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Writing Formal Reports

While you may write much shorter, more casual reports, it’s helpful to go into a bit of detail about formal reports. Formal reports are modular, which means that they have many pieces. Most audience members will not read every piece, so these pieces should stand on their own. That means that you will often repeat yourself. That’s okay. Your audience should be able to find exactly what they need in a particular section, even if that information has been repeated elsewhere.

While it’s fine to copy and paste between sections, you will likely need to edit your work to ensure that the tone, level of detail and organization meet the needs of that section. For example, the Executive Summary is aimed at managers. It’s a short, persuasive overview of everything in the report. The Introduction may contain very similar information, but it focuses on giving a short, technical overview of everything in the report. Its goal is to inform, not to persuade.

Let’s take a look at some of the parts of the report in greater detail.

The title page provides the audience with the:

  • This should appear 2 inches from the top margin in uppercase letters.
  • Type “Prepared for” on one line, followed by two separate lines that provide the receiving organization’s name and then the city and state. Some reports may include an additional line that presents the name of a specific person.
  • Type “prepared by” on one line, followed by the name(s) of the author(s) and their organization, all on separate lines.
  • This date may differ from the date the report was written. It should appear 2 inches above the bottom margin.

The items on the title page should be equally spaced apart from each other.

A note on page numbers:

The title page should not include a page number, but this page is counted as page “i.” Use software features to create two sections for your report. You can then utilize two different types of numbering schemes. When numbering the pages (i.e., i, ii, iii, etc.) for a formal report, use lowercase roman numerals for all front matter components. Utilize arabic numbers for the other pages that follow. Additionally, if you intend to bind the report on the left, move the left margin and center 0.25 inches to the right.

Letter of Transmittal

A letter of transmittal announces the report topic to the recipient(s).

If applicable, the first paragraph should identify who authorized the report and why the report is significant. Provide the purpose of the report in the first paragraph as well. The next paragraph should briefly identify, categorize, and describe the primary and secondary research of the report. Use the concluding paragraph to offer to discuss the report; it is also customary to conclude by thanking the reader for their time and consideration.

The letter of transmittal should be formatted as a  business letter . Some report writers prefer to send a memo of transmittal instead.

When considering your audience for the letter or memo of transmittal, make sure that you use a level of formality appropriate for your relationship with the reader. While all letters should contain professional and respectful language, a letter to someone you do not know should pay closer attention to the formality of the word choice and tone.

Table of Contents

The table of contents page features the headings and secondary headings of the report and their page numbers, enabling audience members to quickly locate specific parts of the report. Leaders (i.e. spaced or unspaced dots) are used to guide the reader’s eye from the headings to their page numbers.

The words “TABLE OF CONTENTS” should appear at the top of the page in all uppercase and bolded letters. Type the titles of major report parts in all uppercase letters as well, double spacing between them. Secondary headings should be indented and single spaced, using a combination of upper- and lowercase letters.

Executive Summary

An executive summary presents an overview of the report that can be used as a time-saving device by recipients who do not have time to read the entire report.

The executive summary should include a:

  • Summary of purpose
  • Overview of key findings
  • Identification of conclusions
  • Overview of recommendations

To begin, type “EXECUTIVE SUMMARY” in all uppercase letters and centered. Follow this functional head with paragraphs that include the above information, but do not use first-level headings to separate each item. Each paragraph of information should be single-spaced with double spacing between paragraphs. Everything except for the title should be left-aligned.

An executive summary is usually ten percent of the length of the report. For example, a ten-page report should offer a one-page summary. A 100-page report should feature a summary that is approximately ten pages.

The executive summary is usually seen as the most important part of the report, and it should be written last. When you’re writing the executive summary, imagine that you’re sitting across from your most important audience member. If you only have a few minutes to talk to them, what do you want them to know? What would be most persuasive?


The body of a formal report begins with an introduction. The introduction sets the stage for the report, clarifies what need(s) motivated it, and helps the reader understand what structure the report will follow.

Most report introductions address the following elements: background information, problem or purpose, significance, scope, methods, organization, and sources. As you may have noticed, some parts of a formal report fulfill similar purposes. Information from the letter of transmittal and the executive summary may be repeated in the introduction. Reword the information in order to avoid sounding repetitive.

To begin this section, type “BACKGROUND” or “INTRODUCTION” in all uppercase letters. This functional head should be followed by the information specified above (i.e., background information, problem or purpose, etc.). You do not need to utilize any first-level headings in this section.Because this section includes background information, it would be the appropriate place to address the needs of audiences that may need additional knowledge about the topic. Provide definitions of technical terms and instruction about the overall project if necessary. If you are uncertain if your audience needs a particular piece of information, go ahead and include it; it’s better to give your reader a little bit too much background than not enough.

Discussion of Findings

The Discussion of Findings section presents the evidence for your conclusions.

This key section should be carefully organized to enhance readability.

Useful organizational patterns for report findings include but are not limited to:

  • Best Case/Worst Case
  • Compare/Contrast
  • Journalism Pattern

Use a Best Case/Worst Case organizational pattern when you think that the audience may lack interest in the topic. When examining a topic with clear alternatives to your proposed solution, consider using a Compare/Contrast pattern. Geographical patterns work effectively for topics that are discussed by location.

When describing the organization of the report in the first paragraph, broadly identify how the material in the report is organized rather than state that the report uses a specific pattern (e.g. Chronology, Geography). For example, write, “The research findings address curriculum trends in three provinces: (a) British Columbia, (b) Alberta, and (c) Ontario,” not, “This report uses a geographical organizational pattern.”

Follow the first paragraph with a first-level heading. Use first-level headings for all other major parts of this section. First-level headings should appear in bold, uppercase letters. Center first-level headings, but align any second-level headings with the left margin. Type any second-level headings in bold, upper- and lowercase letters.

As you present, interpret, and analyze evidence, consider using both text and graphics. Take into account what will be easiest for your audience to understand.

Include citations for all quoted or paraphrased material from sources as well; check with your organization as to whether they prefer parenthetical citations or footnotes.

Integrating Graphics

Formal report authors use graphics to present data in different forms. Paragraphs of text and complex or numerical data tend to bog readers down, making graphics a beneficial enhancement. Graphics also make data easier to understand, so they sometimes make a stronger impact on the audience.

Knowing when—and how—to effectively employ graphics is the key to successfully integrating them. Keeping the audience in mind is also critical. You will learn more about creating charts and graphs in the chapter on Visual Communication Strategies .

Conclusions and Recommendations

The conclusions and recommendations section conveys the key results from the analysis in the discussion of findings section. Up to this point, readers have carefully reviewed the data in the report; they are now logically prepared to read the report’s conclusions and recommendations.

Type “CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS” in all uppercase letters. Follow this functional head with the conclusions of the report. The conclusions should answer any research questions that were posed earlier in the report. Present the conclusions in an enumerated or bulleted list to enhance readability.

Recommendations offer a course of action, and they should answer any problem or research questions as well.  Think back to the expectations of your audience.  Have all of their requirements been addressed?

Works Cited

All formal reports should include a works cited page; his page documents the sources cited within the report. The recipient(s) of the report can also refer to this page to locate sources for further research.

It is acceptable to follow MLA (Modern Language Association), CMS (Chicago Manual of Style), or APA (American Psychological Association) documentation style for entries on this page. Arrange all sources alphabetically. Refer to the latest edition of the appropriate style handbook for more information about how to format entries for print and electronic sources on the  Works Cited page

While some of the formatting rules may seem tedious at first, they are necessary in order for your audience to better understand the report. Using a regulated format allows for a more universal organization that everyone will understand. Being aware of your audience’s needs and expectations will allow for a strong report that will satisfy your employee and demonstrate your competence in your field.

Test Your Knowledge

Understanding the parts of the report can be challenging, so test your knowledge by dragging the part of the report to its definition.

Image Description

Figure 11.1 image description:  This is a diagram of a report title page. Leave 2 inches between the top and the title of the report (which should be in uppercase letters), then write in the middle of the page who the report was prepared for. 3/4 of the way down the page, say who the report was prepared for. Then write the date submitted. [Return to Figure 11.1]

Figure 11.2 image description:  A sample table of contents and List of Figures. Use uppercase letters for major parts and use leaders to guide the reader’s eye to the page numbers. The list of figures should be separate from the table of contents. [Return to Figure 11.2]

Figure 11.3 image description:  A sample body page of an introduction. This one is separated into ‘PROBLEM’ (all in uppercase letters, bold, and in the center) and BACKGROUND. Each paragraph is single spaced with double spacing between paragraphs. [Return to Figure 11.3]

Business Writing For Everyone Copyright © 2021 by Arley Cruthers is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Informal Lab Reports, Short Memo or Letter Reports

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

This resource is an updated version of Muriel Harris’s handbook Report Formats: A Self-instruction Module on Writing Skills for Engineers , written in 1981. The primary resources for the editing process were Paul Anderson’s Technical Communication: A Reader-Centered Approach (6th ed.) and the existing OWL PowerPoint presentation, HATS: A Design Procedure for Routine Business Documents.

This resource provides guidance on reporting tests and experiments conducted in a variety of lab settings.

In Academic Settings

Short reports are written for teachers who want to evaluate the accuracy and completeness of your work. You may be asked to include some or all of these parts or others not included here:

  • Introduction: the purpose, problem, and scope
  • Apparatus: the equipment and/or tools used (This section is included only when needed because something beyond the usual apparatus is required.)
  • Procedures: the methods (These are described in detail only if asked for or if unusual.)
  • Body: the data obtained, discussed and evaluated
  • Conclusions and recommendations

In Industry and Government

Short reports are written for readers who need to know the results of your work so that they can make a decision. Include your conclusions and recommendations only if they are specifically asked for. Be as brief as possible, preferably one page or less.

Short Memo or Letter Reports

Use either stationery with the company letterhead or printed forms with standard headings such as To, From, Subject, Date, and other information that a company may wish to include, for example, reference numbers, names of people who receive carbon copies (cc:), and so on. State the subject clearly and concisely, and put the most important words at the beginning of the subject line in the heading.

Introductory statement:

State the general problem first to give the reader a context or “big picture.” Then explain the specific question or task arising from that problem that you will be dealing with. Finally, explain why the report is being submitted or what it is intended to do. This brief, but crucially important overview should usually be no longer than two or three sentences.

Findings or results:

Present your findings clearly and concisely, in whatever method is most appropriate (a list, a table, and so on, with adequate explanation). Arrange your results so that the ones most important to the project or the reader are placed first. Present the rest of your results in descending order of importance. Since your findings are usually the major reason for the memo, this section may be the longest part of the report.

Conclusions and recommendations:

Determine and present the most significant implications or recommendations for action. You may need to put this section before the findings, or you may not need to include this section at all unless it is requested. Company policy usually dictates whether or not this section is included.

Format considerations:

  • Use headings and mark your key points so that your readers can survey the contents and can quickly find what they want.
  • Place your strongest arguments first when your purpose is to persuade.

Evaluating a Short Memo Report

When evaluating a short memo, the writer should follow a very specific format to keep their document standard. This format includes questions that the writer should ask themselves, the different parts of the memo, headings that should be used as wells as arguments to add. These aspects allow the creation of a short memo to be easy as the formatting will eventually become second nature.

Listed below are the basic questions every report writer should ask himself or herself before writing the report:

  • Who will read the report?
  • What do they want to know?
  • How should the report be structured?

Heading : Lists information such as To, From, Subject, Date, and so on, and states the subject clearly and concisely with the most important words at the beginning of the subject line.

  • Is all the relevant information included?
  • Is the subject stated clearly and concisely?
  • Are the important words first?

Introductory Statement : States the general problem first, then explains the specific question or task being dealt with in the memo, and then explains why the report is being submitted or what it is intended to do.

  • Are all three parts of the introductory statement included and stated clearly?

Findings or Results : Presents the findings clearly and concisely with the most important results first. Tables and other information not needed by all readers are, of course, attached separately.

  • Are the findings or results clearly indicated and easy to locate on the page?

Conclusions and Recommendations : Presents the significant implications and recommendations for action (if—and only if—conclusions and recommendations have been asked for).

  • If the report contains conclusions and recommendations, are they clearly presented and easily located on the page?

Format Considerations: Make headings and mark your key points so that your readers can quickly survey the contents and find what they want.

  • Are the headings throughout the report adequate?
  • Are key points marked?
  • Are your strongest arguments first when writing a persuasive document?

How to Write Any Type of Letter

Matt Ellis

Everyone should know how to write a letter, whether a business inquiry, email, personal letter, or letter-format social media post. Letter writing is a useful skill, not only for communicating clearly, but also for making a good impression—especially a first impression. 

Below we explain how to write a proper letter, no matter the type you need. We’ll cover the correct format for a formal letter, such as a cover letter or job inquiry, as well as tips for writing a personal letter, with some helpful examples of each. 

Polish your letter writing. Grammarly helps you communicate confidently Write with Grammarly

How to write a letter

Here are some quick steps for how to write a letter:

  • Choose your format (email, paper and mail, etc.)
  • Write your contact information and date at the top if you’re using block style (see below). 
  • On a new line write a salutation, such as “Dear Ms. Smith,” or “To Whom It May Concern.” 
  • Write the body of your letter in a standard paragraph format. 
  • On a new line write a complimentary close, such as “Sincerely,” or “Best,” 
  • Sign your name under the complimentary close.

What type of letter should you write?

There are no hard-and-fast rules. The most suitable letter format depends on your audience. For a friend or close relative, a casual message or informal letter is usually the best way to go. There are different types of letters that are appropriate for this format. Some include:

  • Handwritten letters
  • Emailed letters
  • Typed social media messages

However, for business contacts or people you don’t know well, a typed formal letter is almost always the most appropriate choice. When used for professional purposes, writing a formal letter is effective for the following:

  • Cover letters
  • Letters of intent
  • Value proposition letters
  • Business memorandum letters
  • Promotion letters
  • Reference letters
  • Resignation letters
  • Thank you letters

These are just some of the types of letters that you might need to write in a casual or professional environment. Before writing a letter, consider the type of letter you need: formal or informal. Each has a distinct format you’ll want to follow.

Formal letter writing: block style vs. AMS style

Formal letters—like cover letters, business inquiries, and urgent notifications— are some of the most important letters you’ll ever have to write. Because they’re sometimes used as official documents, formal letters have a very precise structure and particular format. In fact, there are a few different “correct formats” to choose from.

The most common formats for formal letter writing are block style and American Mathematical Society, or AMS, style. In the example below, we use block style, specifically full block style, because it’s the most popular. Block style is characterized by all elements being aligned on the left margin of the page. This includes the first lines of paragraphs, which don’t use indentation. 

AMS is fairly similar, following many of the same rules as block style. There are a few differences, however, which we briefly cover after the next section. 

How to write a formal letter in block style

Step 1: write the contact information and date .

All formal letters start with the contact information and date . In the full block style, this goes in the upper left-hand corner. 

First, as the sender, type your full name and address aligned to the left side, just as you would when addressing an envelope. This isn’t just a formality, but a useful inclusion so the recipient can easily find your contact information when they want to respond. 

If you’re writing on official company letterhead that already includes this information, you do not need to rewrite the contact information. 

After your address, skip a line and then add the date you’re writing the letter. 

Last, skip a line again and add the recipient’s name and full address. Feel free to include their job title below their name if it’s relevant. Leave a blank line after the contact information before writing the salutation. 

Step 2: Write the salutation

Formal letters always have a greeting at the beginning of the written content as a cue that your message is about to begin. This is known as the salutation. 

