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  • 2. 1. Group the class into 5 groups 2. Each group must appoint for a leader and secretary. 3. Once you hear “what is your score” the group must announce their score. 4. The first group who announce their score will get an additional points. 5. Highest score gets 10pts- 8 pts- 6 pts- 4 pts.-2 pts
  • 4. REVIEW: Answer the following:
  • 5. REVIEW: Answer the following: 1. Appeal to Force/Stick
  • 6. Argumentum ad Baculum Answer:
  • 7. 2. “Sir, hindi ako nakapag-aral, mahirap lang po kami.”
  • 8. Argumentum ad Misericordiam Answer:
  • 9. 3. “You Too” Argument
  • 10. Tu Quoque Answer:
  • 11. 4. Appeal to Money
  • 12. Argumentum ad Crumenam Answer:
  • 13. 5. Oprah said that girls will go crazy for boys if they are intelligent.
  • 14. Argementum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate People) Answer:
  • 16. Let’s Ponder Complete the following statements. I believe that this world is _______ because _______. The ______ kind of life is the best kind of life. The most important thing man must have is _______. Activity 1: INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY
  • 17. Can these statements be considered Philosophies? Can Philosophy help you clarify and defined these statements? How? Analysis :
  • 18. Guide Questions: Group Discussion: 1. What are your personal ideas about the nature of the world and the universe? 2. What characteristics distinguish man from all other things that exist? 3. Group Reporting. Activity 2:
  • 19. Analysis : * What is real? * Are we able to perceive and understand reality and everything in it? * How do we know what we know? * Are the things that we know true?
  • 20. Abstraction : What are some of the major questions that Philosophers ponder upon?
  • 21. Are we able to perceive and understand reality?
  • 22. Oras lang naman ang hinihingi koh bakit ang hirap mong ibigay sa akin
  • 23. Ba't ba nami-miss ko yang maganda mong boses? � � I was born to be REAL not to be PERFECT � �
  • 24. I was born to be REAL not to be PERFECT
  • 25. GOALS Are dreams we convert to Plans and take action to Fulfill.
  • 26. REALITY Refers to the state of existence of things independent of human consciousness. (Physical things what we see, feel, taste, and smell, as well as things that we cannot easily perceive and comprehend.)
  • 27. Things that already existed, presently exist, and that we are yet to exist.
  • 28. Categories: 1. Concrete 2. Abstract METAPHYSICS – branch of Philosophy which addresses questions regarding reality. ONTOLOGY – focuses on the classification of existing things.
  • 29. CERTAINTY Refers to perfect knowledge that is free from error or doubt. A central concept in the question of certainty is truth.
  • 30. Also related to the question of certainty is the concept of knowledge and the means by which man is able to know.
  • 31. RATIONALISM Is a theory on knowledge which believes that knowledge is a Priori
  • 32. Priori knowledge Based on pure reasoning without the benefit of any experience.
  • 33. Empiricism Is another theory which considers knowledge to be posteriori knowledge or knowledge gained from experience.
  • 34. Skepticism Questions the certainty of established doctrines or truths and believes that the mind has limits in perceiving and understanding reality.
  • 35. EPISTEMOLOGY - The branch of philosophy which deals with the nature and extent of knowledge.
  • 41. The final significant problem that Philosophy tackles is the Question of Ethics ETHICS - deals with the standards of right and wrong which define human behavior.
  • 42. Ethics - as a field of study, discusses and define concepts and principles which are meant to govern reasoning and action. Moral Philosophy – branch that seeks to apply and analyze these concepts in various situations, context, and cultures, and recommends guidelines that will govern the decisions and actions of people.
  • 43. Maging maganda ka para sa sarili mo, hindi para sa ibang tao
  • 44. You're the reason that I live, that reason that I sing
  • 45. Methods and Tools do Philosophers use in the conduct of their study Systematic doubt – skeptical attitude in looking an ideas, events or things. Each aspect of the topic in question is analyzed to determine its validity or truthfulness.
  • 46. Argument - Philosophers engage in discussion and debate on their ideas. Dialectic - Varied and differing ideas and perspectives are analyzed and from the information gathered, new ideas and views are formulated.
