Family Case Study Essay
The family case study gives an opportunity to analyze family dynamics using different aspects of community and family nursing that are usually acquired through a family visit. The overall purpose of the family paper is to assess the health status of a family, creating nursing diagnosis for the family while developing interventions that are based on the need of the family. This aim is to give a realistic idea on the different aspects that are included during a home visits. Home visits are important aspects of nursing because it not only creates a trusting relationship between the patient and nurse but it also gives the nurse an opportunity to meet the needs of all the family members rather than just one. The film Radio is about a mentally …show more content…
The very first encounter we have of the family is one where coach Jones, the father is not involved into the day to day life of his family and he has no idea of the whereabouts of his daughter. There seems to be a lack of family involvement in one another's lives. The lack family involvement on his parts seems to stem from a belief of gender role issue where mothers are not only involved but it is an expectation of their role within their family especially during that time period. The lack of involvement could also stem from his passion of football which he spends a lot of time off and on the field on. While weaknesses may be present, a multitude of strengths are also present, this lack of family is further seen when Radio rarely spends time with the family except for a few holiday occasions. The first strength present within the family is their level of communication. Although they are some off moments, the wife, husband and daughter both have no qualms communicating with each other when the others are not doing what they are supposed to do, there is a level of expectation each member of the family is expected to uphold. This is evident when Linda approaches her husband regarding his lack of spending time with the family mostly his daughter. At many pivotal moments throughout the movie, their communication has been effective in that it achieves the purpose in terms of creating the necessary changes within the coach. Another strength the family has is the ability to stick together when faced with adversity because of not only their acceptance of Radio who is African American but also has a
In this essay, the author
- Explains that the family case study provides an opportunity to analyze family dynamics using different aspects of community and family nursing that are usually acquired through a family visit.
- Analyzes how radio is about a mentally disabled african american man who spends his time walking around the city while listening to his beloved radio.
- Analyzes how a health issue can be traumatic for any family because it changes the dynamic of how the family will operate. radio's health status is probed when coach jones questions his mother about what is going on with him.
- Analyzes how the family's weakness is highlighted in the film. the lack of family involvement stems from a belief of gender role issue.
- Explains that radio's disability makes it difficult for him to express himself and retreat when he is overwhelmed or scared. the family was patient and supported each other no matter what the situation.
- Analyzes how discipline is not evident in the film. mary helen is a well-behaved teenage girl and does exactly what is expected of her.
- Explains that the major family conflict is between the family and the community because radio not being accepted by the townspeople or within the local community. the high school refused to accept radio because of his disability.
- Analyzes how the family lives in a nice and comfortable suburban neighborhood that seems to be filled with only white families due to the time period the movie is set in.
- Analyzes how the jones family and radio did a great job of coming together in times of stress.
- Analyzes how the family seems willing to participate in religious activities. coach jones attends a black baptist church with radio.
- Analyzes how each of the family members have some level of education just by the jobs they do. radio never had proper education due to his disability which impeded him from learning.
- Explains kaakinen's family systems theory, which assesses families as an organized unit that have a relationship with each other.
Click here to unlock this and over one million essays
Family Law Essay
The Family Law Legislation Amendment Act of 2011 and whether it has Reduced Violence and Abuse for Women and Children
Essay On My Family Case Study
My Family Case Study will examine the ‘Nguyen’ family and their current struggle with family finances. I will present the family, their history, and their response to the challenge of dealing with the crisis related to the family finances.
Family Culture Essay
It is extremely exciting that you want to come to the United States; it truly is a great place to live. However, there are a couple of subjects that you and I need to discuss, so you are not completely lost when you arrive. So the things that I will discuss and better help you understand are the family cultures in the United States, what community means and the effect it has on others around, how technology affects everyday living here, the social media, educational system and the environment, and finally the relation between self and others.
American Family Case Study
In the past 50 years, The American family structure has gone though some drastic changes. Family structure includes the combination of individuals that make up a family. There are both structural and cultural factors that have influenced the structure of the American family. Specifically, there has been a decrease in family size over the past 50 years. Structural factors are institutions that influence our lives, including family, education, religion, and policies. Cultural factors are beliefs, norms, and traditions, which guide our decisions.