Most salutations begin with “Dear” and then the name of the recipient. All salutations use title capitalization and end in a comma . 

If you don’t know the name of the receiver, you can also use a job title or even the department name, for example, “Dear HR Representative.” As a last resort, you can use the generic salutation “To Whom It May Concern” in any circumstance. Try to avoid “Dear Sir or Madam,” as it’s a little outdated . 

Step 3: Write the body of the letter

This is where you write your message. The body of the letter follows the normal rules of grammar , so write it as you would any other formal document. The one exception for full block style is that you do not indent the first lines of paragraphs . 

Unlike personal letters, formal letters are straightforward and direct , so don’t be afraid to get straight to the point . Some formal letters are only a sentence or two long, although others can go on for paragraphs if there’s a lot of information to convey. The important thing is that you stay focused and avoid tangential topics. 

Although different company cultures have different communication standards, it’s a safe bet to avoid casual phrasing and jokes; some even advise against using contractions . It should go without saying, but don’t use slang, profanity, or other inappropriate language. 

If your letter covers a lot, it’s best to include a closing paragraph at the end to summarize everything the recipient needs to know. As always, don’t forget to edit and proofread the body of the letter before sending. 

Step 4: Write the complimentary close

Formal letters also use a standard complimentary close or sign-off, similar to the salutation, before ending with an authentic signature. 

One of the most common closers is “Sincerely,” including some variations like, “With sincere gratitude,” or “ Sincerely yours .” Other common sign-offs include “Best,” and “Yours.” Unlike salutations, closers use sentence capitalization. Always capitalize the first letter of your complimentary close, but only the first letter. And just like the salutation, always end with a comma . 

If you’re sending a paper letter, skip a few lines after your complimentary close—this is where you sign your name. Additionally, always type your name below the signature , along with your job title if relevant. When sending an email or other digital letter, you don’t have to leave a blank line before you type your full name. 

Step 5: Mention enclosed materials

This last step is necessary only if you’re sending additional materials with the letter, such as a résumé or CV, application, voucher, etc. If you’re sending only the letter, disregard this step. 

After your printed name and optional job title (under your signature), skip a line and then write “Enclosure:” followed by a list of the materials you’ve included. For example, if you were including a résumé, you would write “Enclosure: Résumé.” This is simply a precaution so the recipient doesn’t miss anything or, if they need to, can verify that something was lost in shipping. 

Formal letter example (block style)

Detective Inspector G. Lestrade

35 Victoria Embankment

London, England SW1A 2JL, UK

July 1, 1888

Mr. Sherlock Holmes

221B Baker St.

London, England NW1 6XE, UK

Dear Mr. Holmes,

On behalf of the London police force, we request your presence at New Scotland Yard at your earliest convenience. We have a case that requires your special expertise, and we’d prefer to discuss the details in person, considering the sensitivity of the information. Any time before the end of the month is acceptable. 

G. Lestrade

Detective Inspector

Enclosure: Visitor pass

How to write a formal letter in AMS style

For the most part, AMS style uses the same rules and guidelines as block style, including enclosures, so you can follow the steps above regardless of the style you use. However, there are two major differences in AMS style that you need to be aware of: 

  • Don’t leave a blank line between the sender’s full address and the date. The date comes directly underneath the address. 
  • AMS style always uses a subject line in place of or before the salutation. The subject line should be written in all caps and summarize the content of the letter in no more than a single line, such as “YOUR PRESENCE IS REQUESTED AT SCOTLAND YARD.” As with salutations, leave a blank line before and after the subject line. 

Formal letter example (AMS style)

London, England SW1A 2JL, UK 


Dear Mr. Holmes, 

How to write an informal letter

True to their name, informal letters are a lot more casual than formal letters. That means there aren’t nearly as many rules and guidelines, and no one will mind if you don’t leave a blank space in the right spot. 

Still, there is a correct format that people are familiar with, so follow the steps below as a bare minimum. 

Step 1: Put the date at the top (optional)

Putting the date at the top of a letter is a custom stemming from a time when letter writing was the primary means of communication. Nowadays, including the date is no longer a necessity, but some people still do it because of tradition. In informal letters, it’s completely optional. 

Just like formal letters, informal letters start with a polite greeting to the recipient. The standard format is the same: the word “Dear” followed by the person’s name, as in “Dear Mr. Lestrade,” using title capitalization. 

However, informal letters provide more freedom when it comes to what you say in your greeting, and it’s not uncommon to see casual greetings like, “Hi [Name],” or “Hello [Name].” 

As with salutations in formal letters, you normally end your greeting with a comma and then skip a line before beginning the body of the letter. Occasionally you see people end the salutation with an exclamation point, depending on their relationship with the recipient. 

The body of the letter is where you write your message, and informal letters are often meant to share news or keep in touch. They tend to have a conversational tone, which means you’re free to include slang and whatever language you use when speaking in person. 

While tangents are more permissible in informal letters, going off topic excessively can still bother the reader. Try to stay focused as best you can without sounding restrained—informal letters are supposed to be personal, after all. 

Informal letters also use a complimentary close before the signature, following the same format as formal letters. That includes using sentence capitalization (capitalizing only the first letter), adding a comma at the end, and leaving enough space to sign your name if you’re sending a paper letter. 

However, you don’t need to stick with the conventional sign-offs like “Sincerely.” If you’re writing a personal letter, you can use something more sentimental depending on the relationship with the recipient, such as “Love,” “Warm regards,” or “See you soon.”

Informal letter example

July 2, 1888

What’s up, Lestrade!?

It’s Sherlock! So stoked to receive your letter. Of course I’ll come to Scotland Yard ASAP, no worries. 

Sherlock “Best Detective Ever” Holmes 

PS stands for postscript . It’s something you add at the last minute after the letter is complete, usually either minor news or something small you forgot when writing the body of the letter. Typically, you don’t use postscripts in formal letters; if you need to add something, you’ll have to revise the whole document to include the new information.

When writing a postscript, simply write the letters “PS” and then your message. It doesn’t matter if you use periods or not (“PS” and “P.S.” are both acceptable), but both letters should always be capitalized. 

If you have more than one postscript, simply add another P to the beginning of each new PS. For example, your second postscript should be labeled “PPS.” and your third postscript should be “PPPS.”

PS. Rob got the position at Great Company! Thanks for all the support during his unemployment.

PPS. I have to cancel my birthday party, but we’re still getting together for drinks that night if you want to come. 

The envelope

In the United States, the maximum weight for a first-class letter is 3.5 ounces. If your letter is more than three pages or you’ve written it on heavy paper, you’ll have to weigh it to make sure it meets the requirements. The size and shape of the envelope matter too. It has to be rectangular and smaller than roughly 6 by 11 inches, or you run the risk of the post office returning it.

Sending a letter

After you’ve determined that the envelope is the right kind, now you just have to mail it. (If it’s a personal letter, you can always deliver it yourself. In that case, just write the intended recipient’s name on the outside of the envelope. A bonus of hand delivery? You can use any size or shape envelope you want!)

In the top left-hand corner, write your name and address or attach a mailing label. In the center of the envelope, carefully write the name and address of the recipient. Besides the state abbreviation and zip code, international letters should include the country for both the destination and return addresses. 

Postage rates vary. Check the US Postal Service website for current prices or use a Forever Stamp for US destinations. Postage goes on the top right-hand corner of the envelope. 

Double-check that everything is correct on the outside of the envelope. If it is, fold your letter and insert it neatly. Don’t seal it until you’re sure that you’ve included every page you intend to send.

Letter-writing tips 

Still not sure how to write a proper letter? Keep these letter-writing tips in mind to help you communicate with confidence. 

Offer pleasantries

While personal letters naturally tend to use a friendly tone, formal letters, too, can benefit from pleasantries and polite etiquette. A simple phrase like “How are you?” or “I hope you’re well” at the beginning of a letter can help connect the sender and recipient, even if the subject matter is strictly business. 

Likewise, you can also express sympathy, regret, support, or gratitude in both formal and informal letters. Aside from mere etiquette, these pleasantries establish a personal connection that separates your letters from those written by machines. 

Write for your reader

As with all writing, modify your language to accommodate your specific reader. If you’re writing a formal letter to a business associate, be professional and courteous. If you’re writing a personal letter to an old friend, feel free to crack jokes and use slang. 

Sometimes the lines blur—a “formal letter” to a work friend might be more casual than a “personal letter” to a distant relative. Keep in mind the specific reader as you write to strike the right tone. If you’ve never met the recipient before, stick to courteous formality. 

Include all necessary information

If you have a lot of information to convey, make a small list beforehand to make sure you cover everything. Treat this like a mini-outline to make sure nothing slips through the cracks. 

This is especially important for invitations or letters about scheduling events. Make sure you clearly state the essential facts—particularly where and when —as well as other need-to-know information, like directions or special requirements. 

Doesn’t it feel good sending a letter you’ve carefully prepared? Certainly, a well-written letter has the best chance of accomplishing its purpose. To make sure your letter really shines, it’s critical that it be mistake-free and set the right tone. Grammarly’s writing assistance catches things like spelling and grammatical mistakes, and Grammarly Premium includes formatting suggestions and guidance that can help you write clear, easy-to-follow letters that hold your recipient’s attention. By using Grammarly, you can write your letter with confidence, wherever you type!

This article was originally written by Jennifer Calonia in 2020. It’s been updated to include new information.

writing a report letter

writing a report letter

Ultimate Guide on How to Write a Report Tips and Sample

writing a report letter

Defining a Report

A report is a type of writing that represents information, data, and research findings on a specific topic. The writer is expected to deliver a well-structured, credible, and informative text that dives into the small details of a certain topic, discussing its benefits and challenges.

Reports serve many important purposes. They provide recorded facts and findings. They are used to analyze data and draw insights that can be used for decision-making. Some reports serve as compliance checks to ensure that organizations meet certain standards and requirements. Also, reports are a formal way to communicate valuable information to decision-makers and stakeholders.

A report paper can be academic or about sales, science, business, etc. But unlike other texts, report writing takes much more than getting acquainted with the subject and forming an opinion about it. Report preparation is the most important stage of the writing process. Whether you are assigned to write an academic or a sales paper, before you start writing, you must do thorough research on the topic and ensure that every source of information is trustworthy.

Report writing has its rules. In this article, we will cover everything from how to start a report to how to format one. Below you will find a student research report sample. Check our paper writer service if you want one designed specifically for your requirements.

Student Research Report Sample

Before you read our article on how to write an act essay , see what an informative and well-structured report looks like. Below you will find a sample report that follows the format and tips we suggested in the article.

Explore and learn more about comprehensive but concise reports.

What are the Report Types

As mentioned, there are plenty of different types of report papers. Even though they are very formal, academic reports are only one of many people will come across in their lifetime. Some reports concentrate on the annual performance of a company, some on a project's progress, and others on scientific findings.

Next, we will elaborate more on different sorts of reports, their contents, and their purpose. Don't forget to also check out our report example that you can find below.

report types

Academic Reports

An academic report represents supported data and information about a particular subject. This could be a historical event, a book, or a scientific finding. The credibility of such academic writing is very important as it, in the future, could be used as a backup for dissertations, essays, and other academic work.

Students are often assigned to write reports to test their understanding of a topic. They also provide evidence of the student's ability to critically analyze and synthesize information. It also demonstrates the student's writing skills and ability to simply convey complex findings and ideas.

Remember that the report outline will affect your final grade when writing an academic report. If you want to learn about the correct report writing format, keep reading the article. If you want to save time, you can always buy essays online .

Project Reports

Every project has numerous stakeholders who like to keep an eye on how things are going. This can be challenging if the number of people who need to be kept in the loop is high. One way to ensure everyone is updated and on the same page is periodic project reports.

Project managers are often assigned to make a report for people that affect the project's fate. It is a detailed document that summarizes the work done during the project and the work that needs to be completed. It informs about deadlines and helps form coherent expectations. Previous reports can be used as a reference point as the project progresses.

Sales Reports

Sales reports are excellent ways to keep your team updated on your sales strategies. It provides significant information to stakeholders, including managers, investors, and executives, so they can make informed decisions about the direction of their business.

A sales report usually provides information about a company's sales performance over a precise period. These reports include information about the revenue generated, the total number of units sold, and other metrics that help the company define the success of sales performance.

Sales report preparation is a meticulous job. To communicate information engagingly, you can put together graphs showing various information, including engagement increase, profit margins, and more.

Business Reports

If you were assigned a business report, something tells us you are wondering how to write a report for work. Let us tell you that the strategy is not much different from writing an academic report. A Strong thesis statement, compelling storytelling, credible sources, and correct format are all that matter.

Business reports can take many forms, such as marketing reports, operational reports, market research reports, feasible studies, and more. The purpose of such report writing is to provide analysis and recommendations to support decision-making and help shape a company's future strategy.

Most business reports include charts, graphs, and other visual aids that help illustrate key points and make complex information easy to digest. 

Scientific Reports

Scientific reports present the results of scientific research or investigation to a specific audience. Unlike book reports, a scientific report is always reviewed by other experts in the field for its accuracy, quality, and relevance.

If you are a scientist or a science student, you can't escape writing a lab report. You will need to provide background information on the research topic and explain the study's purpose. A scientific report includes a discussion part where the researcher interprets the results and significance of the study.

Whether you are assigned to write medical reports or make a report about new findings in the field of physics, your writing should always have an introduction, methodology, results, conclusion, and references. These are the foundation of a well-written report.

Annual Reports

An annual report is a comprehensive piece of writing that provides information about a company's performance over a year. In its nature, it might remind us of extended financial reports.

Annual reports represent types of longer reports. They usually include an overview of a company's activities, a financial summary, detailed product and service information, and market conditions. But it's not just a report of the company's performance in the sales market, but also an overview of its social responsibility programs and sustainability activities.

The format of annual report writing depends on the company's specific requirements, the needs of its stakeholder, and the regulation of the country it's based.

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Report Format

As we've seen throughout this article, various types of reports exist. And even though their content differs, they share one essential element: report writing format. Structure, research methods, grammar, and reference lists are equally important to different reports.

Keep in mind that while the general format is the same for every type, you still need to check the requirements of the assigned report before writing one. School reports, lab reports, and financial reports are three different types of the same category.

We are now moving on to discuss the general report format. Let's direct our attention to how to start a report.

Title : You need a comprehensive but concise title to set the right tone and make a good impression. It should be reflective of the general themes in the report.

Table of Contents : Your title page must be followed by a table of contents. We suggest writing an entire report first and creating a table of content later.

Summary : The table of contents should be followed by an executive report summary. To create a comprehensive summary, wait until you have finished writing the full report.

Introduction : A major part of the report structure is an introduction. Make sure you convey the main idea of the report in just a few words. The introduction section must also include a strong thesis statement.

Body : The central part of your work is called the report's body. Here you should present relevant information and provide supported evidence. Make sure every paragraph starts with a topic sentence. Here you can use bullet points, graphs, and other visual aids.

Conclusion : Use this part to summarize your findings and focus on the main elements and what they bring to the table. Do not introduce new ideas. Good report writing means knowing the difference between a summary and a conclusion.

Recommendations : A report is designed to help decision-makers or provide crucial information to the conversation, including a set of goals or steps that should be taken to further advance the progress.

Appendices : As a finishing touch, include a list of source materials on which you based the information and facts. If you want your report to get acknowledged, don't neglect this part of the report format.

How to Write a Report Like a PRO

Mastering the report writing format is only a fraction of the job. Writing an exceptional report takes more than just including a title page and references.

