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How to write a great cover letter in 2024: tips and structure


A cover letter is a personalized letter that introduces you to a potential employer, highlights your qualifications, and explains why you're a strong fit for a specific job.

Hate or love them, these brief documents allow job seekers to make an impression and stand out from the pile of other applications. Penning a thoughtful cover letter shows the hiring team you care about earning the position.

Here’s everything you need to know about how to write a cover letter — and a great one, at that.

What is a cover letter and why does it matter?

A professional cover letter is a one-page document you submit alongside your CV or resume as part of a job application. Typically, they’re about half a page or around 150–300 words.

An effective cover letter doesn’t just rehash your CV; it’s your chance to highlight your proudest moments, explain why you want the job, and state plainly what you bring to the table.

Show the reviewer you’re likable, talented, and will add to the company’s culture . You can refer to previous jobs and other information from your CV, but only if it helps tell a story about you and your career choices .

What 3 things should you include in a cover letter?

A well-crafted cover letter can help you stand out to potential employers. To make your cover letter shine, here are three key elements to include:

1. Personalization

Address the hiring manager or recruiter by name whenever possible. If the job posting doesn't include a name, research to find out who will be reviewing applications. Personalizing your cover letter shows that you've taken the time to tailor your application to the specific company and role.

2. Highlight relevant achievements and skills

Emphasize your most relevant skills , experiences, and accomplishments that directly relate to the job you're applying for. Provide specific examples of how your skills have benefited previous employers and how they can contribute to the prospective employer's success. Use quantifiable achievements , such as improved efficiency, cost savings, or project success, to demonstrate your impact.

3. Show enthusiasm and fit

Express your enthusiasm for the company and the position you're applying for. Explain why you are interested in this role and believe you are a good fit for the organization. Mention how your values, goals, and skills align with the company's mission and culture. Demonstrating that you've done your research can make a significant impression.

What do hiring managers look for in a cover letter?

Employers look for several key elements in a cover letter. These include:

Employers want to see that your cover letter is specifically tailored to the position you are applying for. It should demonstrate how your skills, experiences, and qualifications align with the job requirements.

Clear and concise writing

A well-written cover letter is concise, easy to read, and error-free. Employers appreciate clear and effective communication skills , so make sure your cover letter showcases your ability to express yourself effectively.

Demonstrated knowledge of the company

Employers want to see that you are genuinely interested in their organization. Mention specific details about the company, such as recent achievements or projects, to show that you are enthusiastic about joining their team.

Achievements and accomplishments

Highlight your relevant achievements and accomplishments that demonstrate your qualifications for the position. Use specific examples to showcase your skills and show how they can benefit the employer.

Enthusiasm and motivation

Employers want to hire candidates who are excited about the opportunity and motivated to contribute to the company's success. Express your enthusiasm and passion for the role and explain why you are interested in working for the company.


A cover letter should be professional in tone and presentation. Use formal language, address the hiring manager appropriately, and follow standard business letter formatting.


How do you structure a cover letter?

A well-structured cover letter follows a specific format that makes it easy for the reader to understand your qualifications and enthusiasm for the position. Here's a typical structure for a cover letter:

Contact information

Include your name, address, phone number, and email address at the top of the letter. Place your contact information at the beginning so that it's easy for the employer to reach you.

Employer's contact information

Opening paragraph, middle paragraph(s), closing paragraph, complimentary close, additional contact information.

Repeat your contact information (name, phone number, and email) at the end of the letter, just in case the employer needs it for quick reference.

Remember to keep your cover letter concise and focused. It should typically be no more than one page in length. Proofread your letter carefully to ensure it is free from spelling and grammatical errors. Tailor each cover letter to the specific job application to make it as relevant and impactful as possible.

How to write a good cover letter (with examples)

The best letters are unique, tailored to the job description, and written in your voice — but that doesn’t mean you can’t use a job cover letter template.

Great cover letters contain the same basic elements and flow a certain way. Take a look at this cover letter structure for ref erence while you construct your own.

1. Add a header and contact information

While reading your cover letter, the recruiter shouldn’t have to look far to find who wrote it. Your document should include a basic heading with the following information:

  • Pronouns (optional)
  • Location (optional)
  • Email address
  • Phone number (optional)
  • Relevant links, such as your LinkedIn profile , portfolio, or personal website (optional)

You can pull this information directly from your CV. Put it together, and it will look something like this:

Christopher Pike

San Francisco, California

[email protected]

Alternatively, if the posting asks you to submit your cover letter in the body of an email, you can include this information in your signature. For example:

Warm regards,

Catherine Janeway

Bloomington, Indiana

[email protected]

(555) 999 - 2222


2. Include a personal greeting

Always begin your cover letter by addressing the hiring manager — preferably by name. You can use the person’s first and last name. Make sure to include a relevant title, like Dr., Mr., or Ms. For example, “Dear Mr. John Doe.”

Avoid generic openings like “To whom it may concern,” “Dear sir or madam,” or “Dear hiring manager.” These introductions sound impersonal — like you’re copy-pasting cover letters — and can work against you in the hiring process.

Be careful, though. When using someone’s name, you don’t want to use the wrong title or accidentally misgender someone. If in doubt, using only their name is enough. You could also opt for a gender-neutral title, like Mx.

Make sure you’re addressing the right person in your letter — ideally, the person who’s making the final hiring decision. This isn’t always specified in the job posting, so you may have to do some research to learn the name of the hiring manager.

3. Draw them in with an opening story

The opening paragraph of your cover letter should hook the reader. You want it to be memorable, conversational, and extremely relevant to the job you’re pursuing. 

There’s no need for a personal introduction — you’ve already included your name in the heading. But you should make reference to the job you’re applying for. A simple “Thank you for considering my application for the role of [job title] at [company],” will suffice.

Then you can get into the “Why” of your job application. Drive home what makes this specific job and this company so appealing to you. Perhaps you’re a fan of their products, you’re passionate about their mission, or you love their brand voice. Whatever the case, this section is where you share your enthusiasm for the role.

Here’s an example opening paragraph. In this scenario, you’re applying for a digital marketing role at a bicycle company:

“Dear Mr. John Doe,

Thank you for considering my application for the role of Marketing Coordinator at Bits n’ Bikes.

My parents bought my first bike at one of your stores. I’ll never forget the freedom I felt when I learned to ride it. My father removed my training wheels, and my mom sent me barrelling down the street. You provide joy to families across the country — and I want to be part of that.”

4. Emphasize why you’re best for the job

Your next paragraphs should be focused on the role you’re applying to. Highlight your skill set and why you’re a good fit for the needs and expectations associated with the position. Hiring managers want to know what you’ll bring to the job, not just any role.

Start by studying the job description for hints. What problem are they trying to solve with this hire? What skills and qualifications do they mention first or more than once? These are indicators of what’s important to the hiring manager.

Search for details that match your experience and interests. For example, if you’re excited about a fast-paced job in public relations, you might look for these elements in a posting:

  • They want someone who can write social media posts and blog content on tight deadlines
  • They value collaboration and input from every team member
  • They need a planner who can come up with strong PR strategies

Highlight how you fulfill these requirements:

“I’ve always been a strong writer. From blog posts to social media, my content pulls in readers and drives traffic to product pages. For example, when I worked at Bits n’ Bikes, I developed a strategic blog series about bike maintenance that increased our sales of spare parts and tools by 50% — we could see it in our web metrics.

Thanks to the input of all of our team members, including our bike mechanics, my content delivered results.”

5. End with a strong closing paragraph and sign off gracefully

Your closing paragraph is your final chance to hammer home your enthusiasm about the role and your unique ability to fill it. Reiterate the main points you explained in the body paragraphs and remind the reader of what you bring to the table.

You can also use the end of your letter to relay other important details, like whether you’re willing to relocate for the job.

When choosing a sign-off, opt for a phrase that sounds professional and genuine. Reliable options include “Sincerely” and “Kind regards.”

Here’s a strong closing statement for you to consider:

“I believe my enthusiasm, skills, and work experience as a PR professional will serve Bits n’ Bikes very well. I would love to meet to further discuss my value-add as your next Director of Public Relations. Thank you for your consideration. I hope we speak soon.


Tips to write a great cover letter that compliments your resume

When writing your own letter, try not to copy the example excerpts word-for-word. Instead, use this cover letter structure as a baseline to organize your ideas. Then, as you’re writing, use these extra cover letter tips to add your personal touch:

  • Keep your cover letter different from your resume : Your cover letter should not duplicate the information on your resume. Instead, it should provide context and explanations for key points in your resume, emphasizing how your qualifications match the specific job you're applying for.
  • Customize your cover letter . Tailor your cover letter for each job application. Address the specific needs of the company and the job posting, demonstrating that you've done your homework and understand their requirements.
  • Show enthusiasm and fit . Express your enthusiasm for the company and position in the cover letter. Explain why you are interested in working for this company and how your values, goals, and skills align with their mission and culture.
  • Use keywords . Incorporate keywords from the job description and industry terms in your cover letter. This can help your application pass through applicant tracking systems (ATS) and demonstrate that you're well-versed in the field.
  • Keep it concise . Your cover letter should be succinct and to the point, typically no more than one page. Focus on the most compelling qualifications and experiences that directly support your application.
  • Be professional . Maintain a professional tone and structure in your cover letter. Proofread it carefully to ensure there are no errors.
  • Address any gaps or concerns . If there are gaps or concerns in your resume, such as employment gaps or a change in career direction, briefly address them in your cover letter. Explain any relevant circumstances and how they have shaped your qualifications and determination.
  • Provide a call to action . Conclude your cover letter with a call to action, inviting the employer to contact you for further discussion. Mention that you've attached your resume for their reference.
  • Follow the correct format . Use a standard cover letter format like the one above, including your contact information, a formal salutation, introductory and closing paragraphs, and your signature. Ensure that it complements your resume without redundancy.
  • Pick the right voice and tone . Try to write like yourself, but adapt to the tone and voice of the company. Look at the job listing, company website, and social media posts. Do they sound fun and quirky, stoic and professional, or somewhere in-between? This guides your writing style.
  • Tell your story . You’re an individual with unique expertise, motivators, and years of experience. Tie the pieces together with a great story. Introduce how you arrived at this point in your career, where you hope to go , and how this prospective company fits in your journey. You can also explain any career changes in your resume.
  • Show, don’t tell . Anyone can say they’re a problem solver. Why should a recruiter take their word for it if they don’t back it up with examples? Instead of naming your skills, show them in action. Describe situations where you rose to the task, and quantify your success when you can.
  • Be honest . Avoid highlighting skills you don’t have. This will backfire if they ask you about them in an interview. Instead, shift focus to the ways in which you stand out.
  • Avoid clichés and bullet points . These are signs of lazy writing. Do your best to be original from the first paragraph to the final one. This highlights your individuality and demonstrates the care you put into the letter.
  • Proofread . Always spellcheck your cover letter. Look for typos, grammatical errors, and proper flow. We suggest reading it out loud. If it sounds natural rolling off the tongue, it will read naturally as well.


Common cover letter writing FAQs

How long should a cover letter be.

A cover letter should generally be concise and to the point. It is recommended to keep it to one page or less, focusing on the most relevant information that highlights your qualifications and fits the job requirements.

Should I include personal information in a cover letter?

While it's important to introduce yourself and provide your contact information, avoid including personal details such as your age, marital status, or unrelated hobbies. Instead, focus on presenting your professional qualifications and aligning them with the job requirements.

Can I use the same cover letter for multiple job applications?

While it may be tempting to reuse a cover letter, it is best to tailor each cover letter to the specific job you are applying for. This allows you to highlight why you are a good fit for that particular role and show genuine interest in the company.

Do I need to address my cover letter to a specific person?

Whenever possible, it is advisable to address your cover letter to a specific person, such as the hiring manager or recruiter. If the job posting does not provide this information, try to research and find the appropriate contact. If all else fails, you can use a generic salutation such as "Dear Hiring Manager."

Should I include references in my cover letter?

It is generally not necessary to include references in your cover letter. Save this information for when the employer explicitly requests it. Instead, focus on showcasing your qualifications and achievements that make you a strong candidate for the position.

It’s time to start writing your stand-out cover letter

The hardest part of writing is getting started. 

Hopefully, our tips gave you some jumping-off points and confidence . But if you’re really stuck, looking at cover letter examples and resume templates will help you decide where to get started. 

There are numerous sample cover letters available online. Just remember that you’re a unique, well-rounded person, and your cover letter should reflect that. Using our structure, you can tell your story while highlighting your passion for the role. 

Doing your research, including strong examples of your skills, and being courteous is how to write a strong cover letter. Take a breath , flex your fingers, and get typing. Before you know it, your job search will lead to a job interview.

If you want more personalized guidance, a specialized career coach can help review, edit, and guide you through creating a great cover letter that sticks.

Ace your job search

Explore effective job search techniques, interview strategies, and ways to overcome job-related challenges. Our coaches specialize in helping you land your dream job.

Elizabeth Perry, ACC

Elizabeth Perry is a Coach Community Manager at BetterUp. She uses strategic engagement strategies to cultivate a learning community across a global network of Coaches through in-person and virtual experiences, technology-enabled platforms, and strategic coaching industry partnerships. With over 3 years of coaching experience and a certification in transformative leadership and life coaching from Sofia University, Elizabeth leverages transpersonal psychology expertise to help coaches and clients gain awareness of their behavioral and thought patterns, discover their purpose and passions, and elevate their potential. She is a lifelong student of psychology, personal growth, and human potential as well as an ICF-certified ACC transpersonal life and leadership Coach.