Family Ties: Navigating Love and Loss
A complete walk through of the home was completed. Mr. Avery and Ms. Martinez occupy the master bedroom. This interviewer was shown where the child would sleep. The room was fully furnished, including bed and closet space. Overall, adequate space was observed both inside and outside of the home. Furthermore, the home was safe. Working smoke detectors and a fire extinguisher were located in the home. The home is on about 20 acres of mostly grass and has a pond located in far front yard. No recreational equipment was found in the backyard, where Mr. Avery has a mechanic shop where cars and various tools such a BBQ pits are located. The family was advised to never allow the child to wander by himself outside and that they must accompany at all times, as he get solder and want to play outside. Cleaning materials were under the sink. No alcohol was viewed in the home. Medication was stored in a medicine cabinet in the master bathroom. The family owns 2 dogs, 1 female Sheppard mixed and one male laborer mixed. The female dog is fully vaccinated and spayed. They stated that they just received the male dg and will get him full vaccinated well in upcoming weeks. The child’s parents reside about a hour and half away from the
Family Nursing Case Study
My personal view of what family nursing consists of and what the expected outcomes should be, coincide with treating the family as a whole. It incorporates all aspects of a person’s culture, their views, and support systems. This enables us to identify potential barriers in the care of the family. When a nurse provides adequate family nursing she is able to tailor the interventions, collaborate with outside resources, and identify the individual strengths of the family members which in turn may help aid in the healing and wellness of the family as a
Family Life Cycle Essay
Across family life-cycle literature, the arrival of a first child into the marital structure is considered to be one of the most common and key stages a family will experience during its development. Further, it also possesses the potential to be one of the most stressful examples of change within the marital relationship with the experience of having a baby being ranked at 6th out of 102 stressful life events1.
Family Therapy Case Study Essay
This family consists of BJ (65), Jing (40), Paige (16), and Sunny (14). BJ is Jing’s father, and he recently moved in with Jing and her two children. Initially, Jing came in for individual therapy; however, because her stress and depression seemed so related to difficulties going on at home, her therapist recommended that the whole family start therapy together. The intake mentioned that BJ’s wife died eight months ago, and that he moved in with Jing and her children six weeks ago. It also mentioned that Paige and Sunny are both acting out, and that it has recently gotten much worse. Paige is dating tons of boys and smoking weed, and Sunny is refusing to attend school. Paige and Sunny do not get along with BJ, and fighting has increased since they all began living together.
Essay On Family Dysfunction
Family dysfunction can be any condition that interferes with healthy family functioning. Many families experience some dysfunction during stressful times, however, healthy families are able to return to normal after the crisis that put the family is distress passes. A dysfunctional family will “have a difficult time transitioning back to normalcy after a negative major event occurs in the family” . These events can include: “parental alcoholism, mental illness, child abuse, or extreme parental rigidity. ” Unfortunately, “the effects on children can sometimes linger long after these children have grown up and left their problem families. Adults raised in dysfunctional families frequently report difficulties forming and maintaining intimate relationships, maintaining positive self-esteem, and trusting others; they fear a loss of control, and deny their feelings and reality.”
Friedman Family Health Assessment and Plan of Care
Family health is receiving substantial attention in the contemporary decades, following a growing number of unpredicted health issues. Family health assessments have become common techniques within the health care systems across the world to promote good health. Nursing Family assessment and intervention models have been developed in to assists nurses and families to identify the family issues and develop the best.
Family History Essay
This essay will explore the role gender has played in the life of my father, both in relation to him and his masculine identity and his experiences of fatherhood. My piece is based on both the experiences I have had growing up and a short interview I had with my father a few days ago. I will attempt to critically analyze the information I obtained aided by the course readings and the various concepts discussed in class with respect to the male identity and how it is affected both socially and culturally. Such concepts which are to be discussed are father - infant bonding, masculine identity, gender policing and gender division of labor. I will also attempt to understand how these concepts apply to my father’s life and shaped his masculinity and in turn my own.
Family Nursing Approaches
In health care, there are many different approaches throughout the field of nursing. When considering the field of family nursing, there are four different approaches to caring for patients. This paper will discuss the different approaches along with a scenario that covers that approach. The approaches that will be discussed include family as a context, family as a client, family as a system, and family as a component to society. Each of these scenarios are approach differently within the field of nursing.