Next, we will offer report-writing tips to help you figure out how to write a report like a PRO. Meanwhile, if you need someone to review your physics homework, our physics helper is ready to take on the job.

report like a pro

Start With a Strong Thesis

A strong thesis is essential to a good paper because it sets the direction for the rest. It should provide a well-defined but short summary of the main points and arguments made in the report.

A strong thesis can help you collect your thoughts and ensure that the report has a course and a coherent structure. It will help you stay focused on key points and tie every paragraph into one entity.

A clear thesis will make your report writing sound more confident and persuasive. It will make finding supporting evidence easier, and you will be able to effectively communicate your ideas to the reader.

Use Simple Wording

Reports are there to gather and distribute as much information to as many people as possible. So, the content of it should be accessible and understandable for everyone, despite their knowledge in the field. We encourage you to use simple words instead of fancy ones when writing reports for large audiences.

Other academic papers might require you to showcase advanced language knowledge and extensive vocabulary. Still, formal reports should present information in a way that does not confuse.

If you are wondering how to make report that is easy to read and digest, try finding simpler alternatives to fancy words. For example, use 'example' instead of 'paradigm'; Use 'relevant' instead of 'pertinent'; 'Exacerbate' is a fancier way to say 'worsen,' and while it makes you look educated, it might cause confusion and make you lose the reader. Choose words that are easier to understand.

Present Only One Concept in Each Phrase

Make your reports easier to understand by presenting only one concept in each paragraph. Simple, short sentences save everyone's time and make complex concepts easier to digest and memorize. 

Report writing is not a single-use material. It will be reread and re-used many times. Someone else might use your sales report to support their financial report. So, to avoid confusion and misinterpretation, start each paragraph with a topic sentence and tie everything else into this main theme.

Only Present Reliable Facts

You might have a strong hunch about future events or outcomes, but a research report is not a place to voice them. Everything you write should be supported by undisputed evidence.

Don't forget that one of the essential report preparation steps is conducting thorough research. Limit yourself to the information which is based on credible information. Only present relevant facts to the topic and add value to your thesis.

One of our report writing tips would be to write a rough draft and eliminate all the information not supported by reliable data. Double-check the credibility of the sources before finalizing the writing process.

Incorporate Bullet Points

When writing a research report, your goal is to make the information as consumable as possible. Don't shy away from using visual aids; this will only help you connect with a wider audience.

Bullet points are a great way to simplify the reading process and draw attention to the main concepts of the report. Use this technique in the body part of the report. If you notice that you are writing related information, use bullet points to point out their relation.

Incorporating bullet points and other visual aids in your report writing format will make a report easy to comprehend and use for further research.

While you are busy coming up with effective visual aids, you may not have enough time to take care of other assignments. Simply say, ' write my argumentative essay ,' and one of our expert writers will answer your prayer.

Review the Text for Accuracy and Inconsistencies

After completing report preparation and writing, ensure you don't skip the final stage. Even the greatest writers are not immune to grammatical mistakes and factual mix-ups.

Reviewing what you wrote is just as important as the research stage. Make sure there are no inconsistencies, and everything smoothly ties into the bigger scheme of events. Look out for spelling mistakes and word count.

If you want to further advance your writing skills, read our article about how to write a cover letter for essay .

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Some academic assignments ask for a ‘report’, rather than an essay, and students are often confused about what that really means.

Likewise, in business, confronted with a request for a ‘report’ to a senior manager, many people struggle to know what to write.

Confusion often arises about the writing style, what to include, the language to use, the length of the document and other factors.

This page aims to disentangle some of these elements, and provide you with some advice designed to help you to write a good report.

What is a Report?

In academia there is some overlap between reports and essays, and the two words are sometimes used interchangeably, but reports are more likely to be needed for business, scientific and technical subjects, and in the workplace.

Whereas an essay presents arguments and reasoning, a report concentrates on facts.

Essentially, a report is a short, sharp, concise document which is written for a particular purpose and audience. It generally sets outs and analyses a situation or problem, often making recommendations for future action. It is a factual paper, and needs to be clear and well-structured.

Requirements for the precise form and content of a report will vary between organisation and departments and in study between courses, from tutor to tutor, as well as between subjects, so it’s worth finding out if there are any specific guidelines before you start.

Reports may contain some or all of the following elements:

  • A description of a sequence of events or a situation;
  • Some interpretation of the significance of these events or situation, whether solely your own analysis or informed by the views of others, always carefully referenced of course (see our page on Academic Referencing for more information);
  • An evaluation of the facts or the results of your research;
  • Discussion of the likely outcomes of future courses of action;
  • Your recommendations as to a course of action; and
  • Conclusions.

Not all of these elements will be essential in every report.

If you’re writing a report in the workplace, check whether there are any standard guidelines or structure that you need to use.

For example, in the UK many government departments have outline structures for reports to ministers that must be followed exactly.

Sections and Numbering

A report is designed to lead people through the information in a structured way, but also to enable them to find the information that they want quickly and easily.

Reports usually, therefore, have numbered sections and subsections, and a clear and full contents page listing each heading. It follows that page numbering is important.

Modern word processors have features to add tables of contents (ToC) and page numbers as well as styled headings; you should take advantage of these as they update automatically as you edit your report, moving, adding or deleting sections.

Report Writing

Getting started: prior preparation and planning.

The structure of a report is very important to lead the reader through your thinking to a course of action and/or decision. It’s worth taking a bit of time to plan it out beforehand.

Step 1: Know your brief

You will usually receive a clear brief for a report, including what you are studying and for whom the report should be prepared.

First of all, consider your brief very carefully and make sure that you are clear who the report is for (if you're a student then not just your tutor, but who it is supposed to be written for), and why you are writing it, as well as what you want the reader to do at the end of reading: make a decision or agree a recommendation, perhaps.

Step 2: Keep your brief in mind at all times

During your planning and writing, make sure that you keep your brief in mind: who are you writing for, and why are you writing?

All your thinking needs to be focused on that, which may require you to be ruthless in your reading and thinking. Anything irrelevant should be discarded.

As you read and research, try to organise your work into sections by theme, a bit like writing a Literature Review .

Make sure that you keep track of your references, especially for academic work. Although referencing is perhaps less important in the workplace, it’s also important that you can substantiate any assertions that you make so it’s helpful to keep track of your sources of information.

The Structure of a Report

Like the precise content, requirements for structure vary, so do check what’s set out in any guidance.

However, as a rough guide, you should plan to include at the very least an executive summary, introduction, the main body of your report, and a section containing your conclusions and any recommendations.

Executive Summary

The executive summary or abstract , for a scientific report, is a brief summary of the contents. It’s worth writing this last, when you know the key points to draw out. It should be no more than half a page to a page in length.

Remember the executive summary is designed to give busy 'executives' a quick summary of the contents of the report.


The introduction sets out what you plan to say and provides a brief summary of the problem under discussion. It should also touch briefly on your conclusions.

Report Main Body

The main body of the report should be carefully structured in a way that leads the reader through the issue.

You should split it into sections using numbered sub-headings relating to themes or areas for consideration. For each theme, you should aim to set out clearly and concisely the main issue under discussion and any areas of difficulty or disagreement. It may also include experimental results. All the information that you present should be related back to the brief and the precise subject under discussion.

If it’s not relevant, leave it out.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The conclusion sets out what inferences you draw from the information, including any experimental results. It may include recommendations, or these may be included in a separate section.

Recommendations suggest how you think the situation could be improved, and should be specific, achievable and measurable. If your recommendations have financial implications, you should set these out clearly, with estimated costs if possible.

A Word on Writing Style

When writing a report, your aim should be to be absolutely clear. Above all, it should be easy to read and understand, even to someone with little knowledge of the subject area.

You should therefore aim for crisp, precise text, using plain English, and shorter words rather than longer, with short sentences.

You should also avoid jargon. If you have to use specialist language, you should explain each word as you use it. If you find that you’ve had to explain more than about five words, you’re probably using too much jargon, and need to replace some of it with simpler words.

Consider your audience. If the report is designed to be written for a particular person, check whether you should be writing it to ‘you’ or perhaps in the third person to a job role: ‘The Chief Executive may like to consider…’, or ‘The minister is recommended to agree…’, for example.

A Final Warning

As with any academic assignment or formal piece of writing, your work will benefit from being read over again and edited ruthlessly for sense and style.

Pay particular attention to whether all the information that you have included is relevant. Also remember to check tenses, which person you have written in, grammar and spelling. It’s also worth one last check against any requirements on structure.

For an academic assignment, make sure that you have referenced fully and correctly. As always, check that you have not inadvertently or deliberately plagiarised or copied anything without acknowledging it.

Finally, ask yourself:

“Does my report fulfil its purpose?”

Only if the answer is a resounding ‘yes’ should you send it off to its intended recipient.

Continue to: How to Write a Business Case Planning an Essay

See also: Business Writing Tips Study Skills Writing a Dissertation or Thesis

How To Write A Report For A Formal Or Academic Occasion?


If you are immersed in academic, research, or the business world, it is likely that sooner or later (or even right now), you will have to face the task of report writing. Therefore, knowing how to write a report can save your life.

Here you can find a practical guide which will help you know the appropriate techniques needed in writing a report so that it will comply with standards. If you follow these steps to the letter, you will not only learn the art of making a report, but you will be the best at it.

What Is Report Writing?

Before getting into a subject and teaching you  how to write a good paper , you need to know clearly what you are facing. Therefore, the first thing is to delve a bit into the concept and define it.

A formal report or report essay is a text written in prose form, exposing the results of an investigation, a business process, or the analysis of a particular topic.

This type of report is used as an expository tool in different areas such as business, scientific, literary, or even in the legal field.

A report paper aims to present the reader with an analysis of results in the framework of an investigation, with special emphasis on the conclusions and processes that led to a certain result.

In the business area, brief reports are used to account for progress in different processes within the company or to disclose timely information requested by external entities.

Types Of Reports

There are various types of reports from projects or business to lab reports, let’s take a look at these two generic types.

Business Or Project Report

Business report writing is an assignment which the writer or researcher is required to analyze a situation while using standard management theories to arrive at some recommendations for an improved result.

An example, within a business organization, can be when workers are evaluated or when another company is studied. In essence, we can have a report as a tool used in a research study or in a scientific field.

Academic Report

Another general type is an academic report. These could be book reports, movie reviews, research, and even lab reports.

Academic reports are different from other types with one of the reasons being that they must be written and structured according to a recommended style format such as APA or MLA.

Report Writing Format And Style

If your teacher or instructor doesn’t state otherwise, APA or AP is the best formatting style for writing academic and business reports or other journalistic writings.

Also, the best type of writing style used for producing reports is the formal type. To achieve this, you may want to steer clear of the active voice and use the passive voice more. The active voice sound subjective. Meanwhile, report writing is supposed to be objective and devoid of personal opinions and views.

Report Structure

To write an effective report, you must choose and maintain a certain structure. Check out the correct way to structure your paper.

Executive Summary

Executive summaries are frequently used more in business reports than academic ones. They are used in situations where the entire report is voluminous. Like a newspaper news article, the writer or researcher seeks to capture the entire gist in a few paragraphs before presenting the full paper.

The introduction is the presentation of your report where you must explain in brief words what the work is about. To make an effective introduction, you must answer these questions: what, how, where, and why. If you answer each of these questions and join them with logical connectors, you will surely have a great introduction.

Body Paragraphs

In developing the body paragraphs, you have to expose the subject in the most accurate way possible, explaining the results found through the use of clear arguments.

The body is dedicated to the analysis of the facts. Then, you move on to the synthesis, that is, to the phase which you interpret what happened and get the useful indications for the future.

Finally, you must finalize the text of the document with the conclusions. You take stock of all your work. The conclusion, as the name implies, is the synthesis of what is addressed in your report. Try to write brief conclusions that summarize the most relevant points of the topic addressed

The appendix cannot be mistaken for references, citations, or the bibliography. Appendices, in short, are added text which necessarily aren’t the main idea raised in the article, but are important in the making of the written report.

In principle, to write a report, you can use this standard structure:

  • Introduction
  • Presentation of the subject treated
  • Motivations for choosing the topic
  • Purpose of the work
  • Phases and hours of work
  • People involved in the work and their role
  • Body paragraphs
  • Presentation of the aspects examined
  • Methods followed
  • Work evaluation
  • Possible difficulties encountered
  • Final reflections on the evidence that emerged from the document
  • Proposals for the future

Important Report Writing Tips

Before you begin a report,  there are some talking points, tips and report writing skills such as fact gathering,  persuasive writing technique , theoretical knowledge, etc. which you must observe or put into practice even before getting the report prompt. Check them out:

  • Choose your goal well

It will seem trivial to start from here, but the result you want to obtain from your report is really the axis of everything. So, before writing a single line of the report, you should ask yourself: “What is the goal I want to achieve? What is the message I want to convey?

  • Put yourself in the role of the recipient

This suggestion is not only valid when a report is written. More generally, it’s worth it for every time you sit down and write any kind of document. Putting yourself in the shoes of your recipient is essential: it helps you process the information contained in your report, to make it more understandable.

  • Make a list of the things you need to write

Before writing your report, you should know what issues to touch. In summary: writing a report does not make sense if you do not know where you want to go and how. Take a sheet and write on it what are the topics of the project and the order it touches them. It is about choosing the topic to start from, the central topics and the concepts on which to build the end of the report.

  • Search authorized sources

Writing a report means being as objective as possible. In fact, this type of document is an analysis of fact and not a creative history. Therefore, your sources must be reliable and objective. You must mention them in the text of your report: they should be based on truth.

  • Be simple, clear and concrete

For your reader, you have an obligation to be extremely clear. Here are some tips on how to be more understandable and, consequently, on how to write a report that is more effective:

  • Write short sentences
  • Use simple language
  • Avoid subordinates: force the reader and eliminate concentration
  • Be clear, precise, concrete: avoid whirling words full of smoke
  • Avoid a baroque or presumptuous style
  • Avoid any technical jargon, unless the report is read by those who understand it
  • Use tables and charts

Writing a report means exposing facts in a concrete way. And what is better to support facts than a graph or table? Therefore, use these elements to clarify and give even more concreteness to the things you write in your report.

  • Insert photos and images

Images and photographs are much more intuitive than words. This also applies when you need to write a report. Therefore, in your reports, insert photographs or images to document, clarify, and exemplify.

  • Format the report text

Writing a report also needs giving it a nice look. This means formatting your text appropriately. For example:

  • Choose the most appropriate format for maximum readability, both in case the document is printed or read on a monitor.
  • Highlight the most important words and concepts in bold.
  • Use numbered and bulleted lists for item lists.
  • Divide the text into blocks to avoid an unpleasant effect that makes the text look like a single wall.
  • Choose an effective title: A very important point of writing a report is what title to give the document. The title must be absolutely clear, you must say what the report contains. You must not be lazy or use word games. Probably, the best time to choose the title is at the end of the report, when the work is finished, and everything is clear.
  • Use summaries

If your report is long, it should be divided into chapters. In this case, the use of abstracts is recommended. A summary is a short text, a hundred or two hundred words maximum, which is placed at the beginning of each chapter and explains to the reader what you will find in that part of the report.

  • Read the document carefully

Re-reading what is written is an important phase of writing a report. Verify especially that there are no errors in spelling, grammar, or syntax in the report. Also, verify that the sentences are logically linked to each other. In addition, the topic of each sentence should always be clearly expressed.

  • Take care of your spelling. Any text loses its seriousness if it has spelling errors.
  • Before you start writing your report, you can make summaries to find your main ideas.
  • Create a template where you put in words and the things you should say. This will help you at the time of writing to develop your ideas.
  • In case you include specific data of an investigation, book, press release, or other documents that have a copyright, you must quote properly and include a bibliography.