3 cover letter examples to help you catch a hiring manager’s attention

Chatgpt cover letters: how to use this tool the right way, write thank you letters after interviews to stand out as job applicant, use professional reference templates to make hiring smoother, send a thank you email after an internship to boost your career, character references: 4 tips for a successful recommendation letter, how to ask for a letter of recommendation (with examples), how to write an impactful cover letter for a career change, how to write a follow-up email 2 weeks after an interview, cv versus resume demystify the differences once and for all, how to create a resume with chatgpt, how and when to write a functional resume (with examples), what are professional references and how to ask for one (examples), how to politely decline a job offer (with examples), resume best practices: how far back should a resume go, 4 tips to respond to a job rejection email plus examples, how to put babysitting on a resume: 6 skills to highlight, a quick guide on how to list references on a resume, stay connected with betterup, get our newsletter, event invites, plus product insights and research..

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How to Format a Cover Letter That’ll Get You an Interview

person sitting at a kitchen table with a dog next to them, both looking at a laptop

Do you ever feel like your resume couldn’t possibly tell the whole story of who you are and why a company should hire you? That’s because it doesn’t. But a strong, well-written, and correctly formatted cover letter helps fill in some of the gaps.

“Cover letters are worth the time ,” says Muse coach Jennifer Smith. “They provide an opportunity to expand on key points from your resume, show off your personality, and solidify your interest.” Perhaps most importantly, “They show an employer you put the time and energy into applying.” And—luckily—they don’t need to be difficult to write.

Most cover letters have a similar format that make them much easier to write than you might think. And we’ve laid it out exactly—so you can get that application in already.

Read More: Cover Letters Are Hard to Write—But These Templates Make It a Breeze

How to format and organize your cover letter content

Here’s the format most hiring professionals that read your cover letter will be looking for:

Your heading goes at the top of the page and contains your contact info as well as some other basics that a hiring manager or recruiter might use to learn more about you once they’ve read your cover letter.

So this means:

  • Phone number
  • LinkedIn profile link (if you have one)
  • Pronouns (if you’re comfortable including them)
  • Personal website or portfolio link (optional)
  • Relevant and professional social media profiles (optional)

Nowadays it’s very uncommon, but if you’re asked to mail a paper cover letter, you would also include in your heading the company’s information:

  • Hiring manager’s name (or whomever the letter is addressed to)
  • Company name
  • Company street address
  • Company city, state, zip code

But you’d be more likely to send your cover letter in the body of an email than by snail mail if you’re not applying through an online system. In this case, your heading info would go after your name at the end.

Start your salutation with “Hello,” “Dear,” or “Hi” for more casual companies.

Then, you’ll usually address your cover letter to the hiring manager. Alternatively, Muse coach Leto Papadopoulos recommends job seekers “open the letter with ‘Dear Hiring Team’ because even if you can uncover the name of the hiring manager, they are usually not the first to read the cover letter,” she says, and “I like to acknowledge the recruiting team!”

You can also address your cover letter to the team you’d be joining or “[Position] Hiring Manager.” But you should never start your cover letter with “ To Whom It May Concern .”

Read More: The 3 Rules of Addressing Your Cover Letter

Your introduction should be one paragraph long, include the name of the position you’re applying to, and express why you’re applying and what excites you about the opportunity. But most importantly, you want to grab your reader. You can even “kick off with a brief but attention-grabbing anecdote,” Smith says. “Show off your personality.”

Read More: 30 Genius Cover Letter Openers Recruiters Will LOVE

Body paragraphs

Write two to three body paragraphs that sell you as a candidate. “Show, don’t tell,” Smith says. “Craft a narrative about how your experience led you to apply for the job you want.” Instead of regurgitating your resume, look at the job description and pull out a few skills you specialize in that the company is looking for. Then, elaborate on them by bringing up examples of how you’ve used these skills to help your past employers (and by extension will give the reader a preview of how you’ll help them).

Wrap everything up with your conclusion paragraph. Reiterate your interest in the company and your most important qualifications. Then, “Close with a statement about contributing your skills and experiences to the success of the company in the position you’re applying for,” Smith says.

Use a professional sign-off like “Sincerely,” “Respectfully,” or “Thank you for your consideration,” then add your first and last name.

If you’re sending your cover letter in the body of an email, add any info you would’ve included in your heading below your name.

Example cover letter

Check out this cover letter example, which follows the above cover letter format:

Curtis Chen [email protected] | 999-999-9999 | he/him | Baltimore, MD

Hello Arianna,

When I saw the posting for the UX designer position at CloudCo, I was immediately drawn to it because of your unique approach to online storage. CloudCo is the only player in the space right now that has promised to keep their personal storage tiers under $10—and instead pass on the cost to the larger clients. I’d love to bring my dual experience as a front-end engineer and a UX researcher to make your interface more intuitive and keep individual customers renewing their contracts.

For the last two years, I’ve worked as a UX researcher for OnlineOffice Inc, where I was part of the team that launched the updated office suite. During the development process, I interviewed more than 50 users of both OOI’s and competitors’ products. I was able to translate their desires into actionable suggestions for the design and product teams, contributing to a product launch that has already grown OOI’s user base by 120% in the first year. Through these experiences, I learned to use both qualitative and quantitative data to advocate for users and make decisions about the most important product features. As your UX designer, I’d apply this knowledge to help boost the user experience for your personal-tier products.

I also spent three years as a front-end developer on a product team at TeckyCompany. In this role, I learned what it’s like for those actually building products, including what kinds of features take the most time and work. As your UX designer, I’d use this experience to weigh design decisions and collaborate with the product team. I’m used to working at startups where, as much as you’d like to, you can’t get everything done at once, so I’ll be able to prioritize features that will help users most while still making reasonable asks of the product team.

Cloud Co’s business model has shown me that not every tech startup prioritizes its larger clients over the individual user. I’d love to bring my development and UX experience to your team to help provide the very best experience for your subscribers.

Sincerely, Curtis Chen

Read More: 4 Cover Letter Examples That’ll Make Writing Yours Way Easier

Tips for formatting your document like a pro

When you’re formatting your cover letter, you want to prioritize readability and professionalism. But you should also keep in mind that many cover letters submitted online will be uploaded to an applicant tracking system or ATS , which is software that employers use to organize and search candidate application materials. ATSs are very advanced but there’s some formatting they have trouble with.

Follow these guidelines to format your cover letter correctly for both human and computer readers:

  • Font : Stick to the default fonts that come with your word processor—classics like Arial, Helvetica, Times New Roman, Cambria, Calibri, and Georgia.
  • Font size: The ideal size will vary based on which font you choose, but keep it between 10 and 12 pt. Any smaller and you’ll have recruiters squinting at their screens. Any larger and they’ll be wondering if you’re trying to compensate for not having a lot to write about.
  • Margins : You can’t go wrong with the usual one-inch margins all around, but you can make some slight adjustments if needed. Papadopoulos suggests decreasing the header space first.
  • Alignment: All your text should be left aligned and there’s no need to indent every paragraph.
  • Line spacing: Single space your cover letter (1.15 spacing works if it looks too cramped). Include an extra line between each section and paragraph.
  • Length : “A cover letter should comfortably fit on one page,” Papadopoulos says. Your cover letter should be at least three paragraphs long, but generally no more than five—unless the job description says otherwise. If it’s too long, check out this guide for cutting your cover letter down .
  • File format : You can submit your cover letter within the body of an email or as a separate file. But if it’s a separate file you’re uploading to an online system, stick to docx or pdf only. ATs cannot reliably “read” other file types.
  • File name : Always include your name and the phrase “cover letter,” and you can also include the name of the position. Just make sure it’s easy to read and follow any instructions in the job posting.

Formatted cover letter example

Here’s how the above example looks in a properly formatted cover letter document.

how does the cover letter look like

What Does a Cover Letter Look Like?

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In This Guide:

What does a good cover letter look like the format, what does a cover letter look like in terms of content, what does a cover letter look like takeaways..

Resume image 1

At that point where you’re asking yourself: “What does a cover letter look like?”

Maybe you’ve found your one perfect job, or you’ve narrowed it down to a few great options.

You’re in the home stretch after working out all the details of your resume.

You want to submit your application because you know they aren’t going to wait forever.

But before you can submit anything, you know you need to put a cover letter together.  Even if the job ad doesn’t say you need one, the fact is, you know you‘re better off with one .

But you’re not 100% on it, and you wonder, “What does a cover letter look like?”

No worries, we’ve got your back! Follow the advice in this guide to put together a killer cover letter in no time at all.

In this article, we’ll go over:

  • How to format a great cover letter
  • The content you want for a successful cover letter

If you’re reading this because you’ve already got the basics about cover letters down, awesome, you’re in the right place!  If you want some clarification before going on though, take a few minutes to look over what a cover letter is (and why it’s important) and our guide on how to write a cover letter in 2024.

how does the cover letter look like

You may be wondering why it even matters what exactly your cover letter looks like.  The thing is, recruiters get hundreds of applications for jobs they post, and making a great impression is key to getting an interview.

What’s the first thing a recruiter is going to see?  Your cover letter.

So a great design for your cover letter is one of the best ways to make sure you catch that recruiters eye, and have them call you in for the next stage of hiring.

Down to the nitty gritty, what exactly are the expectations? Let’s start with details on the exact formatting you’ll want to use to get the best results.

Font - size + distance between characters

You want to be sure that the hiring manager who flips to your cover letter is immediately impressed and that they’re tempted to read it.  The best way to ensure that is to hit them with a one two of professionalism and clarity.

To that end, you always want to use an easy-to-read font like Times New Roman or Arial in 12-point font. These are classic fonts that tell the person looking over your resume you mean business, and that font size is nice and legible.

You might be tempted to try a font that’s different, stylish, or edgy, but your cover letter isn’t the place to do that. Remember, you’re writing this for them, not yourself, so play to what a hiring manager would want: a professional employee they know they can rely on.

This is pretty straightforward: you want your margins all around to be set at 1 inch (or 2.54 mm for the metrics in the world)

Content alignment

Again, we don’t need you reinventing the wheel on this one. You want to align all your written content to the left side of the page. If you’re applying in an industry where a picture is acceptable or expected, you can align that to the right of the header (more on that just below!)

Header + what to have in it

Your header is the top section of your cover letter, and it’s the very first thing the hiring manager is likely to see.  You want to give them exactly what they’re expecting to see in this section, otherwise they might just move at without a second glance.

To that end, we definitely suggest you go over our cover letter checklist  before you send yours out. Even better, look over our cover letter examples or our cover letter templates to be sure you’ve got the best cover letter you can.

Specifically, they want to find your name, contact information, including your cell number, landline if you have one, and definitely your email. But you should also add any contact info that individualizes or adds to your application, like a social media link or URL to a portfolio or other work you’ve done.

To make it as clear as possible, your name should be the largest font of all text in your cover letter, and there should be clear sections dedicated to your contact information.

If you’re confident in your design skills, personalize your header by introducing a color scheme and resume headline , or again, use one of the links above to get a hand with that.

Two things to remember here:

  • Your email must be professional - no jokes, nothing untoward, nothing random. Open a new account if you have to specifically for the job search, and leave your private one just that.
  • Only link professionally relevant social media or other online links.  You don’t normally want to add your FB or Instagram, just job specific ones like LinkedIn, GitHub, etc…

Line spacing and paragraph spacing

Line spacing is a bit trickier; some things are single space, and some are double.

Here’s how it breaks down

  • Single-space the header sections and the body of your cover letter.
  • Leave a space between your header and greeting ("Dear…:").
  • Leave a space between each paragraph.
  • Leave one to three spaces between your sign-off ("Sincerely,") and typed name.

We know we write this like it’s no problem at all, and we promise, after writing a few it’ll feel like that for you too.  But if you want some extra help to make sure the cover letter you’re sending out is perfect for the job you’re applying to, try our cover letter builder - just answer a few questions, and we take care of the writing and design.

What format to save it so it's readable

The last thing you want is to put all this effort into writing your letter, and it turns out the file format you used can’t be opened by the hiring manager.  

Stick to PDFs, since everyone should be able to open them. Plus, you have the added confidence of knowing that the formatting will stay consistent across platforms and devices.

Each job and company you apply to is likely to best suit a slightly different approach to your cover letter. Of course, this means how and what your cover letter should say for each job is going to be a little different.

But the content you want to include in your cover letter can be broken down into four key parts .

Start with a personalized greeting .  Avoid old clichés like “Dear Sir/Madam” or “To whom it may concern”. A hiring manager is going to be way more impressed by seeing their name on that letter than by a generic greeting.  

The first paragraph in your cover letter should tie you into the company .  You want to personalize what you include here and let the hiring manager know why you - you specifically - are going to be a great fit on their team.

By personalizing your cover letter to the specific job and company you’re sending it to, you’re going to grab the recruiter’s attention, and:

  • set yourself apart as someone who really wants to work with the company
  • help them see you’re passionate about the job
  • show you’re detail-oriented
  • and build a personal connection right off the bat

These are huge advantages in your favor, and will put you ahead of a lot of your competition!

The main body of your cover letter is another 1-2 paragraphs.  This is where you’re going to explain your motivation for wanting to work with the company.

Remember, though, your cover letter is going hand-in-hand with your resume, so don’t repeat exactly the same things in both. Ideally, what you’re doing is complementing your resume with the cover letter.

