p. 47) .
  • Young consumers experience no risk for online purchases (Porter, 2016, pp. 63-64) .

The basic APA guidelines are not applicable to every source. Information can be missing, confusing for the reader or simply different. The most common exceptions are listed below.

If the author is unknown, cite the first few words of the reference list entry instead (usually the title). Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, reports and brochures.

  • ( “U.S. Flood Risk Could Be Worse Than We Thought,”  2015)
  • ( Thinking, Fast and Slow , 2017)

For sources without a year of publication, use “n.d.” (no date) instead: (Johnson, n.d. ).

Multiple sources in the same parentheses

If you’re using multiple sources to support a statement, you can combine the in-text citations and separate them using semicolons. Order the sources alphabetically.

If you’re using multiple sources from the same author, you don’t have to repeat the author. Just add the other years and separate them with a comma.

Multiple publications from the same author(s) in the same year

To differentiate between two publications from the same author published in the same year, add a suffix after the publication year.

Repeated use of the same source

For citing the same source multiple times in a paragraph there are specific APA guidelines. The first mention should include the author and publication year. For subsequent mentions in the running text, you only have to include the author’s last name, not the year. However, citations in parentheses should always include the year.

Different authors with the same last name

To differentiate between two (or more) authors with the same last name, include the initials. This rule applies even if the year of publication is different.

Citing a source within a source (secondary source)

If you want to cite a source that you found in another source, you can do one of two things. First of all, you should try to find the original source ( primary source ). If you’re able to find it you can use regular APA guidelines.

If you are not able to find the primary source, you should cite it through the source that led you to it ( secondary source ). The in-text citation looks like this:

Note that you only need to include the publication year of the source you consulted (here Johnson).

Personal communication

Personal communication such as phone calls, emails and conversations are not cited in the reference list because they can’t be found anywhere. However, you should still cite them using an in-text citation.

Give the initials and the last name of the person you communicated with and provide as exact a date as possible.

Sales are declining in the second quarter  (P. G. Brown, personal communication, June 13, 2018).

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Streefkerk, R. (2022, May 19). A complete guide to APA in-text citation (6th edition). Scribbr. Retrieved April 9, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/6th-edition/archived-in-text-citation/

Is this article helpful?

Raimo Streefkerk

Raimo Streefkerk

Scribbr apa citation checker.

An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!

× All floors of the JFK Library are open for summer quarter. For details see Library Access

Research Guides

Eastern Washington University Libraries

APA Style 7th Edition Tutorials for Students in Psychology and Social Work

What is apa style.

  • The Importance of Citing

Why is APA Style needed?

How do i get started with apa style, let us practice what we have learned, attribution and acknowledgement.

  • Basics of APA Style Tutorial
  • Reference Entry Elements
  • Reference Examples
  • Reference List
  • In-Text Citations
  • Student Paper Format
  • Managing References - Zotero

Origination of APA Style

  • Where did APA Style come from?

Commonly Used APA Related Terms

Abstract : Abstract is a brief synopses of article. It provides a brief but comprehensive summary of the article. 

Citing : In the context of academic writing, citing is the act of acknowledging the sources of information you have used when writing your work.

Citation:  A citation gives credit to a source, and contains publication information such as author(s), title and date.

DOI (digital object identifier): It is a unique alphanumeric string assigned to a digital object, mainly a scholarly article, to provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. 

In-Text Citation : It is a brief note that appears within the body of the paper and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication. An in-text citation should always match the corresponding entry in the reference list at the end of paper.

Paraphrasing : A paraphrase restates another’s idea (or your own previously published idea) in your own words. 

Plagiarism : It is the act of presenting the words, ideas, or images of another as your own; it denies creators of content the credit they are due. 

Quoting : It is the act of reproducing the exact wording used by the original author. Direct quotations appear within quotation marks and end with a citation.

Reference : It contains details about one cited work, generally including four elements:  author, date, title, and source.  

Reference List : It identifies all the sources you cited in the text of your paper. It generally is at the end of the paper and definitely on a new page after the text of your paper. 

APA Style is the most common writing style used in college and career. Its purpose is to promote excellence in communication by helping writers create clear, precise, and inclusive sentences with a straightforward scholarly tone. It addresses areas of writing such as how to

  • format a paper so it looks professional;
  • credit other people’s words and ideas via citations and references to avoid plagiarism; and
  • describe other people with dignity and respect using inclusive, bias-free language.