To be a successful report writer, you must to know the concept and the various types. Report writing has a definitive structure and style to follow, as already revealed in this article. Try to follow them correctly, and you’d be assured of a great report paper.

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Apr 24, 2023

How to send a report in an email with 8 samples and a template

Writing report emails is a solid skill and something easy to learn for everyone. Here we outline the report email format and provide 8 samples that you can use straight away.

Blog writer

Lawrie Jones

Table of contents

We all love reports, right?

Regular reporting is critical for keeping companies working hard and achieving objectives.

They're a great way to show we've accomplished something, and that's worth shouting about!

So if you've spent time collating figures and creating a report, make sure to craft a clear report email to deliver it.

A professional report email offers insights into the information, provides crucial context, and clarifies any issues that need attention. Writing report emails is a solid skill and easy for everyone to learn.

Report emails follow a standard format with a logical structure that's simple to master — and we will show you how.

In this guide to writing report emails, we outline the report message format and provide 8 samples you can use immediately.

How to write a report email

Before we explain how to send a report, here's what not to do...

Inexperienced emailers will create long messages which go into a massive amount of detail to prove they've done something. This is a rookie error that takes time and wastes effort.

Effective reports emails should provide the following (and nothing more):

  • Details of what the report is (and why it matters)
  • Dates, times, and information covered in the report
  • A breakdown of key issues (in professional terms, this is called a precis)
  • Highlight any problems, anomalies, challenges, or successes
  • Set out the next steps

This provides a simple snapshot of essential information for your boss, customer, or client.

Following this format works because you're adding value to the email, sifting through it to provide what they need.

If they want more, they can read the report, right?

But how do you deliver this information? Thankfully, there's a widely accepted format which we outline below (you're welcome!).

Report email format

The report email format provides a standard structure to introduce your report, include all the details above, offer contact details for further conversations, and include a polite and professional sign-off.

To make it as simple as possible, we can break down the report email format into three parts:

  • Report email subject line
  • Report email body
  • How to end a report email

1. Report email subject lines

Keep your report email subject lines as easy to follow as possible. It's essential to outline what's included in the email. You can also add extra information, such as the dates or times covered and any actions you may require.

Here are some report email subject line examples:

  • Daily report – (Insert date)
  • May Progress Report & Project Update
  • Monthly Sales Report – Month –
  • (Time/Date) Incident Report – Action Required
  • Urgent Incident Report – PLEASE READ

2. Report email body copy

We'll assume that if you send someone a report, they'll know who you are and why you're messaging. This enables us to ignore some (but not all) pleasantries associated with professional emails.

We still start each message with a professional greeting (Hi, Hello, etc.) along with the person's name, and then hit them with the purpose of the message:

  • Attached here is my daily activity report. This covers the date (insert date).

As we've explained above, it's worth providing a short breakdown of what's included:

  • To make it easy, I've outlined some of the key things you should know here:
  • (Bullet points are a great way to list information)

3. Ending a report email

You've delivered the detail, data, and information, so your job is almost done.

At the end of each email, it's polite to offer the chance to chat about the report and its contents:

  • I'm happy to provide any additional information or answer any questions you might have about this report. You can contact me at (insert details).

Now, finish with a professional sign-off (kind regards, yours, etc.), and you're (nearly) done.


We've all rushed off an email and hit send without remembering to send the related documents . No matter how great your report messages are, they're worthless without the attachment!

8 report email examples

Understanding how to write a report email and doing it are two different things, which is why reviewing our samples is so important.

In this section, we share 8 report email samples and an explanation about each email, including what we include and why.

Check out these report email messages and learn how to put these principles into practice. We break these samples into subsections covering monthly reports, daily reports, and incident reports.

How to write a monthly report email

Monthly reports are a major headache for many of us, but at least writing emails should now be much simpler.

Our monthly report sample messages make it clear what's being included and pick out the highlights for your time-poor boss.

1. Sample email to send a monthly report

Monthly reports can include performance, sales, and attendance figures. Your boss will be expecting your monthly statement, so we highlight the essentials and leave them to read the report for more info.

  • Insert your highlights

2. Monthly working hours report email sample

Logging your hours is the most important email you'll send each month because it'll ensure you get paid.

Like the report email sample above, we provide a breakdown of the essential information your boss will need to know. We also push for the next steps – such as getting your salary sorted out and payment date.

3. Monthly performance report email sample

Performance reports are a chance to highlight what's gone well and what could be improved. In this monthly performance report email sample, we skip over the details and keep things short and sweet.

How to write a daily report email

The daily report email format is similar to those used to send a monthly report. However, you can make some minor tweaks to ensure it's the right length. Given that you'll be sending these every day (the clue is in the name), it's worth developing a template you can use. This will provide consistency your boss will welcome and cut down massively on time spent creating them.

How do you create a template? Here are two daily report samples to get you started...

4. Sample email to send daily report

This daily report email sample focuses more on details and completed tasks. In contrast, the previous monthly report sample focuses more on the bigger picture and outcomes that were accomplished.

  • Add your tasks...
  • ...but don't include everything

5. Daily activity report sample email to boss

Activity reports provide a snapshot of everything you've achieved that day. It could cover calls answered, clients messaged, deliveries made, or something else. This sample provides a standard and formal way to deliver your activity report. You can cut and paste this each day; just remember to fill in the gaps.

Sample emails for submitting a report

Depending on your job, you may be required to send special reports at some time. Examples can include incident reports, inventory logs, and bug reports.

These are different from the transactional messages above but will require some context, explanation, and information about the next steps. Check out the samples below to see how this is done.

6. Incident report email sample

If you've identified a fault or experienced an outage, you'll need to provide an incident report. These reports clarify the causes of an incident, its impact, and the actions you're taking to ensure it never happens again.

7. Inventory report email sample

Inventory reports provide details on the stocks and supplies you have in your business (and those that are running low!). Here's how to write an email to send an inventory report

  • Item name + quantity needed

8. Bug report email sample

Next time you find a pesky bug affecting software, use this sample email for a bug report. Raising awareness of bugs is great, but your customer or colleague will want to know what action you're taking to fix the problem.

Report email template

If the report email samples here aren't hitting the spot, this template is what you need. This customizable report email template can be cut, pasted, edited, and updated to suit your circumstances.

  • List out your key points

Writing report emails using Flowrite's AI-assisted email writer is the fastest way to do your duty of sending reports. This is how it works:

Our Chrome extensions works where you work (Gmail, Outlook, WhatsApp, etc.) so you can stay efficient while working on your reports.

Final report

OK, so now we are on the same page.

While writing report emails isn't exciting, they are pretty easy, so they shouldn't take too long to create (especially if you use our samples or customizable template).

The core of an excellent report email is the same as any piece of professional correspondence: being clear, consistent, and conveying essential information as quickly as possible.

Write it, send it, and get on with the rest of your day.

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19+ Report Writing Examples

report writing examples

Selecting Your Topic

Understand the assignment., choose a good topic that you love., pick an original topic., keep in mind that you can change your topic., hypertext adventures: computer-assisted teaching of technical report writing in delft.

hypertext adventures computer assisted teaching of technical report writing in delft

Report writing on Comparative Study on the Indian Stock Market

report writing on comparative study on indian stock market

Report Writing: Formal

formal report writing

Formal Report Format

formal report format

Example of a Written Report

example of a written report

Definition of a Report

definition of a report

Researching Your Topic

Research your topic.  , visit the library and make sure your online sources are reputable., keep track of all of the information you find., sample report writing with framework and some hints.

sample report writing

Report on Light Water Nuclear Reactions

Report writing by doug knight.

report writing by doug knight

Reporting all about Elephants Example

elephant reporting example

Pre-writing for Your Report

Come up with a thesis statement., create an outline., 5 report writing stages.

5 stages of reporting

Structure of a Formal Report Example

structure of a formal report example

Rubric for Writing a Report

rubric for writing a report

What Is a Report? (with definitions)

what is a report with definitions

Parts of a Report

parts of a report

Writing a Report with Some Steps in Doing So

writing a report with some steps in doing so

Writing Your Report

Write your introduction., write your body paragraphs..

  • Example topic sentence for Thesis 1 : At the PPIE, the Court of the Universe was the heart of the exposition and represented the greatest achievements of man, as well as the meeting of the East and the West.
  • For a report that is about a person, a topic sentence might be something like, “John Doe had a rough childhood that shaped who he became.” Obviously you would put in more specific information relevant to the person you are reporting about.

Support your topic sentence.

  • For the topic sentence listed above about the Court of the Universe, the body paragraph should go on to list the different exhibits found at the exhibit, as well as proving how the Court represented the meeting of the East and West.
  • For a report about a person, you would provide evidence that proved John Doe had a hard childhood and that his experiences led him to become the famous person he was.

Write your conclusion.

Cite your sources.  , programme outline report example.

programme outline report example

Different Kinds of Reports

different kinds of reports

Minutes of the Formal Meeting Report

minutes of the formal meeting report

Writing Accident Reports in Manufacturing

writing accident reports in manufacturing

Finalizing Your Report

Get someone else to read your report., proofread your report., read your report out loud., more design, 10+ expense report examples & samples, 12+ financial report examples, samples, how to write a progress report, 10+ audit report examples & samples, 7+ activity report examples , samples, 12+ management report examples, samples, how to write a short report, 39+ inspection report examples, 8+ internship report writing examples in pdf, 10+ quality report examples, samples.


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Report Writing

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  • Updated on  
  • Nov 4, 2023

Report Writing

The term “report” refers to a nonfiction work that presents and/or paraphrases the facts on a specific occasion, subject, or problem. The notion is that a good report will contain all the information that someone who is not familiar with the subject needs to know. Reports make it simple to bring someone up to speed on a subject, but actually writing a report is far from simple. This blog will walk you through the fundamentals of report writing, including the structure and practice themes.

This Blog Includes:

What is a report, reporting formats, newspaper or magazine reports, business reports, technical reports, what is report writing, report writing: things to keep in mind, structure of report writing, magazine vs newspaper report writing format, report writing format for class 10th to 12th, report writing example, report writing for school students: practice questions, report writing slideshare.

  • Report Writing in 7 steps

Also Read: Message Writing

A report is a short document written for a particular purpose or audience. It usually sets out and analyses a problem often recommended for future purposes. Requirements for the precise form of the report depend on the department and organization. Technically, a report is defined as “any account, verbal or written, of the matters pertaining to a given topic.” This could be used to describe anything, from a witness’s evidence in court to a student’s book report.

Actually, when people use the word “report,” they usually mean official documents that lay out the details of a subject. These documents are typically written by an authority on the subject or someone who has been tasked with conducting research on it. Although there are other forms of reports, which are discussed in the following section, they primarily fulfil this definition.

What information does reporting contain? All facts are appreciated, but reports, in particular, frequently contain the following kinds of information:

  • Information about a circumstance or event
  • The aftereffects or ongoing impact of an incident or occurrence
  • Analytical or statistical data evaluation
  • Interpretations based on the report’s data
  • Based on the report’s information, make predictions or suggestions
  • Relationships between the information and other reports or events

Although there are some fundamental differences, producing reports and essays share many similarities. Both rely on facts, but essays also include the author’s personal viewpoints and justifications. Reports normally stick to the facts only, however, they could include some of the author’s interpretation in the conclusion.

Reports are also quite well ordered, frequently with tables of contents of headers and subheadings. This makes it simpler for readers to quickly scan reports for the data they need. Essays, on the other hand, should be read from beginning to end rather than being perused for particular information.

Depending on the objective and audience for your report, there are a few distinct types of reports. The most typical report types are listed briefly below:

  • Academic report: Examines a student’s knowledge of the subject; examples include book reports, historical event reports, and biographies.
  • Identifies data from company reports, such as marketing reports, internal memoranda, SWOT analyses, and feasibility reports, that is useful in corporate planning.
  • Shares research findings in the form of case studies and research articles, usually in scientific publications.

Depending on how they are written, reports can be further categorised. A report, for instance, could be professional or casual, brief or lengthy, and internal or external. A lateral report is for persons on the author’s level but in separate departments, whereas a vertical report is for those on the author’s level but with different levels of the hierarchy (i.e., people who work above you and below you).

Report formats can be as varied as writing styles, but in this manual, we’ll concentrate on academic reports, which are often formal and informational.

Also Read: How to Write a Leave Application?

Major Types of Reports

While the most common type of reports corresponds to the ones we read in newspapers and magazines, there are other kinds of reports that are curated for business or research purposes. Here are the major forms of report writing that you must know about:

The main purpose of newspaper or magazine reports is to cover a particular event or happening. They generally elaborate upon the 4Ws and 1H, i.e. What, Where, When, Why, and How. The key elements of newspaper or magazine report writing are as follows:

  • Headline (Title)
  • Report’s Name, Place, and Date
  • Conclusion (Citation of sources)

Here is an example of a news report:

Credit: Pinterest

Business reports aim to analyze a situation or case study by implementing business theories and suggest improvements accordingly. In business report writing, you must adhere to a formal style of writing and these reports are usually lengthier than news reports since they aim to assess a particular issue in detail and provide solutions. The basic structure of business reports includes:

  • Table of Contents
  • Executive summary
  • Findings/Recommendations

The main purpose of the technical report is to provide an empirical explanation of research-based material. Technical report writing is generally carried out by a researcher for scientific journals or product development and presentation, etc. A technical report mainly contains 

  • Introduction
  • Experimental details
  • Results and discussions
  • Body (elaborating upon the findings)

Must Read: IELTS Writing Tips

A report is a written record of what you’ve seen, heard, done, or looked into. It is a well-organized and methodical presentation of facts and results from an event that has already occurred. Reports are a sort of written assessment that is used to determine what you have learned through your reading, study, or experience, as well as to provide you with hands-on experience with a crucial skill that is often used in the business.

Before writing a report, there are certain things you must know to ensure that you draft a precise and structured report, and these points to remember are listed below:

  • Write a concise and clear title of the report.
  • Always use the past tense.
  • Don’t explain the issue in the first person, i.e. ‘I’ or ‘Me’. Always write in the third person.
  • Put the date, name of the place as well as the reporter’s name after the heading.
  • Structure the report by dividing it into paragraphs.
  • Stick to the facts and keep it descriptive.

Must Read: IELTS Sample Letters

The format of a report is determined by the kind of report it is and the assignment’s requirements. While reports can have their own particular format, the majority use the following general framework:

  • Executive summary: A stand-alone section that highlights the findings in your report so that readers will know what to expect, much like an abstract in an academic paper. These are more frequently used for official reports than for academic ones.
  • Introduction: Your introduction introduces the main subject you’re going to explore in the report, along with your thesis statement and any previous knowledge that is necessary before you get into your own results.
  • Body: Using headings and subheadings, the report’s body discusses all of your significant findings. The majority of the report is made up of the body; in contrast to the introduction and conclusion, which are each only a few paragraphs long, the body can span many pages.
  • In the conclusion, you should summarize all the data in your report and offer a clear interpretation or conclusion. Usually, the author inserts their own personal judgments or inferences here.

Report Writing Formats

It is quintessential to follow a proper format in report writing to provide it with a compact structure. Business reports and technical reports don’t have a uniform structure and are generally based on the topic or content they are elaborating on. Let’s have a look at the proper format of report writing generally for news and magazines and the key elements you must add to a news report:

To Read: How to Learn Spoken English?

The report writing structure for students in grades 10 and 12 is as follows.