The recruiter is going to use your resume to get a few more details about what you say in your cover letter.  But you can use the body of the cover letter to dig deeper into who you are and explain why you want the job and how the experiences you’ve had made you a great choice !

You're going to close your cover letter with a call to action paragraph . Think of this as your last chance to make your first impression.

Because of that, it’s crucial you nail it, and you should make sure you know everything you can about how best to close your cover letter .

The short of it though, is you want to sell them one last time on why you’re the best choice, thank them for their time, and then ask them specifically to reach out to you.  You don’t want to be vague about the ask, this is the call to action.

It’s pretty common for people to write something like “I look forward to hearing from you” as part of their last sentence. And while this may be polite, it… leaves a bit too much room for interpretation, in our opinion.

Instead, try one of these:

  • I appreciate your quick response – It communicates you’re serious about a response without being forceful or threatening.
  • Let me know if anything changes – It’s another way to give the initiative to the hiring manager without being too pushy.

And that’s it - easy as pie, right?  No, we know it might seem a little daunting still if you’re new to writing these.  

That’s why we have 500+ cover letter examples you can look over, from all kinds of industries, so you can get a real-life impression of what a cover letter that gets jobs really looks like.

And if this is your first time writing a cover letter, or if you want to be sure the cover letter you’re including is going to get you noticed, use our cover letter builder .  We take out all the guesswork - answer the prompts, and we can write and design a winning cover letter for you!

Good luck, you’ve got this!

  • Every job application you submit should include a cover letter that’s personalized and tailored for the specific job and company you’re applying to.
  • A great looking, clear cover letter that hits all the key points is crucial - recruiters go through hundreds of resumes and spend only a few seconds on each.
  • Even though the content will vary from letter to letter, the general cover letter content we covered can be applied in every case.
  • Your header should be eye-catching and draw a recruiter in.
  • Your intro paragraph needs to really grab a recruiter’s attention - show them how you personally deserve their attention
  • The main body of your cover letter gives the hiring manager a deep dive into one or two reasons why your experience makes you a great fit for the job.
  • Close with a call to action: ASK, ASK, ASK for that call back.

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The Only Cover Letter Guide You’ll Need in 2024 (+Examples)

  • Kaja Jurcisinova , 
  • Updated January 16, 2024 13 min read

Oh, the dreaded cover letter. Job seekers hate writing it and nobody knows if anybody even reads cover letters anymore. And yet, not attaching one to your application would be a terrible mistake. This cover letter guide will tell you not only why to write one, but also how to write a really good one.

But first , why does everyone hate writing cover letters so much?   After all, a cover letter gives you a unique opportunity to distinguish yourself from others.

In comparison with a resume, the cover letter allows you to provide details that didn’t fit in on your resume and demonstrate your passion.

All the negativity that surrounds the cover letter probably comes down to the fact that good cover letters require a bit of alchemy. They also take time to write.

This guide will help you avoid any mistakes and write a strong cover letter that will catch the recruiter’s attention. We also include cover letter examples.

Generally speaking, you want to make your cover letter:

  • easy to read for the recruiter;
  • well-structured;
  • max 4 paragraphs/1 page long;
  • professional in both tone and greetings;
  • tailored for the specific opening.

Let's get to it!

Table of Contents

Click on a section to skip

Why should you write a cover letter?

How do recruiters read cover letters, how to write a great cover letter in 9 simple steps.

  • What if you're told to NOT submit a cover letter? 

Final cover letter tips and hacks

Cover letter examples.

So, how exactly is the cover letter important for your job application? 

Some may argue that the cover letter in 2024 isn't really relevant anymore. In fact, one study stated that only 18 percent of hiring managers think cover letters are a key part of an application.

However, don’t get fooled by these statistics. While your resume may be considered more important during the hiring process, including a well-written cover letter can increase your chances of landing a job. 

For instance, 83% of hiring managers would be convinced by a really good cover letter — even if the resume wasn’t good enough, according to this study .

And there's more to it.

Some of the key advantages of the cover letter are:

  • It’s much less structured than the resume and lets you develop a story. 
  • It gives you space to get a little more creative. 
  • Your personality can shine through thanks to it.
  • You can elaborate on key achievements mentioned in your resume.
  • It helps explain a lack of experience, career change, or an employment gap.

In other words, the cover letter is a perfect chance to bridge the distance between you and a recruiter even before the actual job interview . 

Pro tip: Before writing a cover letter, make sure that you have a powerful resume that matches the job description. Because if your resume doesn’t fit a desired profile, your cover letter probably won’t get read at all. To learn more, you may want to check out our  Ultimate Resume Guide .

First, they read them to decide if you’re the right fit for a position. For this reason, avoid generic write-ups at all costs. What recruiters love to see is a short persuasive argument of why you fit the role and the company. Something like this: 

“I was happy to hear about this job opening from my former manager, Jane Anne. She and I have worked together on many projects throughout the years and she thought that I would be the perfect match for this position.“

Second, recruiters are looking for inconsistencies . For instance, if your resume shows attention to detail but your cover letter is addressed to the wrong person, wrong company, and is filled with typos, it's inconsistent. You want to ensure the number of inconsistencies is kept to a minimum.

Third, they're trying to get a hint of your personality . Cultural fit is important to many companies.

So, throughout the process of cover letter writing, it's essential to keep in mind the recruiter who's going to be the recipient of your letter. 

Because at the end of a day, a good cover letter shouldn't be solely about you — it's supposed to be written with the hiring manager in mind. 

So ask yourself:  

  • Is my cover letter easy to read?
  • Have I addressed the right person in the opening?  
  • Will it help them decide if I'm the right fit?
  • Did I use the right tone of voice that fits their company culture?

If you answered “no” to any of these questions, our cover letter guide is exactly for you.

Writing a cover letter may seem like a challenging task at first but if you know a few key cover letter rules, the process can become much easier. 

Before you start writing your cover letter, find out more about the company you're applying for. Look at their website and LinkedIn . The research also includes looking at the job description very closely and identifying any recurring keywords. Also, search for specific cover letter examples for the role online.

Placed at the very beginning of your cover letter, the header is where you include your contact information (i.e. your full name, email address, phone number) and the company's contact information (i.e. the manager’s or recruiter’s name, job title, department, the name of the company, company’s address). 

When in doubt, try to use this formula: Number or Trigger word + Adjective + Keyword + Promise.  The result can look something like this: 5 Ways I Can Help You Improve Your Company’s [insert a position-related keyword]

If the name of the hiring manager isn't written in the job posting, research their name and contact information online. For example, look at the company's page or LinkedIn. Then, greet them by saying "Dear [first name]" . If, however, the company culture is very formal, go for the classic "Dear Hiring Manager" .

The first paragraph is the perfect place to shortly explain why the job seems exciting to you and why you’re the right person for it .  You can also compliment the company or name a mutual acquaintance who referred you.

Try to answer these questions: 1. What did you do at a previous position that gave you relevant experience?  2. How could this experience help the new company grow? 3. Which of the projects you have worked on would benefit their business? 4. Which of your skills make you well-equipped for the position?  5. Do any of these skills give you an edge over other candidates?

The following questions should help you : What excites you about the idea of working at this company? How do the company goals align with your own? What do you hope to gain and learn from working there?

In the cover letter closing paragraph : reiterate that your experience and enthusiasm make you a great candidate, add a confident call to action, express gratitude, and always use a formal sign-off.

You can either attach the cover letter as a separate document in the email when sending your resume , or send it directly in the body of the email (that way they can't ignore it).

In the following chapters we look at each step more closely and include specific examples you can copy and paste.

Step 1: Prepare and do some research 

Knowledge is power. Before you begin writing:

  • Find out more about the company and the position you're applying for. Spend some time on the company’s website, its executives’ Twitter feeds, and employee profiles on LinkedIn. It will also help you decide on the tone of your cover letter. For example, if it’s a company like Kickresume , you can easily get away with more unusual approaches. But if it’s a conservative institution, like a bank or a lawyer's office, you should probably keep it formal.
  • Search for specific cover letter examples for your role online . Pick some examples that fit your role and use these for inspiration. (By the way, that link just now will take you to our database of successful cover letters from real people who got hired. Totally worth checking out.)
  • Look at the job descriptions of the roles you’re applying for . Identify major experience and hard skill keywords, so you can insert them in your letter in the relevant sections.

Once you've done this basic research, you can finally start thinking about the structure of your cover letter. 

This short infographic will show you that writing a cover letter is a lot simpler than you might have thought: 

Step 2: Include a header with basic info rmation

Placed at the very beginning of your cover letter, the header is the place where you should include your contact information and the contact information of the company. 

A cover letter is still a letter, after all. 

At the left side of the page include the information based on which you can be reached by the recruiter. 

Here, make sure to include: 

  • your full name
  • your email address
  • phone number

Optionally, you can also add:

  • your professional title
  • address (if it vaguely matches the location of the job offer)
  • current date
  • personal website/LinkedIn

The top right side of the page is reserved for company-related information. Here, you should put: 

  • the manager’s or recruiter’s name (if available)
  • job title 
  • the name of the company
  • company’s address

Not a fan of writing?

Our AI writer will write the first draft of your cover letter for you.

Step 3: Write a strong cover letter headline

When you’re browsing the web, what articles usually catch your attention? Those with great headlines, of course! 

The same applies to cover letter headlines.

Start by paying attention to the headlines around you — especially in tabloids and websites like Buzzfeed (Is Buzzfeed still a thing? How very 2010s of me). These are usually designed to stir up your interest and make it impossible to not click through. 

Notice how they use numbers, questions, and interesting adjectives to promise the reader to learn something valuable.

And you can do the same in your cover letter.

When in doubt, try to use this formula: Number or Trigger word + Adjective + Keyword + Promise. 

The result can look something like this: 

  • 3 Reasons Why I’m An Excellent Fit For [Job Position]
  • Are You Still Looking To Fill The Position Of [Job Position]? This Is Why I Believe I’m Exactly Who You’re Looking For
  • 5 Ways I Can Help You Improve Your Company’s [insert a position-related keyword]

Finally, don’t forget to adjust your header to the company’s level of formality and put your headline in the subject of the email.

Step 4: Use the correct form of greeting

In this time and age, there’s no excuse for using “To Whom It May Concern.”  

If the name of the hiring manager isn't written in the job posting, you’re expected to research their name and contact information online. For example, look at the company's page or LinkedIn. 

Once you have their name, feel free to go for a personalized greeting: 

“Dear [first name]” or “Dear Mr./Mrs. [last name]” 

Honorifics (e.g. Mr., Mrs., Ms .) are more appropriate if the company’s culture is formal. 

And if you cannot find the recruiter’s name, it's okay to go for a generic: 

“Dear Hiring Manager”, or “Dear Recruitment Officer”

Alternatively, you can address the letter to the whole company team or the HR department. In this case, your greeting should look like this: 

“Dear [name of the company/department] Team” or “Dear Human Resources”

Step 5: First paragraph: Introduce yourself with a BANG!

The best way to start a cover letter is to open strong. The first impression matters the most and busy recruiters often have a chance to properly dive into only a few selected cover letters. 

So if you make your first paragraph captivating, chances are that your letter will be one of the lucky ones that actually end up being read. 

In fact, the first paragraph is the perfect place to shortly explain why the job seems exciting to you and why you’re the right person for it. 

While most people begin their letters with “I’m applying for the position X I saw in Y place,” it's a waste of space. 

Instead, open with a sentence like this:

“I’m a content marketing professional with more than 5 years of experience and I’d love to bring my ability and passion to your team.”

In the first paragraph, you can also:

  • Compliment the company. Show that you know details about the company and you’re approaching it for a reason. For example, demonstrate appreciation for what the company does. Not only will this flatter them, but it will also provide them with insight into who you are.
  • Name a mutual acquaintance if you can. This is sometimes called a “magic bullet,” as it’s the one thing that will assure the hiring manager reads your cover letter until the end. 

However, limit the introduction to 1-3 sentences. This isn’t the place to go into detail about what makes you ideal for the role — save that for the second and third paragraphs. 

Step 6: Second paragraph: Explain why you’re a great fit for the company

The second paragraph is the place where you should sell yourself and your experience.  

Here, write a short summary of your career, skills and accomplishments, tailored to fit what the company is looking for. 

You already did your research, so now it's time to ask yourself these questions and try to address them in your cover letter:

  • What did you do at a previous position that gave you relevant experience? 
  • How could this experience help the new company grow?
  • Which of the projects you have worked on would benefit their business?
  • Which of your skills make you well-equipped for the position? 
  • Do any of these skills give you an edge over other candidates?

After you’ve picked the most relevant accomplishments, put them at the start of your letter. 

However, when talking about them, avoid sounding like you’re bragging. The best way of doing this is to focus on your experiences rather than yourself . Ideally, support your claims with concrete examples.

Also, mention any other additional relevant hard skills or knowledge areas they’re looking for, as well as any qualifications.

Finally, the second paragraph is the perfect place for showing that you’ve done your research. Demonstrate that you’re familiar with some of the challenges that the company faces and present how you can help them.

Pro tip: Don’t simply repeat the same things you’ve already put on your resume. You want to go beyond that (this applies to every other section of your cover letter). 

Step 7: Third paragraph: Explain why the company is a great fit for you 

In this paragraph, you want to show that you’re serious about developing your career at this new company. And good companies want to know why they appeal to you and how will your professional relationship be mutually beneficial. 

Consider addressing the following questions:

  • What excites you about the idea of working at this company?
  • How do the company goals align with your own?
  • What do you hope to gain and learn from working there?