Family Essay: The Importance Of Family
Everyone seems to define family differently, however, the significance of family is the same. For you, family means everything. You can always count on your parents and siblings for help and love. Family is very valuable and important to you and should never be taken for granted. No one can deny that family is the foundation of our generation. A family is where we all start our life journey and helps us grow to be successful throughout our lives.
Essay On A Supportive Family
As a young adult lady, I grew up always being told how perfect I truly was, I grew up with the unconditional support of both my parents and a strong center in family orientation. I was blessed with these luxuries and I am forever thankful. Although I control the outcome of my life and I control my thought processes and social behaviors, my family has a big impact on how I carry myself and the aspirations I set for myself. Having a supportive family makes my life easier to endure during rough patches in my life and easier to reach my goals. I’ve endured the heartaches and the painful memories, but I am never alone in my pain. I think my family is the direct cause of my naturally elevated confidence during this vulnerable phase in my life, Although I do not want to give the perception of perfection but this mindset has helped me get through the toughest patches and come out on top, it has helped me dispatch from friends when needed and form positive inferences on how healthy relationships are suppose to look like. All families have some type of unique dysfunction, the dysfunction helps with the development of “ lessons learned”. Every family has different dynamics, some are smaller, some are big, some are closer than others. The only similarity that remains is that they all make an impact on a child 's mental, physical and
Family Relationship Essay
There are so many different types of family relationships. Whatever form a family takes; it is an important part of everyone’s life. My family has played an important role in my life. Good family relationships serve as a foundation to interactions with others. Supportive families will help children to thrive. The quality of the family relationship is more important than the size of the family. Making the relationships priority, communication, and providing support for one another is key to developing relationships. Family relationships are what make up our world today; they shape the ways that we see things and the ways that we do things.
More about Family Case Study Essay
- Health care provider
Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.
To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser .
Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
- We're Hiring!
- Help Center
A Family Case Study
We would also like to thank the Barangay Officials in 76-A Bucana including PHN Ma'am Leah, PHM and the Barangay Health Workers that organized and find a proper and appropriate place for us to have our community exposure. W e w ou l d a l s o l i k e t o ex t e n d o u r gr a t i t u d e t o t h e f a m i l y o f M r s . N o S p a c e f o r a c c o m m o d a t i n g, w e l c o m i n g, a n d f o r t r u st i n g u s t o s h a r e t h e i r b a s i c a n d p e r so n a l i n f o r m at i o n t ha t m a d e o u r c a s e s t u d y s u c c e s s f u l .
Lady Carl Lorenzo
Journal of Health Science and Prevention
andi adriana amal
The purpose of this study was to find out family and government support to the community to Balo and to Kribo on health based on social factors and family attachments (kindship and social factors) in the Leininger sunrise enabler. This study uses a qualitative method with an ethnographic approach and representative based sampling as a sampling technique. The subject of this research was the community of To Balo and To Kribo. How to collect data by observation, in-depth interviews, and documentation. The techniques of data analysis and processing employedontent analysis with stages: making data transcripts, determining meaning units, summarizing and organizing data, doing data abstractions, identifying variables and relationships between variables qualitatively, and drawing conclusions. Validating data used source triangulation. The results show that obtained after conducting research on the community of to Balo and to Kribo stated that sickness and health were influenced by family a...
John Reinz Mariano
Bukal Life Journal
Robert H Munson
Publication of Bukal Life Care & Counseling Center, Baguio City, Philippines. Bukal Life Journal publishes papers and shorter works that relate to Pastoral Care, Pastoral Counseling, and Pastoral Theology
Isaiah Carlo S . Cabañero
The House of Families (HoF) at the CAMELEON Family Development Center aims to empower its partner families to foster, care for, and nurture their children. Empowering these families is vital. Through helping parents develop their capabilities in performing their roles and responsibilities towards their children, the intervention helps strengthen relationships and build support systems between and among family members. The HoF generally welcomes all families, regardless of the educational attainment, religious beliefs, or economic status of their members. It targets to involve at least 200 families who may come from the barangays of San Enrique, Passi City, and Bingawan in Iloilo Province. These families belong to poor families in rural areas. Many of them are economically disadvantaged, with fathers working either as farmers or farm laborers in the field for six (6) days a week, for 8 hours per day, while mothers often stay at home to take care of domestic work and in raising their children.
in Karma Phuntsho (ed.), Twilight of Cultures. Tradition and Change in four Rural Communities in Bhutan, Thimphu: Helvetas, 13-49.