  • Heading :  A title that expresses the contents of the report in a descriptive manner.
  • Byline : The name of the person who is responsible for drafting the report. It’s usually included in the query. Remember that you are not allowed to include any personal information in your response.
  •  (introduction) : The ‘5 Ws,’ or WHAT, WHY, WHEN, and WHERE, as well as WHO was invited as the main guest, might be included.
  • The account of the event in detail : The order in which events occurred, as well as their descriptions. It is the primary paragraph, and if necessary, it can be divided into two smaller paragraphs.
  • Conclusion : This will give a summary of the event’s conclusion. It might include quotes from the Chief Guest’s address or a summary of the event’s outcome.

Credit: sampletemplates.com

Credit: SlideShare

Now that you are familiar with all the formats of report writing, here are some questions that you can practice to understand the structure and style of writing a report.

  • You are a student of Delhi Public School Srinagar handling a campus magazine in an editorial role. On the increasing level of global warming, write a report on the event for your school magazine. 
  • On the Jammu-Srinagar highway, a mishap took place, where a driver lost his control and skidded off into a deep gorge. Write a report on it and include all the necessary details and eyewitness accounts. 
  • As a reporter for the Delhi Times, you are assigned to report on the influx of migrants coming from other states of the country. Take an official statement to justify your report.
  • There is a cultural program in Central Park Rajiv Chowk New Delhi. The home minister of India is supposed to attend the event apart from other delegates. Report the event within the 150-200 word limit. 
  • Write today’s trend of COVID-19 cases in India. As per the official statement. include all the necessary details and factual information. Mention the state with a higher number of cases so far.
  • In Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in New Delhi, a table tennis tournament was held between Delhi Public School New Delhi and DPS Punjab. Report the event in 250-300 words.

Also Read: Formal Letter Format, Types & Samples

Credits: Slideshare

Report Writ ing in 7 steps

  • Choose a topic based on the assignment
  • Conduct research
  • Write a thesis statement
  • Prepare an outline
  • Write a rough draft
  • Revise and edit your report
  • Proofread and check for mistakes

Make sure that every piece of information you have supplied is pertinent. Remember to double-check your grammar, spelling, tenses, and the person you are writing in. A final inspection against any structural criteria is also important. You have appropriately and completely referenced academic work. Check to make sure you haven’t unintentionally, purposefully, or both duplicated something without giving credit.

Related Articles

Any business professional’s toolkit must include business reports. Therefore, how can you create a thorough business report? You must first confirm that you are familiar with the responses to the following three questions.

Every company report starts with an issue that needs to be fixed. This could be something straightforward, like figuring out a better way to organise procuring office supplies, or it could be a more challenging issue, like putting in place a brand-new, multimillion-dollar computer system.

You must therefore compile the data you intend to include in your report. How do you do this? If you’ve never conducted in-depth research before, it can be quite a daunting task, so discovering the most efficient techniques is a real plus.

Hopefully, this blog has helped you with a comprehensive understanding of report writing and its essential components. Aiming to pursue a degree in Writing? Sign up for an e-meeting with our experts at Leverage Edu and we will help you in selecting the best course and university as well as sorting the admission process to ensure that you get successfully shortlisted.

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Ankita Mishra

A writer with more than 10 years of experience, including 5 years in a newsroom, Ankita takes great pleasure in helping students via study abroad news updates about universities and visa policies. When not busy working you can find her creating memes and discussing social issues with her colleagues.

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What is Report Writing: Format, Examples, Types & Process

  • Table of Contents

Many professionals struggle to create effective reports due to a lack of understanding of the essential elements and organization required. This can lead to frustration and a failure to communicate key information to the intended audience.

In this blog, we’ll explore what is report writing, the types of reports, essential elements, and tips for creating effective reports to help you communicate your message and achieve your goals.

Definition of report writing? 

According to Mary Munter and Lynn Hamilton, authors of “Guide to Managerial Communication,” report writing is “the process of selecting, organizing, interpreting, and communicating information to meet a specific objective.”

What is report writing? 

Report writing refers to the process of creating a document that represents information in a clear and concise manner. Reports can be written for various purposes, such as providing updates on a project, analyzing data or presenting findings, or making recommendations.

Effective report writing requires careful planning, research, analysis, and organization of information. A well-structured report should be accurate, and objective, and contain a clear introduction, body, and conclusion. It should also be written in a professional and accessible style, with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, tables, graphs, and other visual aids.

Overall, report writing is an important skill for professionals in many fields, as it helps to communicate information and insights in a clear and concise manner.

What is a report? 

A report is a formal document that is structured and presented in an organized manner, with the aim of conveying information, analyzing data, and providing recommendations. It is often used to communicate findings and outcomes to a specific audience, such as stakeholders, or managers. Reports can vary in length and format, but they usually contain a clear introduction, body, and conclusion.

What are the features of report writing

There are several key features of effective report writing that can help ensure that the information presented is clear, concise, and useful. Some of these features include:

1/ Clarity: Reports should be written in clear and concise language, avoiding jargon or technical terms that may be confusing to the reader. 

2/ Objectivity: A report should be objective, meaning that it should be free from bias or personal opinions. This is particularly important when presenting data or analysis.

3/ Accuracy: Reports should be based on reliable sources and accurate data. Information should be verified and cross-checked to ensure that it is correct and up-to-date.

4/ Structure: A report should be structured in a logical and organized manner, with clear headings, subheadings, and sections. 

5/ Visual aids: A report may include visual aids such as charts, tables, and graphs, which can help to illustrate the key points and make the information easier to understand.

6/ Evidence: Reports should include evidence to support any claims or findings, such as statistics, quotes, or references to relevant literature.

7/ Recommendations: Many reports include recommendations or suggestions for future action based on the findings or analysis presented.

Significance of report writing

Report writing is a critical skill that can have a significant impact on individuals, and organizations. In fact, a report by the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that the ability to communicate effectively, including report writing, was the most important skill sought by employers.

  • Reports provide decision-makers with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Effective report writing demonstrates professionalism and attention to detail, which can help to build trust and credibility with clients.
  • Reports can inform planning processes by providing data and insights that can be used to develop strategies and allocate resources.
  • Reports often include recommendations or suggestions for future action, which can help to improve processes, procedures, or outcomes.
Further Reading: What is the significance of report writing

Types of report writing

By understanding the different types of report writing, individuals can select the appropriate format and structure to effectively communicate information and achieve their objectives. However, the kind of report used will depend on the purpose, audience, and context of the report.

1/ Informational reports: These reports provide information about a topic, such as a product, service, or process.

Further Reading : What is an information report

2/ Analytical reports: These reports present data or information in a structured and organized manner, often with charts, graphs, or tables, to help the reader understand trends, patterns, or relationships.

3/ Formal Reports: These are detailed and structured reports written for a specific audience, often with a specific objective. In comparison with informal reports , formal reports are typically longer and more complex than other types of reports. 

4/ Progress reports: These reports provide updates on a project or initiative, detailing the progress made and any challenges or obstacles encountered. 

5/ Technical reports: These reports provide technical information, such as specifications, designs, or performance data, often aimed at a technical audience.

6/ Research reports: These reports present the findings of research conducted on a particular topic or issue, often including a literature review, data analysis, and conclusions.

7/ Feasibility Report: A feasibility report assesses the likelihood of achieving success for a suggested project or initiative.

8/ Business Reports: These reports are used in a business setting to communicate information about a company’s performance, operations, or strategies. Different types of business reports include financial statements, marketing reports, and annual reports.

Structure of report writing 

The structure of a report refers to the overall organization and layout of the report, including the sections and subsections that make up the report, their order, and their relationships to each other. A report can we divided into three parts. 

Preliminary Parts:

  • Acknowledgments (Preface or Foreword)
  • List of Tables and Illustrations
  • Introduction (clear statement of research objectives, background information, hypotheses, methodology, statistical analysis, scope of study, limitations)
  • Statement of findings and recommendations (summarized findings, non-technical language)
  • Results (detailed presentation of findings with supporting data in the form of tables and charts, statistical summaries, and reductions of data, presented in a logical sequence)
  • Implications of the results (clearly stated implications that flow from the results of the study)
  • Summary (brief summary of the research problem, methodology, major findings, and major conclusions)

End Matter:

  • Appendices (technical data such as questionnaires, sample information, and mathematical derivations)
  • Bibliography of sources consulted.

This structure provides a clear and organized framework for presenting a research report, ensuring that all important information is included and presented in a logical and easy-to-follow manner.

Extra Learnings Role of a report structure in report writing  The report structure plays a crucial role in report writing as it provides a clear and organized framework for presenting information in an effective and logical manner. It ensures that the reader can easily understand the purpose and scope of the report, locate and access the relevant information.  The preliminary parts of the report, provide an overview of the report and aid navigation. The main text makes it easier for the reader to comprehend and analyze the information. And The end matter provides additional details and sources for reference. An organized report structure also helps the author to communicate their research and ideas effectively to the intended audience.

What is the report writing format? 

The format of report writing refers to the structure of a formal document that provides information on a particular topic or issue. The format typically includes several components that must be there in the report to provide specific subjects in an organized and structured format. 

8 Essential elements of report writing are: 

1/ Title page: This includes the title of the report, the author’s name, the date of submission, and other relevant information.

2/ Table of contents: The table of contents lists the report’s primary sections and subsections, together with their corresponding page numbers.

3/ Executive summary: An executive summary gives a concise summary of the report, emphasizing the significant conclusions and recommendations.

4/ Introduction: This provides background information on the topic or issue, explains the purpose and scope of the report, and outlines the methodology used.

5/ Main body: This is where the bulk of the information is presented, usually divided into several sections and sub-sections. The main body may include data, analysis, and discussion of the topic or issue.

6/ Conclusion: This Summarizes the primary discoveries of the report and offers conclusions or recommendations accordingly.

7/ References: This lists the sources cited in the report, following a particular citation style such as APA, MLA, or Chicago.

8/ Appendices: This includes any additional materials such as charts, tables, graphs, or other supporting data.

The specific format and structure of a report may vary depending on the purpose, audience, and type of report.

Report writing examples and samples


Example of Progress Report


The essential process of report writing

Report writing requires careful planning, organization, and analysis to ensure that the report effectively communicates the intended message to the audience. Here are the general steps involved in the process of report writing:

Plan and prepare:

  • Identify the purpose of the report, the target audience, and the scope of the report.
  • Collect and examine data from different sources, including research studies, surveys, or interviews.
  • Create an outline of the report, including headings and subheadings.

Write the introduction:

  • Start with a brief summary of the report and its purpose.
  • Provide background information and context for the report.
  • Explain the research methodology and approach used.

Write the main body:

  • Divide the report into logical sections, each with a clear heading.
  • Present the findings and analysis of the research in a clear and organized manner.
  • Use appropriate visual aids, such as tables, graphs, or charts to present data and information.
  • Utilize a language that is both clear and Brief, and avoid using unnecessary jargon or technical terminology.
  • Cite all sources used in the report according to a specified citation style.

Write the conclusion:

  • Summarize the main findings and conclusions of the report.
  • Restate the purpose of the report and how it was achieved.
  • Provide recommendations or suggestions for further action, if applicable.

Edit and revise:

  • Review the report for errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
  • Check that all information is accurate and up-to-date.
  • Revise and improve the report as necessary.

Format and present:

  • Use a professional and appropriate format for the report.
  • Include a title page, table of contents, and list of references or citations.
  • Incorporate headings, subheadings, and bullet points to enhance the report’s readability and facilitate navigation.
  • Use appropriate fonts and sizes, and ensure that the report is well-structured and visually appealing.

Important Principles of report writing

To write an effective report, it is important to follow some basic principles. These principles ensure that your report is clear, concise, accurate, and informative. In this regard, here are some of the key principles that you should keep in mind when writing a report:

1/ Clarity: The report should be clear and easy to understand. 

2/ Completeness: The report should cover all the relevant information needed to understand the topic

3/ Conciseness: A report should be concise, presenting only the information that is relevant and necessary to the topic. 

4/ Formatting: The report should be properly formatted, with consistent fonts, spacing, and margins

5/ Relevance: The information presented in the report should be relevant to the purpose of the report.

6/ Timeliness: The report should be completed and delivered in a timely manner.

7/ Presentation: The report should be visually appealing and well-presented.

Extra Learnings Styles of report writing When it comes to the style of report writing, it’s important to use hard facts and figures, evidence, and justification. Using efficient language is crucial since lengthy reports with too many words are difficult to read. The most effective reports are easy and quick to read since the writer has comprehended the data and formulated practical recommendations. To achieve this, it’s important to write as you speak, avoid empty words, use descending order of importance, use an active voice, and keep sentences short. The goal should be to write to express and not to impress the reader.  It’s also important to get facts 100% right and to be unbiased and open. By following these tips, one can create a well-written report that is easy to understand and provides valuable insights.

Differences between a report and other forms of writing

Reports are a specific form of writing that serves a distinct purpose and have unique characteristics. Unlike other forms of writing, such as essays or fiction, reports are typically focused on presenting factual information and making recommendations based on that information. Below we have differentiated report writing with various other forms of writing.

Essay vs report writing

Project writing vs report writing, research methodology vs report writing, article writing vs report writing, content writing vs report writing, business plan vs report writing, latest topics for report writing in 2023.

The possibilities for report topics may depend on the goals and scope of the report. The key is to choose a topic that is relevant and interesting to your audience, and that you can conduct thorough research on in order to provide meaningful insights and recommendations.  

  • A market analysis for a new product or service. 
  • An evaluation of employee satisfaction in a company. 
  • A review of the state of cybersecurity in a particular industry. 
  • A study of the prevalence and consequences of workplace discrimination. 
  • Analysis of the environmental impact of a particular industry or company. 
  • An assessment of the impact of new technology or innovations on a particular industry or sector. 

Report writing skills and techniques 

Effective report writing requires a combination of skills and techniques to communicate information and recommendations in a clear, and engaging manner.

From organizing information to tailoring the report to the intended audience, there are many factors to consider when writing a report. By mastering these skills and techniques, you can ensure that your report is well-written, informative, and engaging for your audience. Some of the primary ones are: 

1/ Organization and structure: Structure your report in a logical and organized manner with headings and subheadings.

2/ Use of data and evidence: Present objective data and evidence to support your findings and recommendations.

3/ Audience awareness: Tailor your report to the needs and interests of your intended audience.

4/ Effective visuals: Use graphs, charts, or other visuals to communicate complex information in a clear and engaging way.

5/ Editing and proofreading: Carefully edit and proofread your report to ensure it is error-free and professional.

6/ Tone: Use a professional and objective tone to communicate your findings and recommendations.

7/ Time management: Manage your time effectively to ensure you have enough time to research, write, and revise your report.

Tips for effective report writing

  • Understand your audience before you start writing. 
  • Start with an outline and cover all the important points. 
  • Employ clear and concise language.
  • Utilize headings and subheadings to organize your report.
  • Incorporate evidence and examples to support your points.
  • Thoroughly edit and proofread your report before submission.
  • Follow formatting guidelines If your report has specific formatting requirements.
  • Use visuals to enhance understanding.

What is the ethical consideration involved in report writing 

Ethical considerations play a crucial role in report writing. The accuracy of the information presented in the report is of utmost importance, as it forms the basis for any conclusions or recommendations that may be made. In addition, it is essential to avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the original sources of information and ideas. 

Another crucial ethical consideration is confidentiality, particularly when the report contains sensitive or confidential information. It is important to safeguard this information and prevent its disclosure to unauthorized individuals.

Avoiding bias in report writing is also crucial, as it is essential to present information in an objective and unbiased manner. In cases where research or data collection is involved, obtaining informed consent from human subjects is a necessary ethical requirement.