For example, you can say something like this: “I've seen on your website that you heavily focus on cryptocurrency projects. As a cryptocurrency enthusiast, I would love to join your team”.  

However, don’t go overboard with flattery and stay professional. 

Also, don’t say anything that isn't true or you don’t mean it, as it will probably come up again in the later stages of the application process.

Step 8: Closing paragraph: Finish strong and stay in touch

Now that you’ve nailed the main part of your cover letter, you also want to finish strong. This way, the recruiter will remember you in a good light. But how do you achieve that? 

  • Reiterate that your experience and enthusiasm make you a great candidate. This is to emphasize the two main points from the previous paragraphs. Do this in one or two sentences, not more. 
  • Add a confident call to action. In a sentence or two, you should suggest the next steps. Something like “ I would love the opportunity to meet with you and discuss the value I can bring to [company]."
  • Express gratitude. Simply thank them for their time and for considering your application.
  • Always use a formal sign-off. Something like “ Sincerely , Best wishes , or Respectfully” . Finish by typing out your full name. 

Step 9: How do you send a cover letter?

I can’t stress this enough — unless it's specifically required to attach the cover letter to the body of the email,  consider not sending your cover letter as a document attached to your email. 

Instead, put it inside the body of the email . The email itself is now your cover letter! This way the recruiter won't ignore it.

However, remember that hiring managers receive hundreds of emails a day. So if you want your email to get read, it's the subject line that's likely to play the most important part. 

As we've advised before, if you have a good resume headline, simply put it in the email subject. 

However, if you’re unhappy with the result, you have other options, too. 

For instance, if you have a reference, include it already in your email subject line: 

Referral from Jose Nachos: Pedro Tacos, candidate for a senior software analyst position

If you don't have a reference or a catchy headline, check out more tips on how to write the best subject line for your email .

Finished writing your cover letter?

Make it stand out with an eye-catching design.

What if you're told to NOT submit a cover letter? 

Today, many companies are using online application systems that discourage applicants from attaching a cover letter. 

Instead, they have their own application systems where in different sections you're required to fill in the information you would normally place in your cover letter.  

If this is the case, just work with the format they gave you.

In other words, include the same information that you'd normally have in your cover letter but place it in the correct sections. 

And don’t forget to follow the cover letter principles: 

  • explain why you're the right candidate;
  • make it clear that you've researched the company well;
  • indicate in what way you'd be an asset;
  • mention your biggest past achievements.

Because no matter the format, you're still expected to present your skills and convey enthusiasm about the job.

Alternatively, you can also try to find a relevant manager or a recruiter online (either on the company pages or LinkedIn) to whom you can send a brief follow-up email with an attached cover letter. 

Now that we've covered the basics, there are several other tips that you should keep in mind to elevate your cover letter to the next level: 

  • Keep it short. Limit your cover letter to three to four paragraphs and a maximum of one page. Hiring managers are busy people who often don't have time for reading long texts.
  • Keep it clean and easy on the eye. Take a look at how this article is written. It’s replete with short paragraphs, sentences typed in bold letters, bullet points, and numbers. All of these make reading and searching for specific information easier. So, never send a letter that looks like an unreadable wall of text. The easiest way to achieve a sleek cover letter design is to use a pre-formatted cover letter template . 
  • Don’t risk being funny if it ’ s a company with a formal work culture. Poorly executed humor will hurt your chances rather than help. Being direct and dynamic is a much surer way to catch the recruiter’s attention than a number of jokes. On the other, if the company is smaller or known for its creative products, being original may in fact help your chances! 
  • Show, don’t tell. Usually, there’s no point in saying you’re “a dependable hard worker” or “a creative thinker.” Why should anyone believe such generic statements? Instead, offer an example of how these qualities helped you achieve something in the past.
  • Never write the same letter twice. A cover letter should always be tailored to a specific job application. Remember the previous sections? You’ve made a great effort to research the company and its hiring managers, so you’ve written your cover letter accordingly. This is a process you need to repeat with every application (ugh, I know). 
  • Check for typos. This goes without saying but make 100% sure your cover letter is without typos. There’s no reason to believe you're competent if you can't even type without errors. Moreover, typos automatically reveal almost criminal carelessness on your part, since every text editor nowadays has a spellchecking feature. 
  • Don't use any buzzwords. Your cover letter needs to be authentic and persuasive — and buzzwords are neither. If anything, they simply give the impression of you being someone who's just trying to fit a skewed idea of what an ideal corporate employee should be. Instead, focus on using relevant keywords from job descriptions.

Now, if you have no experience yet because you're just starting out or you're changing careers, writing a cover letter can be scary. However, a well-written letter can actually be your best friend.

And this is how you write the perfect cover letter with no experience .

In the end, there are many different ways to write a great cover letter. And even if you follow the cover letter guide above, you’ll end up with a cover letter that's invariably your own. 

It all depends on your own personality, the position you’re applying for, and the hiring manager’s preferences. 

And that's good, actually! 

Still, there's a lot to learn from cover letters written by other people. That's why we've selected five cover letter samples that deserve your attention. 

Each of these helped real job seekers find real jobs in real companies. They'll teach you valuable lessons you can use in your own cover letter.

1. Norwegian — Cabin Crew Cover Letter Example

This cover letter sample was provided by a real person who got hired with Kickresume’s help.

2. Volvo — Machine Learning Intern Cover Letter Example

3. tory burch — account executive cover letter example, 4. lush — sales associate cover letter example, 5. romeo — social media officer cover letter example.

Do you still need some more inspiration? You can find more examples in our cover letter library

FAQ: How to write a cover letter

250 to 400 words is the standard cover letter length range. A cover letter should never exceed one page.

Yes! Show that you can go that extra mile and stand out from the crowd of applicants.

Ideally, use a pre-formatted cover letter template. Then use a simple and professional font, such as Times New Roman. The font size should be between 10-12.

If you have the name of the hiring manager, try to find their contact on the company page or LinkedIn. If you still can't find the right person, you can address it to the whole team or HR.

This article was recently updated. The original article was written by Martin Poduska in 201 7.

Kaja Jurcisinova is a junior copywriter at Kickresume. Kaja completed her undergraduate degree in Art History at the University of St Andrews in 2018 and graduated with a Master’s in Arts and Culture from the University of Groningen in 2021. She was an intern at multiple cultural institutions across Europe, including the Dutch Museum Association in Amsterdam, the Matter of Art Biennale in Prague, and the European Cultural Centre in Venice. At the moment, she resides in Visby on the Swedish island of Gotland.

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CVs & Résumés

  • Sep 7, 2023
  • 17 min read

How to Format a Cover Letter in 2024 (with Layout Examples)

Your cover letter’s design and structure are just as important as its content.

Chris Leitch

Chris Leitch

Editor-in-Chief & Résumé Expert

Reviewed by Electra Michaelidou

How to format a cover letter

A well-written and targeted cover letter is an essential part of any job application, with many hiring managers and recruiters arguing that it’s probably even more important than a résumé . After all, it’s your chance to share your story and prove that you have what it takes to contribute to your target company’s success — and go beyond just the cold, hard facts of your résumé.

But while your skills and accomplishments, and your overall fitness for the job you’re applying for, are what really matter in your cover letter, how you present and organize that information can make or break your chances of getting invited to an interview . Indeed, a poorly formatted and designed cover letter will likely find its way to the trash bin — even if you’re the most qualified candidate for the position.

To make sure the very opposite happens, I’ll walk you through how to properly format your cover letter in 2024, as well as provide some practical tips, strategies and examples for job search success .

How to structure your cover letter

Let’s begin with the structure of a winning cover letter, which generally looks like this:

  • Date and inside address
  • Professional greeting
  • Opening paragraph
  • Middle paragraph(s)
  • Closing paragraph
  • Complimentary close

Below, I’ll walk you through each component of a cover letter’s structure, step by step.

Although not strictly necessary, I recommend preparing an outline of your cover letter before you begin writing it. This will help you keep everything organized and keep you on track when you actually get round to putting pen to paper (or hand to keyboard). The same goes for your résumé!

Step 1: Start with the letterhead

The letterhead — which, as the name suggests, is the topmost part of your cover letter — contains your name and basic contact information , including your phone number and professional email address.

Your name (the one you go by professionally, sans any nicknames!) appears first, typically in a larger font size than everything else (between 20 and 24 pts). You can set it in bold, all caps, a different font or a different color (or a combination of these) to make it stand out more.

Below this, you can optionally add your professional title or a short headline (eg: “Bilingual Customer Service Representative with 8 Years’ Experience”). Set this in a smaller font size than your name, but larger than your letter’s body, typically between 14 and 18 pts.

Then, add your contact information , specifically your phone number, email address and postal address or, preferably, general location (city and state or country). Set this information to 10–12 pts and use bolded labels such as “Phone:” for each item. To save space, I recommend keeping everything together on one line, separating each item with a symbol like a round bullet (•) or a vertical line (|).

Meanwhile, you can also optionally add links to your LinkedIn profile , professional social media pages, website and online portfolio.

This is what it all looks like in practice:

Jane Smith Customer Service Representative

Phone: 555-5555 | Email: [email protected] | Location: Boston, MA

Do not place your name and contact details (and other important information) in the header or footer areas of your word processor. Applicant tracking systems can’t “scan” these areas, which could result in your job application being automatically rejected.

Step 2: Add the date and inside address

As with any formal letter, you’ll need to include today’s date — that is the date that you’re sending your letter. This goes immediately below the letterhead, in the letter’s main body.

Make sure to format the date according to local conventions. If you’re applying for a job in the US, then you’d format the date as “Thursday, September 7, 2023”. But if you’re targeting jobs in the UK, for example, then you’ll have to switch around the month and date, and omit the comma before the year, like so: “Thursday, 7 September 2023”.

Underneath the date, write the inside address , otherwise known as the recipient’s address. This should include the hiring manager’s name and job title (or department name, if you don’t know who to address your letter to), the company name and the company’s business address.

Here’s an example:

Thursday, September 7 2023

Ms Olivia Johnson HR Manager Company ABC 123 Main Street New York City, NY 12345

If you’re addressing your cover letter to a woman, make sure you follow proper title etiquette: “Mrs” for married women, “Miss” for unmarried women and “Ms” when a woman’s marital status is unknown. Of course, academic and professional titles like “Prof” and “Dr” should always take precedence over common titles like “Mr” and “Ms”.

Step 3: Open with a professional greeting

A cover letter calls for a courteous and professional greeting to start it off — a simple “Dear” will suffice, followed by the recipient’s name and a comma. (Do not start your letter with an informal greeting like “Yo!” or “Hey”. Remember: you’re writing a professional letter to a potential employer, not your work buddy .)

Below are some examples of professional greetings for a cover letter:

  • Dear Mr Hemsworth,
  • Dear Mrs Osbourne,
  • Dear Miss Brontë,
  • Dear Ms Greene,
  • Dear Mx Lopez,
  • Dear Dr Grey,

You’ll usually find the hiring manager’s name and contact details listed in the published job advertisement, but if you come up empty, you’ll need to do some detective work. Start by checking the company’s website (specifically their “Team” page) to find out who is the head of the department you’d be working in. If you found the job on LinkedIn , double-check the ad, which often identifies who posted the ad. If all else fails, contact the company directly and just ask who the contact person is.

If, after all your research, you were unable to locate the hiring manager’s name, consider using one of these greetings:

  • Dear Hiring Manager,
  • Dear HR Manager,
  • Dear [Department] Hiring Manager,

Whatever you do, stay away from generic and impersonal greetings like “Dear Sir or Madam” and, worse still, “To Whom it May Concern”.

Step 4: Write an introductory paragraph

This is the part where you actually start writing the body of your cover letter, beginning with an introductory paragraph that explains to the reader who you are, why you’re writing and how you can contribute to the company’s success.

But it needs to be catchy. That means staying away from the same generic, boring template that everyone else is using: “My name is [Name] and I am writing to the apply to the [Job Title] position at [Company Name].”

Although you could argue it’s straight to the point, hiring managers are all too familiar with that specific formula, so it’s hardly memorable. Instead, hook the reader with a creative and unique introduction by telling a story or a clever anecdote, or even bringing up something newsworthy, like so:

I recently came across an article in Forbes magazine in which Company ABC was highlighted for its commitment to renewable energy and sustainable business practices – all while achieving double-revenue growth. After reading this article, I was inspired to work with your company , and I was excited to see that you had an opening for a Sustainability Specialist. With my track record of promoting greener workplaces and reducing organizations’ carbon footprint by up to 45%, I believe I am a strong candidate for the position.

Step 5: Explain why you’re a great fit in the middle paragraphs

The middle paragraphs of your cover letter are probably the most important, and you need to keep the hiring manager’s attention while describing what you bring to the table and explaining why you want to join their company. Usually, this is done in one or two short paragraphs.

It’s incredibly important to tailor your experience, skills and qualifications to the company’s specific needs — not your own goals , professional or otherwise. After all, no employer wants to feel like they’re a steppingstone to something bigger and better.

Through my 10-year experience of successfully promoting and managing green business initiatives while developing strong relationships with businesses, I have become well-versed in ensuring compliance to both local and national environmental regulations while achieving and exceeding sustainability goals. In my current role at Company XYZ, meanwhile, I have supervised the development and delivery of training materials to different teams and stakeholders, resulting in the reduction of our carbon emission by 22%.

I’ve been following Company ABC for years and I know the company’s current plans involve developing environmentally sustainable products. This is a great match to both my personal and professional interests, and it is an exciting opportunity for me to leverage my environmental science skills and knowledge.