  • 47. Socratic Method - analyzing a topic by formulating a series of questions designed to analyze its various aspects, and examine and clarify a person’s view on it.
  • 48. Axioms - refers to assumptions which are taken for granted in a philosophical discussion. - Provide a foundation and direction in philosophical studies.
  • 49. Occam’s razor - it is a problem solving device used in analyzing possible explanations regarding a phenomenon. - This principles state that among possible explanations, the one which has the least assumptions is the most acceptable.
  • 50. Formal Logic - it is a systematic analysis of the validity of arguments and statements. Logic often entails the use of Syllogism or logical arguments presented as a series of related statements.
  • 51. Thought experiment and allegory - these are imagined scenarios used to illustrate a certain problem or describe a theory.
  • 52. Example: Avicenna’s “Floating man” – which discusses the relationship between perception and the human mind.
  • 53. The “ship of Theseus” – which illustrates problems with the concept of an object’s identity “Prisoner’s dilemma” – which explores how an individual’s objectives and motivations affects his willingness to cooperate.
  • 54. Allegory of the Cave - used by Plato to describe his theory of forms and his ideas on how our perception affects knowledge.
  • 56. 1. Philosophy requires a person to engage in analysis and interpretation of concepts, definitions, arguments, and problems.
  • 57. 2. Problem-solving and decision making are important aspects in life which can benefit from a knowledge of philosophy.
  • 58. 3. A philosopher is also a good communicator who can clearly and adequately present his or her ideas.
  • 59. 4. Knowledge of Philosophy can contribute to self-development
  • 61. APPLICATION: 1. In your personal life, what are the  things that you consider “real” “true”  or unchanging? 2. Did you experience a situation  where you had to defend your  beliefs? Share your experience in  class.
  • 62. 3. Have you experienced a  situation where what you  believed to be true turned out  to be untrue? How did this  experience affect you?
  • 63. ASSESSMENT Write the correct answer
  • 64. 1. Refers to the state  of existence of things  independent of human  consciousness 
  • 65. 2. Branch of  Philosophy which  addresses questions  regarding reality. 
  • 66. 3. Focuses on the  classification of existing  things.
  • 67. 4. Refers to perfect  knowledge that is free  from error or doubt.
  • 68. 5. Is a theory on  knowledge which  believes that knowledge  is a Priori
  • 69. ANSWER: 1. Reality 2. Metaphysics 3. Ontology 4. Certainty 5. Rationalism
  • 70. AGREEMENT: Define the following: 1.Causality 2.Free will 3.Determination 4.Etiology 5.Teleology

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Cover Image

Problem-Solving Technologies

A user-friendly philosophy, sadjad soltanzadeh.

In our everyday activities we use material objects in different shapes and forms to solve various practical problems. We may use a knife to tighten a screw, turn an old washing machine drum into a fireplace, use the edge of a kitchen countertop to open a bottle, or place a hammer on the puncture patch glued to a bike’s inner tube to exert pressure on the patch until the glue dries. How should we identify these objects? What functions do they have? If we want to understand the role which material objects play in our everyday activities, we need to move away from universal identifications of objects. This is because universal identifications are not sensitive to contextual differences and cannot describe how each individual user connects to their surrounding objects in an infinite variety of contexts. Problem-Solving Technologies provides a user-friendly understanding of technological objects. This book develops a framework to characterise and categorize technological objects at the level of users’ subjective experiences.


Cover image for the book The Metaphysics


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  4. 1. A branch of Philosophy that seeks to apply and analyze these

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    Occam's razor - it is a problem solving device used in analyzing possible explanations regarding a. Formal Logic - it is a systematic analysis

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  13. Summative test for intro to philosophy

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