By taking these ethical considerations into account, report writers can ensure that their work is fair, accurate, and respectful to all parties involved.

Common mistakes in report writing 

There are several common mistakes that students and report writers make in report writing. By avoiding these common mistakes, students as well as report writers can create effective and impactful reports that are clear, accurate, and objective.

1/ Writing in the first person: Often, students and report writers commit an error by writing in the first person and utilizing words such as “I” or “me. In reports, it is recommended to write impersonally, using the passive voice instead.

2/ Using the wrong format: Reports should use numbered headings and subheadings to structure the content, while essays should have a clear line of argument in their content.

3/ Failing to introduce the content: The introduction of the report should introduce the content of the report, not the subject for discussion. It is important to explain the scope of the report and what is to follow, rather than explaining what a certain concept is.

4/ Missing relevant sections: Students and report writers, often miss out on including relevant sections that were specified in the assignment instructions, such as a bibliography or certain types of information. This can result in poor interpretation.

5/ Poor proofreading: Finally, not spending enough time proofreading the reported work can create unwanted mistakes. Therefore, It is important to proofread and correct errors multiple times before submitting the final report to avoid any mistakes that could have been easily corrected.

By avoiding these common mistakes, students and report writers can improve the quality of their reports. 

What are some challenges of report writing and how to overcome them

Report writing can be a challenging task for many reasons. Here are some common challenges of report writing and how to overcome them:

1/ Lack of clarity on the purpose of the report: To overcome this challenge, it is important to clearly define the purpose of the report before starting. This can help to focus the content of the report and ensure that it meets the needs of the intended audience.

2/ Difficulty in organizing ideas: Reports often require a significant amount of information to be organized in a logical and coherent manner. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to create an outline or flowchart to organize ideas before beginning to write.

3/ Time management: Writing a report can be time-consuming, and it is important to allow sufficient time to complete the task. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to create a timeline or schedule for the various stages of the report-writing process.

4/ Writer’s block: Sometimes writers may experience writer’s block, making it difficult to start or continue writing the report. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to take a break, engage in other activities or brainstorming sessions to generate new ideas.

5/ Difficulty in citing sources: It is important to properly cite sources used in the report to avoid plagiarism and maintain credibility. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to use citation management tools, such as EndNote or Mendeley, to keep track of sources and ensure accurate referencing.

6/ Review and editing: Reviewing and editing a report can be a challenging task, especially when it is one’s own work. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to take a break before reviewing the report and seek feedback from others to gain a fresh perspective.

By being aware of these challenges and taking proactive steps to overcome them, report writers can create effective and impactful reports that meet the needs of their intended audience.

Best Software for writing reports 

Report writing software has made it easier for writers to produce professional-looking reports with ease. These software tools offer a range of features and functionalities, including data visualization, collaboration, and customization options. In this section, we will explore some of the best report-writing software available:

1/ Tableau : This tool is great for creating interactive and visually appealing reports, as it allows users to easily create charts, graphs, and other data visualizations. It also supports data blending, which means that you can combine data from multiple sources to create more comprehensive reports.

2/ Zoho reporting : This tool is designed to help users create and share professional-looking reports quickly and easily. It offers a variety of customizable templates, as well as a drag-and-drop interface that makes it easy to add data and create charts and graphs.

3/ Bold Reports by Syncfusion : This tool is designed specifically for creating reports in .NET applications. It offers a wide range of features, including interactive dashboards, real-time data connectivity, and customizable themes and templates.

4/  Fast Reports : This tool is a reporting solution for businesses of all sizes. It allows users to create reports quickly and easily using a drag-and-drop interface and offers a variety of templates and customization options. It also supports a wide range of data sources, including databases, spreadsheets, and web services.

Further Reading : 10+ Best Report Writing Software and Tools in 2023

What is the conclusion of report writing

The conclusion of report writing is the final section of the report that summarizes the main findings, conclusions, and recommendations. It should tie together all the different sections of the report and present a clear and concise summary of the key points. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE has given an inverted introduction framework that can use used for writing effective conclusions for reports. 


Example of conclusion in report writing:

The implication of the above diagram can be explained with the following example:  


Social media has revolutionized the marketing landscape, providing new opportunities for brands to connect with their target audience.


However, the complexities and limitations of social media mean that it is unlikely to completely replace traditional marketing methods. The role of the marketing professional remains crucial in ensuring that social media strategies align with the company’s overall goals and effectively reach the desired audience.


Automated tools cannot fully account for the nuances of human communication or provide the level of personalization that consumers crave. Therefore, the most effective marketing strategies will likely blend social media tactics with traditional marketing channels.

4. CONCLUDING STATEMENT [restating thesis]:

In conclusion, while social media presents significant opportunities for brands, the expertise of marketing professionals is still essential to creating successful campaigns that achieve desired outcomes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1) what is report writing and example.

Ans: Report writing involves preparing a structured document that delivers information to a particular audience in a clear and systematic manner. An example of a report could be a business report analyzing the financial performance of a company and making recommendations for improvement.

Q2) What is report writing and types of reports?

Ans: The act of presenting information in an orderly and structured format is known as report writing. Reports come in different types, such as analytical reports, research reports, financial reports, progress reports, incident reports, feasibility reports, and recommendation reports.

Q3) What are the 5 steps of report writing

The five steps of report writing, are as follows:

  • Planning: This involves defining the purpose of the report, determining the audience, and conducting research to gather the necessary information.
  • Structuring: This step involves deciding on the structure of the report, such as the sections and subsections, and creating an outline.
  • Writing: This is the stage where the actual writing of the report takes place, including drafting and revising the content.
  • Reviewing: In this step, the report is reviewed for accuracy, coherence, and effectiveness, and any necessary changes are made.
  • Presenting: This final step involves presenting the report in a clear and professional manner, such as through the use of headings, visuals, and a table of contents.

Q4) What is a report in short answer? 

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Structure of a Report and Sample Report in Letter Format

A report helps the business organization to make its strategy. Every kind of report has a particular structure so, a detailed discussion about the structure of a report as well as some sample reports in letter format given below:

Table of Contents

Structure of a Report

There are three (3) ways in which a report can be organized

  • Letter from
  • Memorandum form
  • Letter text combination form

1. Letter from:

This form is used in the case of brief and informal reports. Its main parts are:

  • Salutation;
  • Complimentary close;

The body of the letter can be divided into the following parts:

  • Introduction : Here the writer states the problem.
  • Findings : Here the finding of the investigation are presented.
  • Recommendation : After the findings, recommendations are given in the last paragraph of the body.

The sample is given below to give an idea about the structure of a report.

Sample Report in Letter Form

Sample Report in Letter Format

2. Memorandum form

Following the memorandum, form is a simple way of presenting the report. Here the formalities are not maintained. The date is mentioned at the top, it is followed by the name of the receiver, the name of the writer, and the subject of the report. Next follows the actual text and the conclusion.

A sample of the Memorandum form

3. letter text combination form.

Long and formal reports are written in the letter text combination form. This form includes three (3) major parts:

  • Introductory parts
  • The body of the report
  • Appended parts

The complete part of such report is as follows:

(i) Introductory parts

1. Title Page : It contains the title of the report, the names of the reader and report writer and the date of submission,

2. Authorization Letter : If you receive a letter authorizing you to do research and write a report, you should provide a copy of this letter after the title page. Such a letter includes objectives, the area of research, time & cost, submission date, and any other instructions.

3. Letter of Transmittal : Such a letter transmits the report to the render. Such a letter shows the date of submission of a report, the name and position of the writer, an overview of the report, an invitation for the reader’s comments, and suggestions.

4. Acknowledgment : This part appreciates the person or organizations from whom support and help were taken to produce the report.’

5. Table of Contents : The table of contents acts as a map of the report for the reader. It helps to identify particular topics.

6. List of Illustrations and Graphs : If the report contains many illustrations and graphs then such a list provides respective page numbers and titles.

7. Executive Summary or Abstract : An abstract is a summary of a report. It tells the reader what the report is about. It summarizes the important parts of the entire report. As a result, busy executives can save time as no need to read every page of the report.

(ii) The body of the Report:

1. Introduction : It is the first part of the body of the report. This part introduces the reader to the problem at hand. This part includes. Authorization for the report The need and purpose of the report.

The scope of the study with a clear description of the limitation I Statement of the problem I Developing Hypothesis Methodology to solve the problem I Definition of special terms and symbols.

2. Description : This part of the report contains all the information you have collected. The main function of this part is to present data in an organized form. It may involve charts, graphs, statistical tables with proper explanation.

3. Conclusion : The writer on the basis of facts and data, draws something as a result, such a result is the conclusion.

4. Recommendations : The recommendation is the writer’s opinion based on the conclusions of the report. Recommendations must be realistic, i.e. they should be based on the facts and events contained in the report.

(iii) Appended parts:

1. List of References : The list of references contain the complete record of any secondary sources used in the report. Such a list can be arranged alphabetically or chronologically.

2. Bibliography : A bibliography is a list of books and Journals which are consulted before or during the preparation of a report.

3. Glossary : A glossary is a list of some technical or special words with their explanation.

4. Appendix : Statistical data, charts, and diagrams that are not included in the main body of the report are included here.

5. Index : An index is an alphabetical list of subjects of the report. An index helps the reader to locate any topic easily and quickly.

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  • How to Write a Report

How to Write a Report? - Tips and Guidelines

Ever tried writing a report on some event you were a part of? What are the kind of details you think should be included in a report? Learn everything about report writing, how to write a report, the various types of reports, and the format and structure of a report in this article.

Table of Contents

What is a report, what to include in a report, types of reports, report writing format and structure, how to write a report, frequently asked questions on report writing.

A report is a document of the summary of an event, issue, or a topic. A report is never a fictional story. Writing a report aims to let the unaware readers know about a particular topic or idea. However, there is no particular definition of a report. Any discourse, written or verbal, covering a particular topic is known as a report. A report can be a courtroom confession or a child’s book report. But in general, when people talk about a report, it is more of an official document describing the facts of a topic, which is typically written by experts. The information regarding the event or topic must have enough evidence to support the statement. The data must be factually correct as it reaches various readers. A report must be written in an informative tone rather than opinionated.

A report is a document which covers all the information related to the event or topic and includes all the factual information. Therefore, the one who writes a report must ensure that all the information provided has proper evidence for the same.

The information that can be added to a report include,

  • The brief details of the event
  • Consequences and effects of the event
  • Evaluation of statistical data and analytics
  • Interpretations from the information
  • How the information is relevant to other events

There is often a lot of confusion when it comes to report writing and essay writing, although there are clear differences between them. Both essays and reports are written based on factual information; essays include the personal opinion of the author; whereas, reports stick to the facts. However, reports also include the author’s interpretation of the topic in the conclusion of the report. The only difference is that these interpretations are objective. A report is a more systematic and organised way of writing which includes headings, subheadings, etc. and makes it easier for the readers to read. Essays, on the other hand, are mostly written in a single flow without subheadings or breaks.

Reports are classified into three main types depending on the purpose or motive behind the report. The common types of reports are

  • Academic Reports: This report tests the child’s comprehension ability. It tests if the student has understood the lesson and is able to comprehend the subject matter, such as books, historical events, biographies, etc.
  • Business Reports: It can be a marketing report, work report, etc., and the main purpose of writing the business report is to identify different business strategies.
  • Scientific Reports: Share research findings like case studies and journals.

The structure of a report depends on the type of report and the requirements of the report. The basic format for writing a report is mentioned below.

  • Executive Summary: Like an abstract in any academic paper, an executive summary is a standalone section of the report that summarises the whole of the report so that the readers know what to expect. These are mostly used in official reports.
  • Introduction: The introduction of the report plays a crucial role as it includes the main idea of the report. The main argument is discussed in the introduction before you put your points and the evidence is collected.
  • Body: The body comes after the introduction of the report. It includes all the information regarding the event or the topic. All the facts and evidence collected can be displayed in the body of the report. The body covers the major part of a report.
  • Conclusion: It is the part of a report where all the information is gathered together, and your personal opinion or judgement is explained in this paragraph.

A report can be written easily if you have adequate information and you know how to categorise your points. You can follow to the tips provided below to write a report.

  • Finding a suitable topic
  • Conducting a research
  • Gathering all the information
  • Writing a thesis statement
  • Preparing an outline
  • Writing the final report
  • Reviewing and revising
  • Editing and proofreading

Let us look at each of these in detail.

Finding a Suitable Topic

Before you can start writing your report, it is crucial to find the topic you wish to write on. In most cases, the topic is already given, and if not, you can find a suitable topic for the same. To find the topic, you must keep in mind that you must be interested in the topic and must be able to collect the required information.

Conducting a Research

Whatever the kind of report, academic, business, news, etc., healthy research must be conducted. Research is essential to find adequate information regarding the topic. Since a report includes all the factual data, extensive research is essential. It is essential to find the right evidence to prove your topic.

Gathering all the Information

After you are done with your research, you can jot down all the points at a place and note down all the facts collected. After collecting the information, you can decide on the subheadings and divide them as per their categories.

Writing a Thesis Statement

A thesis statement is written to conceptualise the main theme of the report. Just like the first sentence or the topic of the report, the thesis statement summarises the main points in brief.

Preparing the Outline

Preparing an outline of a report is essential for all the kids who are writing a report because you can categorise your important points and it becomes easy for you to decide on the headings and subheadings. It is essential to prepare the outline so that you do not miss out on the important points.

Writing the Final Report

After you have prepared the rough draft, you can start writing the final report. The final report must be written in simple language and in short sentences. The sentences must be short but convey the message clearly.

Reviewing and Revising

After the final report is written, it is crucial to revise and recheck if all the information has been added and you are not missing out on important information. Make sure to check if all the information has been added under the right heading and subheading.

Editing and Proofreading

After the final revision of the report, you must check the report for any grammar , spelling, and typographical errors. It is common that while writing, you might have overlooked a lot of mistakes. Therefore, final proofreading is essential.

What is a report?

A report can be a discourse containing any information which people are not aware of. A report can be either written or verbal.

What is the purpose of a report?

The purpose of writing reports is to spread information regarding an event, topic, or idea in brief. For example, a news report is written to spread the news among the people.

What is the format of a report?

  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction

How to write a report?

  • Find a suitable topic
  • Conduct a research
  • Gather all the information
  • Write a thesis statement
  • Prepare an outline
  • Write the final report
  • Review and revise
  • Edit and proofread

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Report Writing: Format, Examples, Tips, and More

Report Writing: This article presents the latest format for Report Writing and various things related to it. Know in detail about report writing methods, format, tips, and more. This can be useful for Students of Classes 10 and 12.

writing a report letter

Report Writing : A report is a document consisting of data, facts, and statistics about a particular topic. Based on this information, an elaborative piece of writing is presented, which is known as report writing. The main basis of report writing is to use factual information to extract meaning from it. It is used in various ways by schools, organizations, media, companies, etc. Academically, it is used to report an incident, an event, or any school-related matters. Organizations and companies use it for maintaining data about employees, leaves, performance, and more. Media uses it to present information, facts, sting, bring out the wrong in the eyes of the public, report incidents, and much more. There are multiple areas where a report can be used. 

Now that you’re aware of what a report is, let us dive deep into understanding what report writing is all about.

Shiv Khera

What is report writing?

Report writing stands for formal presentation of available information, in an elaborative and well-understood manner. A report must always be formal in its tone, language, and presentation. It is a reliable piece of information since it is derived from facts and figures. Report writing is important for Class 10th and 12th students, from the exam’s point of view. Not only academically, but report writing also comes in handy for a lifetime. Thus, it is important for students to know how a report is written and it is equally important to stay updated on the formats of report writing.