Step 6: Wrap up with a call to action

The final paragraph of your cover letter is your final pitch to the employer, showing them that you’re passionate about — and that you’re the right person for — the job.

Here, you should end with a call to action by inviting the reader to take the next step, like contacting you for an interview, reviewing your résumé or online portfolio , or requesting additional information — or a combination of these. Also, take this opportunity to thank the hiring manager for taking the time to read your application.

Here’s a practical example:

Thank you for taking the time to review my application. I believe my skills and qualifications make me an ideal candidate for the position, and I hope I can contribute to Company ABC’s mission of developing and applying sustainable solutions to real-world problems. I would appreciate the chance to talk with you to discuss my candidacy further.

Step 7: Use the right formal closing

All that’s left to do now is end your cover letter with a formal closing (or complimentary close), followed by a comma, for example:

  • Best regards,

Kind regards,

  • Thank you for your consideration,
  • With best regards,
  • Yours respectfully,
  • Yours sincerely,

Whatever you do, avoid informal or otherwise unprofessional closings like “Cheers,” “Take care,” or, worst of all, “Love,”.

Underneath the closing, you should include your name, while it’s also a good idea to include your contact information here again, especially if you’re emailing your application.

Here’s what this part should like when everything’s put together:

Sustainability Specialist 555-5555 [email protected]

If you’re sending your application via snail mail, add one or two line spaces between the formal closing and your name to make room for your handwritten signature.

Bonus: End with a PS

You might think that a PS (short for “postscript”) has no place on any kind of formal letter, but it can be a nice little touch on a cover letter — if done thoughtfully. In fact, it’s actually one of the most commonly overlooked tricks up a jobseeker’s sleeve .

Indeed, as hardly anyone ever uses a PS in their cover letter, recruiters will be naturally drawn to it and will be more inclined to the rest of what you have to say. Not only does it provide you with a unique opportunity to stand out from the crowd, but it’s also an excellent way to encapsulate your unique selling proposition to potential employers in one or two short sentences, like so:

PS: My fluency in Japanese, Korean and Filipino can be of great assistance in the firm’s efforts to expand in the Asian market.

You should only include a PS if it adds value or meaning to your message and it doesn’t contradict or undermine the main body of your letter, like “I enjoy hiking and reading in my spare time.”

Tips for formatting your cover letter

Now that you’ve perfected the general structure and outline of your cover letter, here are some formatting tips and best practices to keep in mind when putting it all together:

1. Choose the right font

Make sure the font you choose for your cover letter is clean, professional and easy to read — and is the same as your résumé’s font choice (this helps maintain a consistent personal brand ). Some of the best cover letter fonts include Calibri, Helvetica and Garamond. As for size, stick to between 10 and 12 pts, depending on the specific font.

2. Make use of bullet points

Despite common misconception, cover letters don’t have to follow a strict paragraph structure. Indeed, you can — and should — use bullet points , particularly in the middle part of your letter, to present key information at a glance.

Stick to 3–5 bullet points , and keep them to no more than 2 lines long each. Likewise, stick to standard bullet symbols like round and square bullets — never hearts or smiley faces!

3. Keep it short

You’ll want to keep your cover letter short and sweet, not long and flowery. After all, recruiters often have to review hundreds of cover letters and résumés each day, and they don’t have the time (or the inclination) to read an entire essay.

Keep it to between half a page and one full page long — anything longer is simply overkill. Generally, you should aim for 250–400 words , roughly about 3–6 paragraphs.

4. Get the line spacing right

Make sure to separate paragraphs (and any bulleted lists) with ample line spacing. This makes your letter’s content more cohesive and less scrunched together.

But don’t just press “Enter” to manually add a line; instead, use your word processor’s spacing function to add a single line space (one line high) between each text component. In Word, you can do this in the “Home” tab. Select the paragraphs you want to update. Then, click on the “ Line and Paragraph Spacing ” icon and select “Single” from the “Line spacing” dropdown.

5. Set the page margins

Like your résumé , set your cover letter’s page margins to between 0.5″ and 1″ . Make sure to use the same settings for all sides of the document — for example, if you set the top margins to 0.5″, you should also set the bottom, left and right margins to 0.5″. If you’re using Word, go to the “Layout” tab, click “Margins”, and select one of the preset options or “Custom Margins” to define your own.

6. Maintain a uniform alignment

As all documents in the Western world are typically aligned to the left, your cover letter should follow suit. That said, you can use center or right alignment for the information in your letterhead, but everything else should always use left or justified alignment .

If you’re using a bulleted list in your letter, Word will automatically indent the bullet points; you can leave this as is or click on the “Decrease Indent” icon in the “Home” tab to push the list back to the page’s left margins.

7. Be careful with color choices

Traditionally, cover letters (and the résumés that they accompany) use a simple black-and-white color scheme : black or a dark shade of grey for the text, and white for the page background. However, you can use a third color (ideally a jewel or earth tone that complements the base color scheme) for your name at the top of the letter and any design elements.

8. Follow any special instructions

Although employers will rarely influence candidates on their cover letter or résumé’s formatting choices, it does happen sometimes. For example, they might ask you to submit your application as a specific file format, to address it to a specific person, or to use MLA style for capitalization and punctuation.

Make sure to carefully read the job description and make note of any special instructions — and follow them to a T . Ignoring these instructions can (and will) reflect negatively on your job application .

9. Be consistent

No matter how you design and format your cover letter, make sure that consistency reigns supreme . For example, if you use Calibri for one paragraph, don’t use a different font for the other paragraphs or any bulleted lists.

One more thing: make sure your letter’s overall look is consistent with that of your résumé. For example, the letterhead you use in your résumé should be the same one exactly in your cover letter.

10. Test for applicant tracking systems

Most employers use applicant tracking systems in their recruitment process, which scan résumés and cover letters for, mainly, keywords to determine whether an applicant’s skills and qualifications match the job description’s requirements. But poor formatting means that ATSs won’t be able to correctly “read” your documents, which, in turn, often means instant rejection.

As such, it’s a good idea to test your job application documents before sending them out , and the best way to do that is to copy the content into a plain text file. Does the result look disorganized, or is anything missing from the original document? If so, you’ll need to make some fixes — pronto .

Avoid using tables and other fancy graphics in your cover letter, as ATSs can’t scan these properly, if at all. Instead, prefer a clean and professional design. Remember: less is more.

Cover letter format examples

Here are some good cover letter examples (based on our professionally designed résumé templates ) to help you get started:

Internship cover letter format

Internship Cover Letter Muse Template

Get the Muse template

Professional cover letter format

Sustainability Specialist Cover Letter Powerhouse Template

Get the Powerhouse template

Sending your cover letter

You’ve done it: you’ve crafted a well-written and professionally formatted cover letter. Now it’s time to send it out to your target employer. But wait — there are some final checks you need to make, depending on how you’re submitting your application.

Via snail mail

Although most job applications are made online today, it can be better in some cases to apply the “old-fashioned” way: via snail mail. If you do, it’s a good idea to use high-quality paper for your letter, ideally with a weight of 24–32 lb and cotton content of 75–100% . You should also opt for a large envelope that won’t require you to fold your documents. Meanwhile, don’t forget to sign your name by hand!

As an email attachment

When applying for job opportunities online, you’ll either be submitting your cover letter (and résumé) as an email attachment or through an online form. In both cases, you should send your letter as a PDF document (unless the ad specifically requests a Word version) and give it a clear, descriptive name like “Jane Smith Cover Letter 2023.pdf”. For email applications in particular, remember to write an eye-catching subject line and include your digital signature.

As an email message

If you’re copying the content of your cover letter into the body of an email message instead of adding it as an attachment, then you won’t need to add a header, the date or an inside address. Simply copy in the main body of your letter (including the greeting and the closing, of course), and you’re good to go. Just make sure that you attach your résumé and that you proofread everything before you hit “Send”!

Key takeaways

Whether you’re applying for job or internship opportunities , you’ll need to include a well-written cover letter in your application package (unless the ad specifically asks you not to). But, as we learned in this article, your letter’s format is equally important as its content.

To sum up, here’s everything we covered:

  • Include a beginning, middle and end , and structure your letter in a way that tells employers your story.
  • Address the hiring manager by name , and use an appropriate complimentary close.
  • Limit your letter to one page , and make sure the content fills up at least half the page.
  • Be consistent with formatting , including fonts, colors, page margins and line spacing.
  • Save your application documents as plain text files to test for applicant tracking systems before sending them out.

Got a question about formatting your cover letter? Let me know in the comments section below!

Originally published on November 8, 2017.

Cover Letters

Finding a Job

Job Applications

how does the cover letter look like

How to Write a Cover Letter

Jacob Meade

What’s a Cover Letter?

How to write a cover letter in five steps, additional cover letter writing tips, cover letter examples, text-only cover letter examples, cover letter frequently asked questions.

A great cover letter highlights the most relevant and compelling aspects of your professional achievements, industry expertise, and qualifications. It also needs to convey why you’re drawn to a particular job or hiring organization. See below to learn about this writing approach and how you can write a cover letter that gets you more interviews for your next career opportunity.

A cover letter is a short letter that you send when applying for a job. While a resume shows you’re qualified for a job, it doesn’t allow you to speak to employers directly like a cover letter does. In today’s job search, hiring managers don’t just need to know you’re a great employee – they must see that you’re a great employee for their organization.

That’s why writing a cover letter is useful: It bridges the communication gap between your resume and an interview. In your cover letter’s first paragraph, you can tell a manager specifically why you’re attracted to their job opening or organization. You can also reveal more about your soft skills or communication style and provide context for issues such as employment gaps . Details like these may be crucial to starting a good conversation with a manager or recruiter.

Brainstorm key points

Before starting work on a personalized cover letter, you’ll need:

  • A working draft of your resume
  • A job posting or description you plan on pursuing

Once you have those two items, take 10 minutes to brainstorm and jot down on a blank document or sheet of paper why this job interests you. What does the role or organization share with your background or goals? For instance, maybe it’s an outside sales role in an industry you’re eager to return to. Or maybe the company’s brand or business model appeals to you somehow.

Research the employer. If a job posting gives few details on the hiring company, visit their website for more info. In addition to the home page, look at their “About Us” or “Careers” pages. Also, visit any linked social media pages to see how they present themselves. Are they formal and sophisticated, or down-to-earth and approachable? Figuring out the company’s voice makes it easier to strike the right tone in your cover letter.

When you’re done brainstorming, review your notes: Do any stand out as important or persuasive? Take another 10 minutes to brainstorm and elaborate on them. Repeat this process until you have at least two or three concise sentences that speak to the job opening at hand.

I’m interested in applying for the marketing manager position at Cadence Inc. Your brand’s product set and focus on corporate clients are ideal fits for my skills and experience. As a results-driven professional with deep knowledge of local markets, I can help your team significantly increase its revenue in 2024.

In your cover letter’s first paragraph, show hiring managers you read their job posting and are responding to it directly. It helps distinguish your cover letter from your resume. This also gets you past applicant tracking systems and sets the stage for a good discussion about how you fit the role and the office’s work culture.

This approach takes longer than sending the same generic letter for each application. But it can shorten your overall job search by getting you more interviews for jobs that truly interest you.

To write a great cover letter, you need to structure one effectively. Each section should have a clear goal. From the introduction to your conclusion, your top priority should be focusing on impactful achievements that demonstrate the value you can bring to potential employers. The cover letter needs to tell your story and illustrate your career journey differently from the resume, exploring your nuances as an industry professional.

Your cover letter format should include the following sections:

  • Heading and contact information
  • Hook or introduction
  • Body paragraphs

Below, we’ll walk you through each step of the cover letter writing process:

1. Header and contact information

The header of your cover letter should list all essential contact information, including your name, phone number, email, address, and LinkedIn URL. This allows the hiring manager to easily reach out for more information or to schedule you for an interview. Be sure to also feature your job title as the first item in your header.

Contact Information Example

Savannah Bateman Sales Representative | [email protected] | (678) 901-2345 | Columbus, OH 01234 | LinkedIn

February 11, 2024

Emma Neal Senior Hiring Manager Staples (543) 210-9876 [email protected]

2. Salutation

You must appropriately greet the hiring manager with your cover letter opening. We recommend addressing them by name — Mr. or Ms. [Last Name]. If you’re uncertain of the person’s gender, simply write their first and last name. If you can’t find their name, use a variation of “Dear Hiring Manager.” This shows you’ve researched the company before applying and you’re fully engaged in the job application process. It’s best to avoid salutations such as “Dear Sir/Madam” or “To Whom It May Concern,” as this language feels less direct and personal.

Salutation Examples

Dear Ms. Young,

Dear Mr. Jackson,

Dear Pat Martin,

Dear Sales Hiring Manager,

3. Introduction

Building a powerful introduction is the key to making a strong first impression on the hiring manager. This sets the tone for your cover letter and allows you to immediately send a clear message that you’re the ideal candidate for the position. Highlight your years of experience and convey your interest in the opportunity. But the hook of your cover letter’s first paragraph should come in the form of a stunning career achievement.

Leading with an accomplishment that you can quantify using a powerful number or metric is a great way to maximize the impact of your cover letter opening. Select an achievement relevant to the position you’re targeting, effectively showcasing your industry knowledge and expertise. Not only does this demonstrate your past success, but it also communicates how you can positively impact future employers.