APA Style is primarily used in the behavioral sciences, which are subjects related to people, such as psychology, education, and nursing. It is also used by students in business, engineering, communications, and other classes. Students use it to write academic essays and research papers in college, and professionals use it to conduct, report, and publish scientific research.

In addition, APA Style provides you with a powerful tool that will hep you avoid deliberate or unintentional plagiarism. Please review the Avoiding Plagiarism Guide created by the APA experts to understand what two common types of plagiarism are and how to avoid them. 

Why is learning citations important? Citations help readers understand where the information used in your paper comes from, enabling them to trace the path of that information. When readers wish to explore a specific point or reference cited in the text, citations make it easier by providing information about your sources in a standardized format.

Besides showing readers where you obtained information, using citations also has a strong ethical purpose. In academic writing, it is important to credit ideas that are not your own. Citations allow you to integrate the ideas of others with your own thoughts in a fair and honest way.

The reference formats for APA Style manuals are as follows:

APA Style provides a foundation for effective scholarly communication because it helps authors present their ideas in a clear and concise, and organized manner.  Uniformity and consistency enable readers to (a) focus on the ideas being presented rather than formatting and (b) scan works quickly for key points, findings, and sources. When style works best, ideas flow logically, sources are credited appropriately, and papers are organized predictably and consistently. 

Students are encouraged to first learn about APA Style by reading works written in APA Style. A couple of guides created by APA experts from the American Psychological Association can help you with that:

Anatomy of a Journal Article   https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/anatomy-journal-article.pdf

Scholarly journal articles share a common anatomy or structure. Each part of an article serves a specific purpose. The handout of  Anatomy of a Journal Article explains how journal articles are structured and how to become more efficient at reading and understanding them. Understanding the structure of a scholarly article and the purpose of each part helps you grasp a strategy called targeted reading. Targeted reading means to read specific sections of research articles first to determine if the article seems useful for your research topic. This way you will save time, find useful article faster, and choose which articles to read in full.

Reading and Understanding Abstracts https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/reading-abstracts.pdf

Abstracts are short summaries of scientific research articles. The handout of Reading & Understanding Abstracts explains the definition and purpose of abstracts and the benefits of reading them, including analysis of a sample abstract. The skill of reading and understanding abstracts of scholarly articles not only saves time but also helps you conduct better research and write more effectively.

APA Style Writing Principles https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/writing-principles.pdf

The poster created by APA experts shows the three main principles of APA Style: clarity, precision, and inclusion and lists steps on how to achieve them. As a student writer, you always should write your academic paper with clarity, precision, and inclusion. 

Research Article Activity https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/apa-style-research-activity.pdf

Reading research articles is not an easy task for you as a student. The Research Article Activity designed by APA Style experts aims to make it easy to read and understand a scholarly article. This activity worksheet helps you find, cite, analyze, and summarize a research article. Completing this activity breaks down a lengthy research article into easily understandable chunks. This way helps you better understand the study in the article before you write about it. 

The information in this Guide   is courtesy of   the official APA Style website by the American Psychological Association.

Source Credit: Information on this LibGuide comes from APA Style website https://apastyle.apa.org/ This website has a wealth of free and authoritative resources designed to help anyone new to APA Style.

  • Next: Basics of APA Style Tutorial >>
  • Last Updated: Apr 6, 2024 12:06 PM
  • URL: https://research.ewu.edu/APAStyleTutorial

Banner

APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Works Cited in Another Source

  • What Kind of Source Is This?
  • Advertisements
  • Books & eBooks
  • Book Reviews
  • Class Handouts, Presentations, and Readings
  • Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
  • Government Documents
  • Images, Charts, Graphs, Maps & Tables
  • Journal Articles
  • Magazine Articles
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Personal Communication (Interviews, Emails)
  • Social Media
  • Videos & DVDs
  • Paraphrasing

Works Cited in Another Source

  • No Author, No Date etc.
  • Sample Paper, Reference List & Annotated Bibliography
  • Powerpoint Presentations

On This Page

Sometimes an author of a book, article or website will mention another person’s work by using a quotation or paraphrased idea from that source. The work that is mentioned in the article you are reading is called the primary source. The article you are reading is called the secondary source.