Elements of report writing

As already mentioned above, a report is an exhaustive piece of information. Or a report to be good in its nature, multiple factors have to be included in it. Thus, it is important to know what goes into making a report.

  • Title Page - The title page must be concise, brief, and specific, indicating what the report is all about.
  • Table of Contents - This is a list of topics that users can find in the report along with the mention of their respective page numbers.
  • Summary - The summary of a report informs the reader about what has constituted the formation of that report and what users can draw from it.
  • Introduction - The introduction gives an overview of the report, to the readers. It explains in brief what the report is all about.
  • Discussion- It contains the main body of the report. It describes the main title in detail and presents multiple arguments backed by facts and figures.
  • Conclusion - The conclusion sums up the entire report in a whole. It presents arguments from every possible angle.
  • Recommendations - Recommendations present possible solutions for the problems/issues mentioned in the report.
  • Results- It consists of conclusions drawn from the statistics present in your report. It can also lay possible results, that may be a part of future activities.
  • References - Since the report is presented on the basis of mere facts, it is important to mention all your sources of information to prove that the report is authentic and not fabricated.

Also Read - Application Letter Writing: Format, Examples, Tips, and More

Types of report writing

Reports are written for various purposes by various sets of people. Each report is different in its kind because of the content, motive, and facts it entails. They can be classified as formal or informal reports on the basis of the occasion of writing. Some of the most common types of reports are as follows:

  • Annual reports
  • Weekly reports
  • Academic reports
  • Research reports
  • Sales and Marketing reports
  • Project reports
  • Newspaper reports
  • Magazine reports

Reports can be laid out for N number of reasons, and occasions, depending on the target audience and motive of its existence. Above mentioned types are the most commonly presented ones. Here, newspaper, academic, and magazine reports are important for us, from a student’s point of view.

Stages of Report Writing

There are mainly five stages of report writing. They are:

  • Planning- The foremost and most important step in the process of report writing is Planning. A clearly drafted plan leads to easy execution, cooperation, and timely completion of your work. Planning can tell you what all has to go in a report, in what order, and to what extent.
  • Collection of information - This is an important step in the process of report writing. Since, a report has to be backed by factual information, collection from authentic and credible sources is a burdensome task. Students should always be careful about their sources of information. Wrong sources can lead to wrong conclusions and the presentation of wrong information.
  • Organization of information - The next step is to organize your information. Whenever a report is in its initial stages, the writer is overloaded with information, credible as well as incredible. The information has to be refined as per the relevance, need, and authenticity. After refining, it has to be presented in an order which is understandable and engaging for readers. 
  • First draft - After the information has been gathered, refined, and organized, it is time to present the information. Now, comes the actual part where a report is written by utilizing all the present information. It has to be drafted in a manner that is easy to understand, factual, and formal.
  • Proofread - It is important to proofread your report for any grammatical errors, spelling mistakes, writing errors, misplacement of punctuation marks, or wrong information. The report should be made public only after it has been checked thoroughly.

Format for Report Writing

Report writing can use different formats as required by the authorities, teachers, or supervisors. But a generic format is presented here, which can be used in all aspects.

The report has to begin with a  ‘ Title Page’ . This should consist of the author's name, date of submission, name of the person to whom the submission is to be made, the title of the report, and the subject. It begins on the left side of the page in the following order:

Authors’ Name: Usually written in the middle of the page.

Date of submission:

The next page includes the ‘Table of Contents’. It can also be called an Index, presented in the form of a table. Example:

Now comes the summary which includes a short paragraph or a few paragraphs on the objectives of the report, findings of the report, the recommendation for the report, and an overview of the entire report.


Then, the introduction is presented on the next page. It introduces the topic of the report and what readers can expect. This can be summed up in a single paragraph.


Now, the report is discussed exhaustively. Different facts, figures, messages, and arguments are presented as a part of the body. It has to be formal in nature and can consist of multiple paragraphs.

Then, a methodology is laid out. Here, the methods used in research, and collection of information are mentioned in detail along with the processes.

After this, findings/results are presented to support the arguments.

Now, the report is concluded with a mention of all the important points touched on in the report.

At last, references are attached to show sources of factual information.

This is a general format of the report. In schools, news, and magazines, a report is usually presented on one page with just the important things. The format for the following is also presented below in the article.

Format of Report Writing for Class 10 and 12th

In schools, two types of reports are generally asked. They are newspaper reports and magazine reports. The format for both types is similar in nature to the format presented above, but these reports are less elaborate than the industrial reports or reports presented in an organization.

Format for a newspaper report

Heading/Headline : Title of the report

Byline : Author’s/Reporter’s name and designation

Place and Date : Place of incident and Date of publication

First Para : Consists of the news peg. The main reason for the report. Answers some basic questions like what happened, when, how, who are the concerned people involved, and where did the reporting incident take place. The first paragraph usually answers 5W’s (What, why, where, whom, and when) Two or three important ones should be answered here.

Body (Accompanying paragraphs) : The next few paragraphs must consist of details and facts related to the topic. These paragraphs should answer the rest of the W’s and an H (How did the incident take place). Usually, news reports must have some quotes from officials in these paragraphs to make the report look more authentic.

Conclusions : This is the ending paragraph, which sums up the entire story.

Format for a magazine report

The same format is followed for magazine reports. But they are usually the more informal ones and have topics different in nature than news reports. The same format is followed for magazine reports as well.

Place and date : Place of event and Date of publication

First Para : Introduces the topic and motive of the report.

Body (Accompanying paragraphs) : The introduction is accompanied by reasons, facts, figures, quotes, and other additional information related to the topic. All the information has to be arranged in a sequence.

Examples of report writing

Suppose, in an examination, a student is asked to write a report on an incident that took place in the Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. Five people lost their lives during a car accident in the city. As per reports, all five were heavily injured and found dead after 1 hour of reaching the hospital. After 20 minutes of the accident, they were rushed to a nearby government hospital. The incident took place at 5 in the morning. The accident led to a traffic jam, following which the car was removed from the road by the police superintendent of Kinnaur Police Station and his team.

                        Heading: Five killed in car accident in Kinnaur of HP

Byline: By ABC  

Place and date: Kinnaur, May 23 

First Para: Five people were killed in a car crash in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh, this morning. According to sources, the time of the accident was 5 in the morning. Victims were rushed to a nearby hospital after 20 minutes by a resident crossing by the spot of the accident. After one hour of reaching the hospital, all five people were declared dead by the senior doctor of the hospital.

The details of the accident are still awaited. No confirmation on the cause of accidents has come from the police as of now. It is being said that the traffic jam caused by the accident brought the police’s attention to the matter and the residents of the place. The Police Superintendent, along with this team, rushed to the accident spot and removed the vehicle to clear out the jam.

According to sources, accidents in the area have been increasing since the start of the month. The Police Superintendent of the Kinnaur Police Station said, “ We are trying to address this matter on priority. There has been an increase in the number of accidents since the start of this month. We have built a team of six people who will investigate the case”.

writing a report letter

Tips for Report Writing

  • Plan your report.
  • Take quotes from authorities, if necessary.
  • Use credible sources for your information.
  • Proofread before submission/publication.
  • Stick to the objective of the report.
  • Use short and simple sentences.
  • Stick to the format.
  • Use a formal tone and style of writing.
  • Research well.
  • Use an active voice.

Topics for report writing

Reports can be written on a variety of topics. Here, a few topics have been provided for students.

  • Science and Technology
  • Social issues
  • Environmental hazards, Climate change, Pollution
  • Culture and traditions
  • News/Breaking/Trending
  • Summits/Conferences
  • International and national disputes

To conclude, it is important for everyone to know the art of writing reports since it is going to be useful for every individual in life. Report writing is a tedious and exhaustive task and requires a bunch of skills such as writing, research, designing, presentation, and organization. In the corporate world, reports serve as the basis for new initiatives that bring growth to a company. Nowadays, companies hire agencies to make reports for them on the basis of heavy research. Thus, it is a useful skill to be learned by every individual.

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Joining Report Letter


Most millennials are always looking for jobs. Having a job has become a necessity in today’s society. Students start working from an early age to become independent and make their parents proud. So they give interviews at various companies and are always in search of good job opportunities. They also keep on hopping around different jobs to get some initial growth in their career. In such a case, when they get a new job offer, they have to write a joining report to the employer if they wish to accept the job offer. Writing a joining report letter is considered a mark of respect towards your employer and has become a compulsion.

Joining Report Letter

What is a Joining Report Letter?

Whenever you start a new job, you can write a letter to your employer informing him that you have accepted the job offer and are ready to start on the date mentioned. A joining letter is written in acknowledgment of the offer letter you have received from the employer. In most cases, getting a job is a very cheerful moment for a person. In such a case, you should definitely know how to write a joining report letter. Read further to get an idea of the same.

How to Write a Joining Report Letter?

A joining report letter should always be written in a formal format. Make sure you have a polite and respectful tone while writing the letter. Follow the format given below to write a joining report letter whenever you may need to write one.

  • The letter starts with the ‘From’ address, which is the sender’s address.
  • The date has to be mentioned on which the letter was written.
  • Next is the ‘To’ address, which is the address of your employer.
  • The subject of the letter-joining letter
  • A salutation is done, e.g. ‘Dear Sir/Ma’am, ‘Respected Sir/Ma’am.
  • Then the main body of the letter is written, which states the reason you are writing the letter. You have to inform your employer that you have accepted the job offer and that you are available to join from (date) on (time).
  • Express gratitude towards your employer. (I am highly obliged, appreciative, etc.)
  • End the letter with Yours faithfully, Yours sincerely, Yours truly.
  • The signature of the person sending the letter and his name in block letters.
  • The contact number of the person sending the letter
  • Email address of the person sending the letter.
  • Attach a signed copy of your offer letter and any relevant documents that may be needed by your employer.

Example: Joining Report Letter 1

Sudhir Sharma

124, Pearl Apartment

Shivaji Park


Date – 12 July 2022

H.R. Manager

Minute Made LTD.

Sub: Joining application

I am Sudhir Sharma. I am writing this letter in response to your offer letter number ED/TY/0912.

I would like to inform you that I am ready to accept the job opportunity provided by you as a junior executive in your prestigious company. I will join the company on July 15, 2022. I have signed the offer letter and have attached it with this letter.

I assure you that I will give my best at the job. I am looking forward to gaining experience and building my future in your company. I will submit all the relevant documents required on my joining day itself.

I am highly grateful for the job opportunity you have provided me with.

Yours sincerely,


Contact number – 909090××××

Email address – [email protected]


Signed Offer Letter

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Example: Joining Report Letter 2

Sudha Kumari

Raheja Building No 4

Sagar Lodge

Lucknow – 416272

Date- 4 October 2022

The Principal

St. Mary’s High School

Sub: Joining application -Sudha Kumari

Dear Ma’am,

I am Sudha Kumari, a resident of Lucknow. I am writing this letter in response to the offer letter number GH/LK1234 which was sent by you.

I would like to inform you that I have accepted the offer letter sent by you and I am ready to join your prestigious school as a primary school teacher on October 10th, 2022 at 7 a.m. I have attached a duly signed offer letter with this letter.

I am very glad that you gave me an opportunity to serve your school as a primary teacher. I assure you that I will do my absolute best to serve the school. I am looking forward to gaining a lot of experience from your school.

I have also attached all the required documents you mentioned in the offer letter. Please contact me at my phone number or email address if any documents are still required.

I am highly appreciative of the job opportunity you have provided me with.

Contact number -787878××××

Attachments –

Duly signed offer letter

SSC and HSC Mark sheets

Mark sheets for BAF and B.Ed.

Experience certificate

Relieving Letter

Aadhar card

Frequently Asked Questions on Joining Report Letters

Question 1. When is a joining report letter written and is it compulsory to write one?

Answer. Whenever you start a new job, you can write a joining report letter to your employer informing him that you have accepted the job offer and are ready to start on the date mentioned and at the time specified. It is compulsory to write a joining report letter. By doing so, you are informing the employer about your acceptance of the job offer.

Question 2. What details should we mention while writing a joining report letter?

Answer. A joining report letter is written in acknowledgment of the offer letter given to you by the employer. You have to mention the offer letter number in response to which you are writing this letter. You have to mention that you have accepted the job offer and are ready to join on (date) and (time). Also, don’t forget to mention if you have attached anything with the letter.


Letter Writing

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110 Heartwarming 'Merry Christmas' Wishes to Write in a Card

'Tis the season to share meaningful messages with your family and friends.

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Meaningful Christmas Wishes

Religious christmas wishes, romantic christmas wishes, christmas wishes for long-distance friends, christmas wishes during a hard time, christmas wishes inspired by quotes.

There are two types of people in this world: Those of us who finish their cards in October and those of us skidding over the river and through the woods to get them in the mailbox before Christmas Eve. Whichever category you fall into, once you've got the whole family to sit still long enough for festive photos , you've still got to figure out exactly what to write in a Christmas card .

The good news is there are as many options as cookies on grandma's signature platter. Whether you plan to fill your personalized DIY cards with sweet holiday sayings or prefer to go with a funny Christmas joke or pun , our list of the best Merry Christmas wishes will have something that fits the bill. A lot of these messages come from Christmas movie quotes and can do double duty as the perfect caption for your wintery Instagram posts. Here we've gathered our favorites.