Cover Letter Introduction Example #1

With over 10 years of experience within the energy industry, I’ve managed various multi-million-dollar initiatives to bring green energy solutions to the market for Clean Power Corp. My ability to create strategic partnerships with enterprise customers and C-level executives would create immense value for your company as the new senior vice president of energy.

Cover Letter Introduction Example #2

As you can see from my attached resume, I have an advanced background in human-centered design and visual storytelling. During my time with Ultimate Wedding Planner, I developed the user interface (UI) for the launch of a new mobile application for wedding planning services, which generated over 2 million downloads within one year. My experience in application development will allow me to thrive in the user experience (UX) designer position with your organization.

Cover Letter Introduction Example #3

In my first year as a registered nurse at Temple Hospital, I achieved patient satisfaction ratings of over 93%. As a nursing professional, I’m passionate and dedicated to providing superior care to my patients using evidence-based approaches to treatment. My clinical knowledge will allow me to achieve positive outcomes for patients at your esteemed hospital.

4. Body paragraphs

The body paragraphs serve as the core of your cover letter, allowing you to describe your professional experience in more detail. Start by mentioning specifics about the company’s reputation, mission statement, products, or culture. Describe why this sparks your interest in the opportunity and how you can support the organization’s goals.

Feature a mix of accomplishments that capture the most compelling aspects of your career. In addition to quantifying your achievements, be sure to provide examples of your leadership capabilities and interpersonal skills, as it’s important to show potential employers that you’re the right fit for the team’s culture. Consider adding a bulleted list of career highlights to break up the monotony of the text on the page and maximize the readability of your cover letter.

Cover Letter Body Paragraphs Example #1:

As an executive within the energy space, I identify with West Coast Solar’s mission statement of driving the expansion of renewable energy to combat climate change. My extensive background in providing green energy solutions would aid in this mission based on my career accomplishments:

  • Led strategic initiatives to reduce carbon emissions in energy portfolios for enterprise clients valued at up to $300 million by delivering wind, solar, and nuclear energy solutions
  • Structured energy transactions valued at up to $120 million and coordinated with the CEO and executive team to identify risk factors and negotiate purchases
  • Reduced carbon footprint for enterprise customers by 5% to 15%

Cover Letter Body Paragraphs Example #2:

PeopleSoft’s reputation as a thought leader within the HR software space draws me to apply for the position. My experience as a UX designer for both Employee Software Inc. and LinkedIn has allowed me to cultivate a holistic, human-centered approach that matches the needs of your organization. I can continue to grow your reputation as an industry leader based on the following achievements from my career:

  • Managed a team of over 25 UX designers for Employee Software Inc. and interfaced with stakeholders and C-level executives to recommend large-scale redesigns for the mobile UI
  • Improved the UX for LinkedIn’s website in coordination with a team of web developers and UX designers, which improved user satisfaction by 15%
  • Drove UI development and conducted wireframing for the launch of LinkedIn’s mobile app, which generated 3 million downloads over six months

Cover Letter Body Paragraphs Example #3:

Impossible Foods’ mission to provide ethically sourced, environmentally sustainable meat alternatives strongly aligns with my core values as a brand ambassador within the plant-based food space. I can aid your brand in continuing to improve its market share based on the following achievements from my career:

  • Managed overarching marketing strategy for vegan burgers and hotdog product lines, generating $2.5 million in annual revenue, which included conducting market research on target demographics
  • Improved annual sales for plant-based burger products by $450,000 by improving packaging and visual merchandising to emphasize environmental sustainability
  • Coordinated with media outlets to manage public relations and press releases for new product releases and media coverage of production methods

5. Conclusion

The closing paragraph of your cover letter is your last opportunity to impress the hiring manager. To finish on a strong note, include a call to action (CTA) that invites the hiring manager to schedule an interview or reach out for more information. Reinforce how your industry expertise and career experience can create value for your target company and help their team continue to excel. In the last sentence of your cover letter, thank the reader for their time and consideration, as being courteous also conveys your professionalism.

Cover Letter Closing Paragraph Example #1:

I look forward to telling you more about how my background in renewable energy can help drive the adoption of green energy solutions across your customer base. You can contact me for an interview at your convenience. Thank you for your consideration.

Cover Letter Closing Paragraph Example #2:

I hope to speak with you further regarding how my knowledge of eco-friendly design features aligns with your organization’s mission. Feel free to contact me via phone or email at your convenience. I appreciate your time and consideration.

John Bergsen

Cover Letter Closing Paragraph Example #3:

I would like to schedule an interview to provide more insights into how my HR management experience can help Cigna Health improve recruiting efforts and enhance employee engagement. Feel free to contact me via phone or email at your convenience. I appreciate your time and consideration.

Anthony Gentile

Align your cover letter with the job description

Tailoring your content according to the needs of individual employers is essential for any successful job application. As you review the posting, reflect on how your industry knowledge and background match the company’s needs.

Identify exactly what potential employers are looking for in a candidate and feature specific skill sets that match the job description. Emphasize how your core values are aligned with the organization’s mission statement. Although this additional customization can be time-consuming, your chances of landing the interview are sure to increase drastically.

Quantify your professional achievements

Writing a cover letter that stands out in today’s competitive job market is no easy task. With an overabundance of qualified applicants, you need to push your cover letter toward the top of the pile. Quantifying your achievements is one of the best ways to accomplish this.

Incorporating hard numbers, metrics, and monetary figures fulfills several objectives. First, it establishes a sense of scope for your achievements and helps to paint a much clearer image of your professional experience. Another added benefit is that numbers naturally draw the reader’s eye. In a cover letter with detailed paragraphs, this can help entice the hiring manager to engage with your content more thoroughly.

Feature your leadership and communication skills

Although your industry expertise should always be at the forefront of your cover letter, it’s important not to neglect your interpersonal skills. Companies want to see you can collaborate effectively in diverse, team-based environments. Rather than simply saying you’re a strong leader or communicator, convey these skill sets by featuring tangible examples from your work history.

For instance, if you were managing a team, focus on how you helped develop your team members and put them in a position to succeed. Showcase how you helped to cultivate inclusive and collaborative work cultures to drive employee engagement and retention. These insights are far more compelling than simply mentioning mundane details related to task delegation.

Proofread your cover letter repeatedly

With such a limited window to make a lasting impression on the hiring manager, the last thing you need holding you back is poor grammar or spelling errors. These mistakes are highly distracting for the reader, effectively drawing their attention away from your qualifications. A hastily written cover letter also sends a message to hiring managers that you lack attention to detail, which is key for almost any profession.

Editor Cover Letter Example

Editor Cover Letter Examples

Human Resources Cover Letter Example

Human Resources Cover Letter Examples

Customer Success Manager Cover Letter Example

Customer Success Manager Cover Letter Examples

  • Human Resources
  • Customer Success Manager

Candace Brown  Editor | [email protected] | (123) 456-7890 | Portland, OR 12345 | LinkedIn

January 1, 2024

Allen Jones Hiring Manager Innovate Web Solutions (987) 654-3210 [email protected]

Dear Mr. Jones,

As the senior editor at Portland Web Creators Inc., I oversaw all aspects of copy editing and quality assurance for over 300 web pages across a diverse client base. I identified opportunities to enhance content quality and improve search engine optimization (SEO) performance, resulting in a 30% increase in repeat business. I’m confident my marketing and web page development expertise would be a strong asset for the editor position at your organization.

Innovate Web Solution’s reputation for producing dynamic web content draws me to apply for this position. As a senior editor, I pride myself on my ability to enhance brand messaging for client websites. I believe my experience in editing and content development will continue to grow your prestigious reputation based on the following accomplishments from my career:

  • Led the development, editing, and publishing of web page copy for client accounts valued at up to $130,000 and managed a team of over 20 copywriters, editors, and marketing specialists
  • Performed quality assurance reviews on drafts from the creative team and identified opportunities to refine language, brand messaging, and keyword optimization, which generated increases of 50% to 100% in organic traffic for customer sites
  • Coordinated cross-functionally with graphic designers, web developers, and client stakeholders to ensure alignment with brand identity and customer goals

I would like to schedule an interview to provide more insights into how my editing and SEO experience can help drive success for your clients. Feel free to contact me at your earliest convenience for any additional questions you may have. I appreciate your time and consideration.

Candace Brown

John Smith Human Resource Manager |  [email protected]  | (1654) 739-9183 | 678 Location Rd., San Antonio, TX 78206

February 9, 2024

Julie Jefferson Senior Hiring Officer The People Company (346) 024-7536 [email protected]

Dear Ms. Jefferson,

In my current position, I implemented a new employee retention plan, which resulted in a 50% reduction in the total employee turnover rate within the company. The retention plan included an employee wellness program, additional staff benefits and an internal promotions program. I believe this is a great example of my success and demonstrates that I could be a great asset to The People Company’s team.

With 12 years of experience in Human Resources and a degree in Human Resource Management, I was drawn to The People Company because of the firm’s impressive employee retention rate and reputation for high-performing staff.

If I were to secure a role at The People Company, I assure you I will bring an even greater rate of success to the team. My previous accomplishments include:

  • Improved employee satisfaction by 28% via an incentive program.
  • Increased the speed of paperwork processing time by 30% in one year.
  • Established new application requirements to increase the quality of interviewees.

I would like to set up an interview to discuss further my capabilities, work experience and the benefits I can bring to The People Company team.

P.S. — I’d also like to tell you all about how I was shortlisted for an HR Excellence award!

Selena Ramirez Customer Success Manager | [email protected] | (123) 456-7890 | Miami, FL 12345 | LinkedIn

Rachel Johnson Hiring Manager Advanced Marketing Solutions (987) 654-3210 [email protected]

Dear Ms. Johnson,

At Brand Storytelling Inc., I led the development of the customer success departments and oversaw a team of more than 60 personnel to deliver brand consulting and digital marketing services. By establishing new support models, my team improved client satisfaction scores from 85% to 94% for top accounts. I can achieve similar success for your organization in the customer success manager position.

Advanced Marketing Solutions has a reputation for excellence in its dedication to customer care, which strongly aligns with my professional background. I’m confident I can help your organization continue to enhance its delivery of marketing consulting services based on my career achievements:

  • Built, developed, and managed the customer success department and defined strategies to enhance the client experience for accounts valued at up to $15 million
  • Coordinated with the director of marketing to refine digital marketing services based on brand objectives and market expansion opportunities, resulting in a 94% customer satisfaction rating
  • Led the customer onboarding process, identified opportunities to enhance client engagement, and served as the point of contact for senior management and stakeholders

I would like to schedule an interview to provide more insights into how my expertise in organizational development can help you improve your customer success department. You may contact me via phone or email at your earliest convenience. I appreciate your time and consideration.

Selena Ramirez

Do I really need a cover letter for my job search? -

Yes, in most cases. According to statistics gathered by LinkedIn , over 60% of employers require cover letters from applicants. In addition, over 83% of hiring managers in the study noted that they frequently read cover letters and considered them during the application process. This is also supported by Forbes , who cites a study published by Business and Professional Communication Quarterly. These findings indicated that 56% of employers valued the cover letter as a part of candidate assessment.

What’s the best way to start a cover letter? -

With a clear example of your success in the role you’re after. The concept of “show, don’t tell” absolutely applies to your cover letter’s opening. For instance, don’t just tell the hiring manager you’re a “proactive program manager.” Show you’re proactive by citing a time you exceeded expectations or found a new way to enhance project oversight.

What should my cover letter’s design look like? -

Your resume’s. Carry over all of that document’s basic format settings , like font style, line spacing, and page margins. Also, copy in the exact same contact header.

How long should my cover letter be? -

No more than one page, or around 250 words. Resist the urge to tell your whole career story, even if you have extensive background in your target role. Give just enough detail to pique hiring managers’ interest so they look closely at your resume.

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Jacob Meade

Certified Professional Resume Writer (CPRW, ACRW)

Jacob Meade is a resume writer and editor with nearly a decade of experience. His writing method centers on understanding and then expressing each person’s unique work history and strengths toward their career goal. Jacob has enjoyed working with jobseekers of all ages and career levels, finding that a clear and focused resume can help people from any walk of life. He is an Academy Certified Resume Writer (ACRW) with the Resume Writing Academy, and a Certified Professional Resume Writer (CPRW) with the Professional Association of Resume Writers & Career Coaches.

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Frank Hackett

Certified Professional Resume Writer (CPRW)

Frank Hackett is a professional resume writer and career consultant with over eight years of experience. As the lead editor at a boutique career consulting firm, Frank developed an innovative approach to resume writing that empowers job seekers to tell their professional stories. His approach involves creating accomplishment-driven documents that balance keyword optimization with personal branding. Frank is a Certified Professional Resume Writer (CPRW) with the Professional Association of Resume Writers and Career Coaches (PAWRCC).

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See How a Good Cover Letter Looks Like

good cover letter

Today, a generic, poorly written, or simply ineffective cover letter doesn’t work anymore. There is no tolerance for misspellings or typos unless you’re lucky enough to have your potential employer overlook such mistakes. Forget about using stock sentences. These are those things that do not give you an extra advantage.

According to a recent Jobvite survey, 26 percent of recruiters still find value in cover letters . Even with many recruiters ignoring cover letters, it is still worth the effort to write the best one.

Ideally, recruiters are seeking people who can ease their pain. Apart from doing their job, a person should be ready to go above and beyond their duties and help the company hit its goals. Looking for the best cover letters, recruiters pick the one that suggests solving the recruiter’s pain.

Next to your resume, a killer cover letter comes in when differentiating yourself from a sea of job seekers on the market.