For example, suppose you are reading an article by Brown (2014) that cites information from an article by Snow (1982) that you would like to include in your essay. For the reference list, you will only make a citation for the secondary source (Brown). You do not put in a citation for the primary source (Snow) in the reference list. For the in-text citation, you identify the primary source (Snow) and then write "as cited in" the secondary source (Brown). If you know the year of the publication of the primary source, include it in the in-text citation. Otherwise, you can omit it. See below for examples.

Examples of in-text citations:

According to a study by Snow (1982, as cited in Brown, 2014), 75% of students believe that teachers should not assign nightly homework.

Note: If you don't have the publication date of Snow's article, you just omit it like this: According to a study by Snow (as cited in Brown, 2014), 75% of students believe that teachers should not assign nightly homework.

In fact, 75% of students believe that teachers should not assign nightly homework (Snow, 1982, as cited in Brown, 2014).

Snow (1982, as cited in Brown, 2014) concluded that "nightly homework is a great stressor for many students" (p.34).

Example of Reference list citation:

Brown, S. (2014). Trends in homework assignments.  Journal of Secondary Studies , 12(3) , 29-38. http://doi.org/fsfsbit

  • << Previous: Paraphrasing
  • Next: No Author, No Date etc. >>
  • Last Updated: Jan 5, 2024 2:56 PM
  • URL: https://columbiacollege-ca.libguides.com/apa

IMAGES

  1. In Text Citation For Apa

    apa citation author mentioned in text

  2. Citing of Six or More Multiple Authors in APA

    apa citation author mentioned in text

  3. APA Book Citation Examples

    apa citation author mentioned in text

  4. In Text Citation For Apa

    apa citation author mentioned in text

  5. What is an In-Text Citation?

    apa citation author mentioned in text

  6. APA 6th Edition

    apa citation author mentioned in text

VIDEO

  1. How to put reference and citation in APA system

  2. APA citations

  3. How to cite multiple authors using APA Format

  4. APA 7th Edition: References Lists

  5. APA Style and Citation: In-Text Citations

  6. Adventures in APA Formatting: Episode 1- Periodicals

COMMENTS

  1. In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

    The APA manual recommends the use of the author-date citation structure for in-text citation references. This structure requires that any in-text citation (i.e., within the body of the text) be accompanied by a corresponding reference list entry. In the in-text citation provide the surname of the author but do not include suffixes such as "Jr.".

  2. APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.)

    In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper. APA in-text citations consist of the author's last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p.

  3. In-Text Citations

    In-text citations. Using references in text. For APA, you use the authors' surnames only and the year in text. If you are using a direct quote, you will also need to use a page number. Narrative citations: If an in-text citation has the authors' names as part of the sentence (that is, outside of brackets) place the year and page numbers in ...

  4. Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

    Using In-text Citation. Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005).

  5. Author-date citation system

    Use the author-date citation system to cite references in the text in APA Style. In this system, each work used in a paper has two parts: an in-text citation and a corresponding reference list entry. In-text citations may be parenthetical or narrative. In parenthetical citations, use an ampersand (&) between names for a work with two authors ...

  6. APA In-Text Citations

    The in-text citation APA style provides us with a tidbit of information. Just enough to glance at it and keep on going with reading the paper. To recap, in-text citations are great because: They credit the original author of a work or information. They let readers quickly see where the information is coming from.

  7. Library Guides: APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation

    What Is In-Text Citation? In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the text of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the Reference list. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation.

  8. In-text citations

    APA Style provides guidelines to help writers determine the appropriate level of citation and how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism. We also provide specific guidance for in-text citation, including formats for interviews, classroom and intranet sources, and personal communications; in-text citations in general; and paraphrases and direct quotations.

  9. APA 7th Style Citation Guide: In-text Citations

    Narrative Citation: The author appears in the running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. Smith (2017) noted that the sun was setting very low in the sky. Parenthetical Citation: The author and date, separate by a comma, placed in parentheses. A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a ...

  10. In-text Citations

    Author not Mentioned in Text Studies show there is a potential connection between video game play and lucid dreaming (Gackenbach, 2009). "[D]aytime exposure to virtual reality through electronic media is associated with important dream structure variables, lucidity, and control" (Gackenbach, 2009, p. 5).