Funny Christmas Wishes

  • Don we now our ugly sweaters… Let's party! Happy Holidays!
  • Christmas is the only time of year in which one can sit in front of a dead tree and eat candy out of socks. Enjoy!
  • Wishing you a white Christmas! (And when you run out of white, just open a bottle of red).
  • You’re a gift in my life. And not the kind I’d return for store credit. Merry Christmas!
  • A Christmas reminder: Don’t try to borrow any money from elves ... they're always a little short. Have a Merry Christmas!
  • Wishing you hope, peace and lots of Christmas cookies this holiday season!
  • They say the best Christmas gifts come from the heart … but cash and gift cards do wonders too! Happy Holidays!
  • Remember, Santa is watching. Everything. Yes, even that. Anyway, Merry Christmas!
  • Merry Christmas! May your happiness be large and your bills be small.
  • This holiday season, let’s make it a point to cherish what’s truly important in our lives: cookies.
  • I told Santa you were good this year and sent him a link to your Pinterest board. Merry Christmas to you !
  • This Christmas, may your family be functional and all your batteries be included.
  • Merry Christmas! I put so much thought into your gift that now it's too late to get it.
  • Please note: Christmas is canceled. Apparently, you told Santa you have been good this year … he died laughing.
  • Is it just me, or does Santa look younger every year?
  • Christmas is mostly for children. But we adults can enjoy it too , until the credit card bills arrive.
  • Eat. Drink. Be Merry. Have a wonderful Christmas!

what to write in a christmas card

  • May the Christmas Season bring only happiness and joy to you and your family.
  • The gift of love. The gift of peace. The gift of happiness. May all these be yours at Christmas.
  • Wishing you a season full of light and laughter for you and your family.
  • Best wishes for a joyous Christmas filled with love, happiness and prosperity!
  • May all that is beautiful, meaningful and brings you joy be yours this holiday season and throughout the coming year!
  • Merry Christmas! Wishing you all the happiness your holiday can hold!
  • May your holidays sparkle with joy and laughter.
  • I hope the magic of Christmas fills every corner of your heart and home with joy — now and always.
  • Our family wishes you love, joy and peace … today, tomorrow and always.
  • May your family have a holiday season that is full of wonderful surprises, treats and nonstop laughter.
  • Merry Christmas! Wishing you all the best this holiday season!
  • Wishing you a Christmas that's merry and bright!
  • We hope you have a safe and relaxing holiday season.
  • I hope your holiday season is full of peace, joy and happiness.
  • Merry Christmas with lots of love.
  • I hope your Christmas is filled with joy this year!
  • Happy Holidays! I hope all of your Christmas wishes come true.

what to write in a christmas card

  • May your heart be lifted in praise this Christmas for the wonderful gift of Jesus and the joy He brings to our lives.
  • Merry Christmas! May God richly bless you throughout the year.
  • Jesus is the reason for the season. Merry Christmas!
  • May God fill your Yuletide season and all your days with immeasurable prosperity and joy! Merry Christmas!
  • Sending prayers and hearty Christmas greetings to you. May you receive the most special of God’s blessings during this Christmas season!
  • May you have the gift of faith, the blessing of hope and the peace of His love at Christmas and always!
  • Merry Christmas! I hope you receive one blessing after another this coming year.
  • May the Lord grant you and all your loved ones peace, joy and goodwill.
  • Wishing you a season that’s merry and bright with the light of God’s love.
  • May God’s blessings be yours this Christmas.
  • May the wonder of that first Christmas, the joy of God’s abundant blessings and the peace of Jesus’ presence be with you always.
  • May the true spirit of Christmas shine in your heart and light your path.
  • Wishing you and your loved ones a blessed Christmas.
  • May God bless and keep you during the holiday season and all through the year.
  • May God bless your life with love and joy this holiday season.
  • Merry Christmas! May God's love be with you.
  • May the spirit of Christmas be with you all year round.

what to write in a christmas card

  • You’re the most magical part of the most wonderful time of the year.
  • Your love is the best Christmas gift I could ever receive. Merry Christmas, sweetheart!
  • You're the partridge to my pear tree.
  • Christmas is more magical now that you’re in my life!
  • Merry Christmas to someone who’s sweeter than a candy cane, warms me up more than a cup of hot cocoa and fills my heart with joy more than the biggest present under the tree!
  • The only thing I love more than Christmas is you.
  • It’s not what’s under the tree that matters most, it’s who’s around it. Every year I’m so grateful to have you there.
  • You put the merry in my Christmas.
  • Though we are apart, you are in my heart this Christmas.
  • Forget the mistletoe, you can kiss me anytime you like.
  • All I want for Christmas is you.
  • I'm so lucky to be spending another Christmas with you!
  • Merry Christmas! You're the best gift I could ask for.
  • Holidays like Christmas make me so grateful to share life with you.
  • Christmas is magical because we're together.

what to write in a christmas card

  • Even though we're apart, I'm sending you a special wish, a holiday hug and a mistletoe kiss!
  • Far apart during this holiday, but totally together in our hearts and minds. Merry Christmas!
  • Sending a smile across the miles for a wonderful Christmas!
  • I may not be nearby, but you are always in my mind and heart this holiday. Merry Christmas!
  • Missing you most during this festive time.
  • We may not be together on Christmas morning, but you're always in my heart.
  • I wish we could be together this holiday season, but I'm sending warm wishes your way.
  • I'll miss celebrating with you this Christmas. Eat a few extra cookies for me!
  • We may not be able to rock around the Christmas tree together, but I'll deck the halls in your honor.
  • Even though we're apart, our hearts are together.
  • Let's have a Christmas video call — I'll bring the cocoa!
  • Christmas won't be the same without you here.
  • Even though we're apart, I hope you have a joyous holiday.
  • Consider this card a raincheck for a belated Christmas hug.

what to write in a christmas card

  • May the magic of the Christmas season fill your home with joy and peace. Sending lots of love to your family.
  • You’ve had more than your share of challenges this year. Wishing you peace and hope at Christmas and a new year full of better days.
  • Sending strength, love and peace to you this holiday season.
  • My love and thoughts are with you during the Christmas season and the promise of hope it brings.
  • Hoping that the new year brings you new possibilities.
  • Wishing you love and light in this challenging season.
  • I know it's been a hard year for you and your family. I hope the New Year brings better days.
  • Our hearts are with you and yours, now and always.
  • Sending you hugs this Christmas season. Take some time to care for yourself.
  • We know you're having a difficult time this year. Wishing you strength and peace in these challenging times.
  • Sometimes the holidays can just remind us what we've lost. Remember that I'm always there for you.
  • I hope the holidays bring a chance to rest and recharge.
  • May God's love lift you up during this winter of life.
  • We're always here to support you, if you need a helping hand this holiday.
  • Warmest wishes that you can find in this shadowy time.

what to write in a christmas card

  • May this season find you among those you love, sharing in the twin glories of generosity and gratitude. — Oprah Winfrey
  • Christmas is the day that holds all time together. — Alexander Smith
  • I wish we could put up some of the Christmas spirit in jars and open a jar of it every month. — Harlan Miller
  • Christmas will always be as long as we stand heart to heart and hand in hand. — Dr. Seuss
  • One of the most glorious messes in the world is the mess created in the living room on Christmas Day. Don't clean it up too quickly. — Andy Rooney
  • Christmas isn't a season. It's a feeling. — Edna Ferber
  • A lovely thing about Christmas is that it's compulsory, like a thunderstorm, and we all go through it together. — Garrison Keillor
  • Christmas isn’t just a day. It’s a frame of mind. —Valentine Davies, Miracle on 34th Street
  • Christmas Eve was a night of song that wrapped itself about you like a shawl. But it warmed more than your body. It warmed your heart ... filled it, too, with melody that would last forever. — Bess Streeter Aldrich
  • Christmas is not an external event at all, but a piece of one’s home that one carries in one’s heart. — Freya Stark
  • I prefer the retro chic of spending Christmas just like Joseph and Mary did — traveling arduously back to the place of your birth to be counted, with no guarantee of a bed when you get there. — Tina Fey
  • I am not 100 percent certain what a sugarplum is, but for a few weeks every year I’ve got visions of them dancing in my head anyway. — Jane Green
  • The best of all gifts around any Christmas tree: the presence of a happy family all wrapped up in each other. — Burton Hills
  • Christmas is a season not only of rejoicing but of reflection. — Winston Churchill
  • My idea of Christmas, whether old-fashioned or modern, is very simple: loving others. — Bob Hope
  • Peace on earth will come to stay, when we live Christmas every day. — Helen Steiner Rice

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Human rights abuses are happening right now – start a monthly gift today.

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Human Rights Watch Letter to EU Foreign Ministers on Gaza

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Josep Borrell Fontelles, High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice President of the European Commission

Foreign Ministers of the EU member states

RE: EU position on the Gaza hostilities and the situation in Israel and Palestine

Dear High Representative / Vice-President Borrell, Dear Foreign Ministers of the EU member states,

We are writing ahead of the 13 November Foreign Affairs Council discussions on the situation in Israel and Palestine to raise a series of concerns on ongoing developments and on the EU positioning so far, and to share a list of recommendations for the EU and its member states moving forward.

The man-made humanitarian catastrophe in Gaza continues to rapidly deteriorate. The October 7 Hamas and Islamic Jihad attacks against Israeli and other civilians and their taking of scores of civilian hostages , which constitute war crimes , shocked the world with their brutality. The Israeli government’s disproportionate response – it has cut water, food, fuel and electricity to the more than 2.2 million people living in Gaza – constitutes an act of collective punishment , which is also a war crime . Human Rights Watch has documented how the Israeli authorities’ severe curtailing of humanitarian aid to Gaza have caused enormous suffering to the civilian population, harming especially women , children and people with disabilities .

Unprecedentedly heavy airstrikes by Israeli forces, which have hit schools (according to the UN), hospitals, and homes in Gaza, have turned entire blocks and large parts of neighborhoods to rubble. More than 10,000 people, including 4,008 children, have been killed since October 7, according to the Gaza Ministry for Health . 

Hamas and other Palestinian armed groups have deliberately killed civilians, taken civilians hostage and  threatened  to broadcast their execution, and launched thousands of rockets at Israeli communities. According to the Israeli government, the October 7 Hamas-led attack in Israel resulted in the killing of approximately 1,400 people, hundreds of them civilians.

Impunity for past abuses has clearly contributed to today’s violations, which show no signs of abating. Despite this, most EU governments have been silent about the critical role of the  International Criminal Court  (ICC), the only international entity  already mandated  with delivering impartial justice.

Furthermore, media reports in Israel allege that the Israeli government acknowledged consideration of a proposal to transfer Gaza’s population to Egypt. About  70% of Gaza residents are refugees , many of whom are or are descendants of those who fled or were expelled from their homes in 1948 in what is now Israel; the Israeli government has blocked them from exercising their right to return, as set out under international law . The Israeli government’s evacuation order to the civilian population in northern Gaza to move to southern Gaza could amount to the war crime of forced displacement , as would expelling the Gaza population further down into Egypt, especially if they are denied their right to return at the end of the hostilities. Israel’s and Egypt’s international partners should avoid complicity in any unlawful actions. 

The Israeli authorities’ response to the October 7 attacks has been accompanied by dehumanizing and inflammatory statements by Israeli political leaders, which suggest disregard for international humanitarian law (IHL). On 9 October, the Israeli defense minister, Yoav Gallant, said , “We are fighting human animals, and we act accordingly.” The Israeli energy minister Israel Katz, who ordered to cut electricity , fuel and water to all Gaza residents, said that “there is no reason” to provide humanitarian aid to the Palestinian people until Israeli forces “eliminate” Hamas. Even Israel’s President Issac Herzog, while saying that Israel respects international humanitarian law, said “it’s an entire nation out there that is responsible”.

Meanwhile, Palestinians in the West Bank are facing unprecedented repression. As of November 1, Israeli authorities held more than 2,000 Palestinians in administrative detention without trial or charge, the highest number in more than 30 years, according to the Israeli human rights group HaMoked . As of November 6, Israeli forces have already killed 394 Palestinians in the West Bank, more than in any other year since 2005, when the UN began systematically recording fatalities. Coercive and restrictive Israeli government policies and settler violence has also led to the displacement of more than 900 Palestinians from more than 15 communities since October 7, according to  UN OCHA .

The EU’s response to the ongoing hostilities, as well as its position on the situation in Israel and Palestine before the October 7 attacks, have exposed double standards that have raised questions about the EU’s – or at least some of its members’ – commitment to international law.

Before the attacks, no EU member state had openly recognized – let alone proposed measures to address – Israeli officials’ commission of the crimes against humanity of apartheid and persecution against Palestinians, both codified in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. The EU has provided much-needed humanitarian and development aid to the Palestinians, and focused its efforts on attempts to revive the prospects for a negotiated two states solution. But the EU took no action as subsequent Israeli governments persisted in their systematic discrimination and oppression of Palestinians and ignored repeated EU calls to halt settlement expansion, home demolitions, land confiscations and forced transfers of Palestinians. Long-standing sharp divisions among EU member states, as latest exposed in their mixed voting record on the October 27 UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution on the ongoing hostilities, have made it virtually impossible for the EU to secure the unanimity necessary to adopt any concrete measure to address the Israeli government’s systematic abuses.

After the October 7 attacks, initial statements by high-level EU representatives, such as Commission President von der Leyen and Parliament President Metsola, expressed categorial support for the Israeli government to act militarily following the Hamas-led October 7 attacks, but failed to mention the need to comply with international humanitarian law (IHL). Similar statements persisted even after the Israeli government had already cut basic supplies to Palestinians and began dropping explosive weapons with wide-area effects into densely populated Gaza, creating foreseeable risks of significant harm to civilians. Several calls were also initially made to cut EU aid to Palestinians, under the assumption that some of it could reach Hamas. Efforts by High Representative Borrell, Council President Michel and others helped rectify some of these missteps, reaching EU consensus on basic calls on the Israeli government to respect international humanitarian law and to allow for humanitarian aid to reach those in need. But the EU is yet to acknowledge and condemn collective punishment by Israeli forces in Gaza, a war crime, and to call for accountability.

The EU’s silence stands in sharp contrast with its remarkable efforts to address serious crimes in Ukraine, and with the EU’s broader commitment and efforts to advance respect for and equal application of international law, including human rights law and IHL.

That commitment and those efforts seem to vanish for many EU member states when it comes to Israel and Palestine, as also shown by their mixed voting records on the December 2022 UNGA resolution requesting an advisory opinion to the International Court of Justice on the legal consequences of Israel’s occupation.

The EU’s silence comes not only to the detriment of millions of Palestinian civilians in Gaza and in the West Bank who already have faced systematic oppression for decades, but also to the credibility of the EU vis a vis non-western states (the so-called “global south”) as a principled foreign policy actor. It also undermines the EU’s commendable efforts to lead on numerous human rights and accountability-related initiatives at the UN and other international fora. Governments that have repeatedly showed disregard for international law and attempted to weaken the international human rights system, such as China and Russia, risk taking advantage of this display of double standards.

As EU foreign ministers continue to discuss the rapidly evolving situation in Israel and Palestine and regional dynamics, Human Rights Watch recommends that the EU and individual EU member states consider the following steps:

  • Reaffirm condemnation of Hamas’s and other Palestinian armed groups’ heinous attacks of October 7 , which constitute war crimes , and reiterate calls on Hamas and other armed groups to stop their indiscriminate firing of rockets towards Israeli communities and immediately and unconditionally release all civilian hostages;
  • Continue to urge governments with influence on Hamas, including Qatar, Egypt, and Turkey, to use their leverage to press for hostages to be released as soon as possible and treated humanely until their release;
  • Condemn Israeli authorities’ cutting of food, water, fuel and electricity to the population of Gaza as collective punishment , which is a war crime, and urge Israeli authorities to remove all undue restrictions that continue to prevent urgently-needed humanitarian aid from reaching civilians in Gaza;
  • Call on the Israeli government to refrain from unlawful, indiscriminate and disproportionate use of explosive weapons with wide-area effects and white phosphorous in densely populated areas;
  • Call for accountability for serious crimes committed by all parties , voice unequivocal support for the International Criminal Court in delivering impartial justice, including in its investigation of the situation of Palestine, and commit to ensuring the ICC has the political, diplomatic and financial support it needs to carry out its global mandate;
  • Oppose unequivocally any plan to deport Gaza residents to Egypt , highlight the risk of forced displacement and emphasize Palestinian refugees’ right to return;
  • Suspend military assistance and arms sales to the Israeli government so long as its forces commit widespread, serious abuses amounting to war crimes against Palestinian civilians with impunity, and urge other governments to cease providing arms to Palestinian armed groups, including Hamas and Islamic Jihad, so long as they systematically commit attacks amounting to war crimes against Israeli civilians;
  • Recognize the need to address the root causes of the violence in Israel and Palestine , including impunity for unlawful attacks by Israeli forces and Palestinian armed groups, the Israeli government’s crimes against humanity of apartheid and persecution against the Palestinians, and the continued expansion of Israel’s settlements into Palestinian land, which is illegal under international law.

Formulating calls to respect IHL is important, but when it is being violated on a daily basis, costing the lives and the suffering of so many, it is not enough. Lack of unanimity among EU member states cannot be an excuse for inaction. Every EU government that is committed to upholding human rights and international law has a responsibility to speak up and adopt the measures listed above in its own capacity, while urging others to follow suit.

We hope you will uphold these recommendations and stand ready to discuss these issues with you at your earliest opportunity.

Yours sincerely,

Tirana Hassan

Executive Director

Human Rights Watch

Your tax deductible gift can help stop human rights violations and save lives around the world.

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  • European Union
  • Middle East/North Africa
  • Israel/Palestine

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