Apart from a set of necessary skills, recruiters are hoping to find a person with the right personality that aids their team. So, fire up something that enables the recruiter to quickly connect the dots between what’s needed, and what you have to offer.

‘ Not sending a cover letter is a sign of laziness , says Jodi Glickman, a communications expert and author of Great on the Job. ‘ Even if one in two cover letters get read, that’s still a 50 percent chance that you benefit from writing one. ’

Let your cover letter be your secret weapon for winning over a recruiter. Done right, the best cover letter makes people reading it feel the urge to read it right to the end.

Saying that you have some reasons why you are the best candidate for the position will make any recruiter keep reading. Well, he/she will not be able to help but find out what your two or three reasons are.

To get you up to speed, according to a recent survey, 50 percent of recruiters consider a logical order for a cover letter presentation as one of the most important features. The same amount of participants highlighted poor spelling and grammar as their number #1 reason for application turn-off .

Go the extra mile, and outline your qualifications and background as succinctly and professionally as possible. The more tailored your cover letter is to the job you’re applying for, the better the chance to hit it big time. So, do your job right.

Best Way to Write a Cover Letter That Can Make All the Difference

Whatever you do, start with a specific introduction underlining the major issues a potential employer is dealing with. Sometimes that’s the toughest part.

Find out more about the company and the specific job you want. Once you have that pain point, go ahead and learn the challenges in your potential job.

Considering that a resume points out your transferable skills, your cover letter should explain those skills with a little more flavor, color, and personality. Simply put, the best cover letter for a resume should be like you’re whispering: ’Hey! Look at this! Look at me!’

It’s in your interest to set your cover letter to 1-inch margins with the traditional 12-point font, meaning it is the best font for a cover letter. Do your best to keep it all to a page or less. Set it out like a business letter. Many times recruiters do not even look at a cover letter if it’s over a page. With reason, how long do you pay attention to a commercial?

The best way to start writing a cover letter is to make research. With a myriad of the best cover letter examples , there’s no silver bullet. Instead, what’s more important, there’s no need to make it difficult.

cover letter example

Cover Letter Best Practices You Need to Pay Heed To

There’s no ‘perfect’ cover letter. Yet, if you want to write the best cover letter, make sure it’s unique, reflecting your experience and personality.

The best thing is that there are no rigid rules to follow, still following cover letter best practices can influence your chances of securing an interview.

With the initial purpose to ask for a job, the best cover letter should be short and sum up the resume. Thus, the best cover letter for the job needs to be a cold hard sell.

Be confident and sell your expertise as if you are writing the best sales cover letter for the sales sector.

The better you can sell yourself, the bigger the chance to get the interview. Yet, don’t fly high by overselling yourself, by making claims which if true would mean you don’t need a job as you are already hugely successful.

Open strong. Don’t write ‘ I’m applying for A job that I saw in B place ’. That’s a waste of text. Remember, potential employers, are more interested in what you can bring to the table in the first instance. So, the best cover letter opening is focused on your skills that relate to the job you are applying for. Instead, try to make it sound like ‘ I’m writing in response to the opening for AAA, which I believe may report to you. I can offer you seven years of experience managing communications for top-tier BBB firms, excellent project management skills, and a great eye for detail… ’ Let a potential employer bespeak ‘ This is the best cover letter I ever received! ’

get cover letter

Again, a logical and professional structure is key. Make sure it includes your address, contact details, the recipient’s address, the date, a greeting, an introductory paragraph, three to five paragraphs of text, a closing paragraph, and a closing statement. If you feel the task is too complicated for you, consider the help of the expert cover letter writer online .

Authenticity matters. Never put something on your cover letter you can’t back up 100 percent. The fact is true; this is just of the many pet peeves recruiters hate to see in cover letters.

How to Write the Best Cover Letter?

Ideally, a cover letter will make a recruiter smile, call you and give you an interview. With plenty of boring old cover letters, let yours be the best cover letter ever a recruiter received.

Think on your feet. Avoid cut & dry cover letter examples that will get your application chucked in the trash. If you want to get hired, don’t let your cover letter blend in with the crowd.

Instead, impress your potential employer with the first sentence and make it worth checking out.

To get more inspiration, it makes sense to check different solutions for creating the best cover letter ever received. Making a good first impression might be easier with the help of the best cover letter Reddit templates available out there.

Bottom Line

Want to snag the attention of a recruiter and convince him/her that you’re someone the company needs to get to know? Writing the best cover letter can certainly help.

So, do yourself a favor and proofread your cover letter over and over, until you are sick of looking at it. Do not let any glaring cover letter mistake hold you back from landing your dream job. Help your stellar job personality get noticed in a sea of mediocrity.

how does the cover letter look like

  • Cover Letter Tips

What Does a Great Cover Letter Look Like in 2024?

Marsha Hebert, professional resume writer

14 min read

Orange geometrical pattern

If you’re applying for jobs, there is likely to be one question on your mind: What does a great cover letter look like?

The truth is that there seems to be a lot of misinformation out there. You’ll even find people who will tell you that the tried-and-true cover letter is no longer necessary . Don’t believe that for one second – it is simply not the case. 

Your cover letter has the unique potential to grab a hiring manager’s attention and leave them wanting more. The fact is that your cover letter is a critical part of a well-constructed job application, and is often the best way to ensure that you properly sell yourself as the best candidate for any desired position.

Of course, knowing that you need to write a cover letter is just one part of the equation. You also need to know what a good cover letter looks like. In this guide, we’ll look at an example of what a good cover letter looks like, and break down the reasons experts like this format.

Example of a good cover letter

Before you even put pen to paper, there’s one thing that you need to do. Start with the right format. Hiring managers expect a certain structure in the cover letters they review. Stray from this and you could do your application more harm than good. With that in mind, you’ll want to use the standard business letter format for the cover letter, as follows: 

Contact information. Often provided in the header, your contact information should be clear and easy for the hiring manager to read. Keep in mind that the details you provide need to match those on your resume. If these two things are different, your cover letter may be flagged by the ATS or make your application package look inconsistent. 

The date. Next up, you should include the date that you are sending the application. Ensure that you use a standard format here. For example, you could use “MM/DD/YYYY” as your structure. Equally, you may want to write the date out in full. Whatever approach you take, be sure to double-check that the date is correct. 

Recipient’s details. Now that you’ve provided your basic details, it’s time to move on to the recipient’s contact information. That includes their formal name and the business for which they work. As a general rule, you should know who you are addressing your cover letter to. Sometimes, the hiring manager’s name will be listed on the job posting. If it’s not there, it is worth a quick call to the company ahead of applying. That way, you can make sure that the information you are sharing is right.

Salutation/greeting. Once you’ve dealt with all of the red tape above, the next step is to directly address the reader. You should avoid casual greetings, such as “Hi” or even “Hey” as these can appear unprofessional. On the other hand, you also need to steer clear of the old-school “To whom it may concern.” Instead, go for something more personalized. For example, you can use “Dear Mr. Smith,” or, on the off-chance that you don’t know their name, “Dear Hiring Manager.” The choice is yours. 

Cover letter body.  The cover letter body is the main bulk of this document. On average, you should write three to four paragraphs, explaining why you are the ideal candidate for the position. Later in this guide, we will take a look at some of the ways that you can make this section of your cover letter stand out from the crowd.

Call to action. At the end of your cover letter, you should add a strong call to action (CTA) . This is a phrase or statement that encourages the reader to reach out to you. You may want to tease them and say that you have more to reveal at the interview stage of the process, for example. Alternatively, you could reaffirm that you are enthusiastic about the prospect of the job opportunity and want to know more.

Now that you understand what structure your cover letter should take, let’s talk about what a cover letter should look like in 2024. 

Your First Name, Last Name

Number |  Email Address | LinkedIn URL

Today's Date

Mr. John HiringGuy

Hiring Manager

1234 Big Money Lane

Anytown, State, and ZIP

Re: Customer Service Manager Opening at ABC Corp

Dear Mr. HiringGuy:

I was very intrigued and excited to receive notice of your open position for a Customer Service Manager and am hopeful that you will be open to discussing the job with me in an interview.

I have followed your company’s progress for some time and have been impressed with the strides you have made in bringing innovative communications solutions to a global audience. ABC Corp’s commitment to changing the face of modern media has inspired much of my own career progress over the last several years.

My recent background has involved work as a Customer Service Director for outbound tech and service support at XYZ Inc. – a position that has provided me with hands-on experience in many of the same types of projects that ABC Corp routinely undertakes. In my time at XYZ, I have been responsible for leading our outbound team to ensure client satisfaction in the area of product returns, refunds, and damaged products. I was also involved in organizing and implementing the company’s most recent CRM upgrade, which increased service rep productivity by 18.2%.

In addition to my strong record of experience in technology and communications, I would also bring to the position an equally strong skill set that includes proficiencies in CRM technology and workflow software. I have also recently undertaken a managerial qualification to help me to better support team members. My attached resume provides a complete picture of these skills and qualifications.

Again, I am excited to have the opportunity to apply for your company’s position and am confident that I have the communications, customer service, and problem-resolution skills that ABC Corp needs. Please feel free to contact me at (555) 555-0000 to schedule an interview. I appreciate your time and look forward to discussing this opportunity in greater detail at your earliest convenience.

First Name, Last Name

Why this is the perfect cover letter template

The above cover letter example is certain to turn a hiring manager’s head for all the right reasons. To help you understand what works so well about the above, we’re going to break things down for you. Here are some of the reasons that the cover letter example is better than the vast majority that an average hiring manager comes across. 

1. Direct and to-the-point

First up, there’s no messing around here. The cover letter example above is direct and gets right to the point. As you may already know, the average hiring manager doesn’t have a wealth of time to spend reviewing each new application. For that reason, this letter doesn’t waste any precious time with a preamble. It gets straight in there. 

This cover letter template immediately mentions the position the candidate is targeting, which lets the hiring manager know what they can expect from the application from there on. It also shows that the candidate has done their research in advance. Put simply, they have tailored the cover letter to meet the employer’s needs, rather than using a one-size-fits-all approach. By getting straight to the point with the right information, you can quickly and easily set yourself apart from the competition. 

Expert Tip: Proofread like a professional! 

Typos and spelling mistakes won’t win you an interview. If your cover letter is littered with these annoying problems, the hiring manager won’t be impressed. It doesn’t matter how great the content of your application is if you fail to fix these grammatical issues. 

With that in mind, you absolutely need to make proofreading a priority . Take the time to double-check your cover letter before you submit it. You can also use a spell-checker program, such as Grammarly, to give yourself that extra peace of mind. 

2. Highlight your best qualifications

Let’s talk about how the cover letter positions the candidate’s qualifications. The best cover letter templates include a brief summary of qualifications. Your resume will provide more details. The cover letter should entice the manager to look into your resume.

With that in mind, it’s a savvy move to mention your qualifications in passing. You can weave them into the body of the content to show the ways that they support you in the working world. Don’t spend too much time on this part of your cover letter – you need to keep things short and sweet. Simply mention your training or qualifications and then move on. 

3. Provide value through achievements and numbers

Quantifying your experiences is a quick and easy way to boost the potential of your cover letter. This approach provides the reader with evidence of your track record. So, when you are writing the letter, consider how you can add in extra details. Can you slide some statistics into the mix? Are you able to offer up a timeline to prove your point? 

Like your resume or CV, your cover letter should contain quantifiable achievements. A common mistake job seekers make on their cover letter is simply listing out job duties and work history instead of accomplishments. With hundreds of job seekers applying for a single position, you need to know how to stand out. Include numbers and flourishes of information wherever possible to capture the attention of the employer.

Expert Tip: Make sure you have the whole package!

We’ve talked about how to perfect your cover letter, but why stop there? Professional resume writers know how to organize your resume to appeal to hiring managers. Check out our guide to the best resume writing services to find your perfect fit!

4. Tailored for the company and hiring manager

Research matters when you’re applying for jobs. When the hiring manager reads your cover letter, it should be instantly clear that you have done some. That means delving into the wants and needs of a business, and ensuring that you tailor your cover letter to meet them.

The above cover letter template mentions the company name and shows the candidate took the time to do some research. This shows employers and the hiring manager a strong desire to work for the company. Blasting out the same cover letter to every employer and job application won’t get you very many interview requests. 

EXPERT TIP: Unleash your inner Sherlock Holmes! 

When you’re applying for a job, it truly pays off to do some detective work. Take the time to find out as much as possible about the business at hand. Here’s where you can start: 

Google. See what happens when you Google the business. What news articles come up? Can you find recent press releases? What is the buzz around the business and what do you need to know before you apply?

Company website. You want to take a look at the business’ website. What information can you find there? Is there a “blog” or a “news” section? What details can you learn about the hiring manager? Do some digging here. 

Social media. Chances are, the business has a social media presence. If it does, you should take a look at it before you write your cover letter. This approach allows you to get to know the public-facing side of the business ahead of time. 

5. Stay employer-focused

Whenever you are writing a cover letter, think like the employer. What do they want to know? What can you bring to the table? The candidate in the above example shows how they will be beneficial to the company and doesn’t just type out an objective or summary of what they've done. 

You can do the same when you start working on your cover letter. Make sure to show the hiring manager how you will benefit the company with your skill set, work experience, and other qualifications. There are plenty of ways that you can demonstrate your worth to the reader. Review your cover letter before sending it and make sure that it hits the mark. 