  11. In-text Citation Author Rules

    If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname and the same initials, cite the works in the standard author-date format. (Judge, 2022; Judge & Willard, 2021) If multiple authors within a single reference share the same surname, the initials are not needed in the in-text citations. (Chen & Chen, 2023)

  12. In-Text Citations / Citation Examples

    The leading author name in an in-text citation must be the same as the leading element of that resource's reference page entry. ... for group authors are not required in the APA style but may be used if the abbreviation is common or the group author is mentioned multiple times. ... Subsequent in-text citations: (APA, 2022). Chapter in an Edited ...

  13. In-Text Citation

    In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper. In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a comma and the publication year ...

  14. In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

    Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual ...

  15. LibGuides: APA Style Guide (7th Edition): In-text Citations

    Follow these guidelines when creating in-text citations: APA uses an (author, date) style format for the basis of its in-text citations. This information can be cited: In the narrative or body of the text or speech. Example: "Smythe mentioned in her 2021 article that these facts exist…" As a parenthetical citation. Example: "These facts exist ...

  16. Basic principles of citation

    The following are guidelines to follow when writing in-text citations: Ensure that the spelling of author names and the publication dates in reference list entries match those in the corresponding in-text citations. Cite only works that you have read and ideas that you have incorporated into your writing. The works you cite may provide key ...

  17. In-Text Citations

    Every in-text citation must correspond to a reference at the end of the paper. In-text citations include the author's last name and the publication date. If the author's name is already given in the text of the paper, then it is not given again inside the parentheses. Example: Williams (2002) claims that keeping pets is beneficial for seniors.

  18. APA In-Text Citations

    APA is called an author-date documentation system because of the use of author and date. Here's a sample quotation: "While tattoos may be popular today, few realize that tattooing was also popular in some ancient societies" (Anderson, 2002, p. 112). Anderson is the name of the author of the source. The source was published in 2002.

  19. In-Text Citations

    In APA style, you use parenthetical citations within the text of your paper to credit your sources, to show how recently your sources were published, and to refer your reader to a more detailed citation of the source in the reference list at the end of your paper. You should use parenthetical citations when you paraphrase, quote, or make any ...

  20. The Basics of In-Text Citation

    In-text citations most commonly take the form of short parenthetical statements indicating the author and publication year of the source, as well as the page number if relevant. Example: APA Style in-text citation (Jackson, 2005, p. 16) We also offer a free citation generator and in-depth guides to the main citation styles.

  21. A complete guide to APA in-text citation (6th edition)

    Include a comma between "et al." and the publication date (e.g. Taylor et al., 2018). There should be no punctuation between "et al." and the author's name preceding it. The period ending the sentence always comes after the citation (even when quoting). Never use an ampersand symbol ("&") in the running text.

  22. About APA Style 7th Edition

    In-Text Citation: It is a brief note that appears within the body of the paper and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication. An in-text citation should always match the corresponding entry in the reference list at the end of paper. ... APA Style is the most common writing style used in college and career. Its ...

  23. APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Works Cited in Another Source

    You do not put in a citation for the primary source (Snow) in the reference list. For the in-text citation, you identify the primary source (Snow) and then write "as cited in" the secondary source (Brown). If you know the year of the publication of the primary source, include it in the in-text citation. Otherwise, you can omit it.

  24. MLA In-Text Citations

    MLA different works with same author in-text citation examples. (Carroll, Alice's Adventures 36) (Carroll, Looking-glass 10) (Frost, "Apple-Picking," lines 27-29) (Frost, "Sound of Trees," line 6) When citing lines of poetry, the author's name is followed by a comma and the line numbers of quoted material. Only the line numbers ...

  25. Effects of early adversity on neural mechanisms of distractor

    Multiple theoretical frameworks posit that interactions between the autonomic nervous system and higher-order neural networks are crucial for cognitive regulation. However, few studies have simultaneously examined autonomic physiology and brain activity during cognitive tasks. Such research is promising for understanding how early adversity impacts neurocognitive development in children, given ...

  26. Full article: The role of peer tutoring integrated with KWL charts in

    Third, tutors' incompetence is mentioned by Gordon (Citation 2005, p. 4) as one of the weaknesses of Peer Tutoring. There can also be cognitive problems. Tutees are unable to resolve problems and implement practical solutions. Students become disappointed because they believe they are inadequate tutors (Medway & Baron, Citation 1997). To ...