A good cover letter matters. Naturally, your cover letter will be slightly different for the company you’re applying for, since it should be customized to match your unique history, skill set, and desired job position. However, the basic structure and level of enthusiasm found in this cover letter example should serve you well in most situations.

Tips on how to make your cover letter look great

You already know how to structure and write your cover letter – but looks matter too. So, what does a great cover letter look like in 2024? When you’ve sorted out the content of this letter, you should spend some time making sure the design is on point. Recruiters spend just seven seconds assessing each new application. That means that you need to make the right impression quickly. Take a look at these handy design tips to help you along the way. 

Avoid including too much information 

Generally speaking, your cover letter should be 300 words or less. It should fit onto one A4 document and not run onto two pages. When the hiring manager looks at your cover letter, they should be able to gather all of the information that they need quickly. So, keep things short and sweet. You don’t want to confront them with a wall of endless text. If you are having a hard time saying what you need to say in that word count, try editing out unnecessary details. Look back at your cover letter and consider what parts are essential. 

Stick to a professional font

The typeface you use says more about you than you might imagine. When the reader first glances at your cover letter, they won’t have all that much to go on. However, if you have used a wacky font – such as the dreaded Comic Sans – you could damage your chances of success. If in doubt, choose a typeface that is easy to read and looks the part. Popular choices include Helvetica, Times New Roman, and Georgia, for example. Should you be unsure whether your cover letter looks good, ask a friend to take a moment to review it. 

Get the spacing right from the start 

Nobody wants to read an endless stream of consciousness. When you are writing a cover letter, you need to make it visually appealing to the reader. That means breaking up the text into manageable paragraphs. That way, it will be easy for the hiring manager to skim your application and pick out the key details. The simpler you make their job, the more likely you are to land that all-important interview. So, be sure to remove any pesky barriers for them.

Look for any inconsistencies 

Attention to detail matters in most jobs. When you are creating your cover letter, you need to make sure that everything matches. For example, if you copy and paste the text from another page, does the font still look the same? Is there a difference in the size of the text? Can you see anything that jumps out to you? Look for any stylistic inconsistencies that will make the hiring manager pause. You don’t want to give them any reason to think twice about your application. Pay close attention to the finer parts of your cover letter here. 

Stick to black and white 

Think that you can grab the hiring manager’s attention with a colorful cover letter? Think again. Black and white is the standard format when it comes to this type of document. If you stray from that, you may hinder your chances of landing the job before they have begun. Opting for an overly creative look might not go down as well as you imagine. Play it safe. 

Don’t use imagery on your cover letter 

Imagery has no place on your cover letter. Whether it’s a graph, a headshot, or even a logo, you need to avoid including it on this part of your application. Keep in mind that your cover letter is a formal document. It is you expressing your interest in the vacancy at hand. For that reason, you need to make sure that it does the job. 

For example, you might think that including a graph that demonstrates your sales success is a winning idea. However, this addition is likely to stick out for all the wrong reasons. As if that wasn’t bad enough, it could confuse the ATS software , meaning that your application ends up in the trash.

Final words 

Cover letters still matter – so don’t let anybody tell you otherwise. The letter is your only chance to talk directly to the hiring manager about your resume. Don’t waste that golden opportunity. With the right resume and a powerful cover letter, your job search effort should be rewarded with a dream job that’s perfect for your needs. Why not get started today?

Now that you know how to perfect your cover letter, let’s talk about your resume. Check out our free resume review today and boost your chances of landing your next interview and getting hired faster than ever. 

Recommended reading: 

How to Write a Cover Letter When Changing Careers

How to Write an Executive Cover Letter: Example and Tips

Should You Combine Your Cover Letter and Resume into One Document?

Marsha Hebert, Professional Resume Writer

Marsha is a resume writer with a strong background in marketing and writing. After completing a Business Marketing degree, she discovered that she could combine her passion for writing with a natural talent for marketing. For more than 10 years, Marsha has helped companies and individuals market themselves. Read more advice from Marsha on ZipJob's blog .

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how does the cover letter look like

  • Health and social care
  • Public health
  • Health protection
  • Immunisation
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination programmes letter
  • NHS England
  • UK Health Security Agency

Introduction of new NHS vaccination programmes against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

Published 24 June 2024

Applies to England

how does the cover letter look like

© Crown copyright 2024

This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] .

Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.

This publication is available at

24 June 2024

  • chief executives
  • chief operating officers
  • medical directors
  • chief pharmacist
  • chief nurses
  • head of midwifery

Integrated Care Boards ( ICB ):

  • public health directors
  • clinical leads
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For onward cascade to:

  • general practices
  • paediatricians
  • NHSE regional directors
  • NHSE regional chief midwives and heads of midwifery
  • NHSE regional medical directors
  • NHSE directors of nursing
  • NHSE regional directors of commissioning
  • NHSE regional directors of primary care and public health commissioning
  • NHSE regional heads of public health commissioning
  • NHSE regional heads of primary care
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  • all directors of public health


  • Nursing and Midwifery Council
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  • Society of acute medicine

Dear Colleagues,

Introduction of new NHS vaccination programmes against respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV )

Following guidance from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation ( JCVI ), we are writing to systems to set out next steps for delivery of 2 new respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV ) vaccination programmes from 1 September 2024, for older adults and during pregnancy for infant protection.

RSV  is a common respiratory virus that that can cause serious lung infections. While RSV infection can occur at any age, the risk and severity of RSV and its complications are increased in older adults and in neonates and small babies, and it has a considerable impact on individuals and NHS services during the winter months.

Following successful completion of a competitive tender and with funding approved from the Department of Health and Social Care ( DHSC ), we are pleased to be able to provide further information about the programme. We ask that you share this with all local partners involved in commissioning and delivering the programme.

Programme for older adults aged 75 to 79 years old

All adults turning 75 years old on or after 1 September 2024 will be eligible for the routine programme and should be offered a single dose of the RSV vaccine on or after their 75th birthday. A one-off catch-up campaign for those already aged 75 to 79 years old on 1 September 2024 should be undertaken at the earliest opportunity with the aim of completing the majority by 31 August 2025. To offer the best protection, we are asking systems and providers to vaccinate as many people as possible during September and October 2024 prior to the expected RSV season. In line with JCVI guidance, individuals will remain eligible until the day before their 80th birthday, with the exception of people who turn 80 in the first year who have until 31 August 2025 to get vaccinated.

This campaign will be commissioned from general practice as an essential service, starting from 1 September 2024. In addition, NHS England ( NHSE ) will be commissioning a number of community pharmacies to deliver the programme. Further details will be shared in due course.

Programme for pregnant women to protect infants

All women who are at least 28 weeks pregnant (the eligible cohort) on 1 September 2024, should be offered a single dose of the RSV vaccine, through commissioned services. After that, pregnant women will become eligible as they reach 28 weeks gestation and remain eligible up to birth. The ideal opportunity to offer vaccination would be at the 28-week antenatal contact ( ANC ), following prior discussion at the 20-week ANC . Providers should aim to vaccinate those already eligible on 1 September as soon as possible.

Information provided in the annexes of this letter:

Annexe A : detailed information and guidance for healthcare professionals about the RSV older adult offer.

Annexe B : detailed information and guidance for healthcare professionals about the RSV vaccination offer for pregnant women to protect infants and the high-risk infant offer.

Annexe C : detailed information and guidance for healthcare professionals – both programmes.

For any operational queries, please contact your NHS England Regional Public Health Commissioning Team. For clinical queries or queries about supporting programme resources, please email [email protected] .

We would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone involved in commissioning and delivering the national immunisation programme in England.

Yours sincerely

Steve Russell, National Director of Vaccinations and Screening, NHS England

Dr Mary Ramsay CBE, Director of Public Health Programmes (including immunisation), UK Health Security Agency

Annexe A. Detailed information and guidance for healthcare professionals – Older adult programme

The joint committee on vaccination and immunisation ( jcvi ).

In June 2023, based on impact and cost effectiveness modelling, the JCVI advised that an RSV immunisation programme, that is cost effective, should be developed for older adults aged 75 years old and above. The JCVI further advised it favoured a one-off campaign as the strategy for this programme with the initial offer covering several age cohorts and then a routine programme for those turning 75 years old, with its delivery and implementation to be determined through further consultation between NHS England, DHSC , UKHSA and the devolved administrations.

Funding and service arrangements

Routine NHS-funded vaccinations and immunisations are delivered as essential services under the GP Contract from the 1 September 2024, the RSV vaccination programme will be included, as set out in this letter. Details of how the service will be commissioned will be shared via an NHS England deployment note and relevant contracting arrangements will be put in place accordingly.

Practices will be required to undertake call/recall for patients as they become eligible for the programme from 1 September. Accurate and timely recording of all vaccines given, and good management of all associated documentation, is essential as per the standards set out in the GMS Regulations and Statement of Financial Entitlement ( SFE ).

Funding will be part of the Public Health Allocation to regional commissioners annually to disseminate, as required locally.

Vaccine coverage data collection

Single dose coverage of the RSV vaccination will be collected. GP practice-level RSV vaccine coverage will be based on data automatically uploaded via participating GP IT suppliers to the ImmForm website (a website used by UKHSA and NHS to collect data on vaccine coverage and provide vaccine ordering facilities for the NHS). For the maternal programme, data will be collected monthly with an 8 week lag to allow for transfer of records and recording of live births and immunisations in women’s records. For older adults, data will be collected quarterly.

From September 2024 data will be collected on the following:

For older adults:

Denominator: the number of patients in the relevant age bands registered with a participating GP on the data extraction date.

Numerator: the number of patients in the denominator that have received the RSV vaccine between 1 September 2024 and the extraction date.

The data will be validated and analysed by UKHSA to check data completeness, identify and query any anomalous results and describe epidemiological trends. Reports will be available on GOV.UK.

Annexe B. Detailed information and guidance for healthcare professionals – pregnancy vaccination for infant protection programme

In June 2023, based on impact and cost effectiveness modelling, the JCVI advised that a RSV immunisation programme, that is cost effective, should be developed for infants. Further details can be found in the JCVI RSV statement .

Women should be offered RSV vaccination in each pregnancy from 28 weeks gestation. Infants at high risk of RSV disease should also receive passive immunisation against RSV in accordance with criteria in the Green Book, chapter 27a regardless of whether the mother was vaccinated during the pregnancy.

Where appropriate and in accordance with procurement legislation, the service may be provided under a variation to the NHS Standard Contract with current providers as determined by regional commissioners, based on population need and using the nationally provided template schedules. Where a new non-primary care provider is commissioned in accordance with procurement legislation, then the nationally provided standard contract templates must be used.

Opportunistic or on request GP delivery of immunisations will be commissioned as an essential service in the GP contract. Where commissioners may want general practice to routinely provide this service, this will need to be commissioned locally over and above the core opportunistic or on request offer and giving due regard to procurement legislation.

Funding will be provided as part of the Public Health Allocation to regional commissioners annually to disseminate, as required locally.

Vaccination event data recording

Vaccination events should be recorded using nationally agreed applications. Vaccinations provided in a GP setting will be recorded directly onto GPIT systems. Supporting information on vaccine event recording requirements will be provided to regional commissioners and commissioned providers.

Single dose coverage of the RSV vaccination will be collected.

For the maternal programme:

Denominator: the number of women registered with a participating GP on the data extraction date who delivered in the survey month regardless of gestational age at birth.

Numerator: the number of women in the denominator recorded as having received RSV vaccination between week 28 of pregnancy and delivery.

The data will be validated and analysed by UKHSA to check data completeness, identify and query any anomalous results and describe epidemiological trends.

Annexe C. Detailed information and guidance for healthcare professionals – both programmes

Vaccine supply.

The RSV vaccine Abrysvo® will be made available to order online via the ImmForm website . See the ImmForm helpsheet for information on registering for an ImmForm account. The vaccine is expected to be available to order from early August. The same Abrysvo® vaccine will be used for both the older adult and the infant programmes but will be separate items on ImmForm and the product should be managed independently where possible. Ordering controls may be in place to enable UKHSA to balance incoming supply with demand. Details on ordering will be available on ImmForm and in Vaccine Update in due course. Providers should plan to include Abrysvo® with their usual ImmForm vaccine orders rather than placing additional orders and ensure that local stocks of vaccine are rotated in fridges so that wastage is minimised. It is recommended that practices hold no more than 2 weeks’ worth of stock.

Patient Group Directions (PGDs)

A new RSV PGD template will be produced by UKHSA for NHS England areas to authorise for their commissioned services. This will be available from the PGD collection on GOV.UK.

Information and guidance for healthcare practitioners

Detailed clinical guidance on RSV and RSV vaccination is contained in chapter 27a of Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (the Green Book).

Healthcare practitioner information and guidance to support the RSV programme including an Information for Healthcare Practitioners document and a training slide set will be available from the RSV vaccination programme webpage .

Patient information materials

Patient information materials will be available on the RSV vaccination programme webpage .

All patient facing resources can be ordered free of charge from Health Publications . All users need to register to receive deliveries. If you register as a health professional, you can order 500 to 1,000 copies on the website. For larger quantities, please call 0300 123 1002.

Guidance on informed consent can be found in chapter 2 of the Green Book .

Black Triangle Scheme and reporting suspected adverse reactions

Abrysvo® is part of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency’s ( MHRA ) Black Triangle Scheme for new medicines and vaccines to allow rapid identification of new safety information. Health professionals and those vaccinated are asked to report suspected adverse reactions through the online Yellow Card scheme , by downloading the Yellow Card app or by calling the Yellow Card scheme on 0800 731 6789 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday.

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