Crisel Ratin , Krystel Tating
Journal for Quality in Public Health
ABDIMAS TALENTA: Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat
Reni Asmara Ariga
Diana Therese M Veloso
Community Health Needs Assessment Batey 2
Acta Medica Philippina
Journal of Management and Administration Provision
Global Scientific Journal
Bro. Jose Arnold L . Alferez, OCDS
Psychology and Education: A Multidisciplinary Journal
Vicente S Maravilla Jr
European Scientific Journal ESJ
Global Journal of Health Science
Health science Journal of Indonesia
Dominador N Marcaida Jr.
Carlos O . Tulali
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH
Dennis M. Bautista
Jurnal Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement)
Muhammad Jourdan Prasetyatama
ASEAN Journal of Community Engagement
Med Crave Sociology International Journal
Maitreyee Bardhan Roy
International Journal of Advances in Social and Economics
SRI RAHAYU SITUMORANG
- We're Hiring!
- Help Center
- Find new research papers in:
- Health Sciences
- Earth Sciences
- Cognitive Science
- Computer Science
- Academia ©2023
Family Case Study Case Studies
Case study 4 essay.
6. What types of care and health care support will Keith have to possibly depend upon in the future? What preparations should Keith make? (1 point)
The Family I Have Case Study
In case study nine, “The Family I Have,” we explore the relationship life of a Jewish girl named Myra during her adolescent years. Her story primarily focuses on her family relationship issues being that she neglected her family for her friends and other aspects of her life. This case study explores the relationship transition from family first to friends first as Myra went from childhood to adolescents. Like many adolescents, Myra’s shift is further driven by the newfound independence of adolescence, However, her desire for independence and means to gain it may have been more extreme than the stereotypical adolescent, causing turmoil in her and her family’s lives. Her story also analyzes the concept of family and the roles that each member plays within the unit. Eventually, Myra tries to strengthen her relationship with her family during her college years but wonders if it’s too late because the damage of their roles is already done.
Explain the Reasons Why Children and Young People's Development May Not Follow the Expected Pattern
Socially and Emotionally the family is a big influence in a child’s development. Parents have a big role by providing care and guidance for their development. Unfortunately some families cannot promote the development of a child because of the conflict among the parents. A single parent can have difficulties in boosting a better development in children and young people, sometimes a child is separated from its siblings and this can affect them too.
case study Essay
1. What is meant by the globalization of human capital? Is this inevitable as firms increase their global operations?
Famil Family Case Study
On 02/26/2016 client Gregory Spencer came to the SSO for a House Meeting with HS De La Torre. The purpose of the meeting was to develp a Housing Plan and explore other possible housing opportunities.
Family Genogram Essay
Alina’s family has many strengths and weaknesses. An important portion of family dynamics is caring. Wits present with strong bond and the appreciation that every family member has for each other. Alina is the central person that provides a lot of affection to her children as well as her husband. She always wants everyone to be happy. Also, everyone in this family have each other back. For example, when Alina was diagnosed with the breast cancer, everyone was supportive and wanted to provide help. For Alina, it was a devastating situation; she was going through emotional rollercoaster. However her family did not give up on her. Together as a time they helped Alina to go through
Teenage Pregnancy Case Study
For instance, Katharine has contacted the Family and Children’s Services to discuss the option of giving her unborn baby up for adoption. She is going against the wishes of her and James’ parents by not wanting to marry James and raise the baby together. Also, Katharine is very determined and set on the option on pursuing adoption. She wishes to give the baby a better future while allowing her and James to achieve a better life as well. In addition, Katharine is considering a career as a travel agent and knows that she would be able to handle college. In regards to her home life and upbringing, Katharine was face with many challenges. Her home was chaotic with her mother leaving the family and her father moving the family so often. Katharine is behind in school as a result, but is hopeful that she will be able to finish school and pursue a higher education. Due to her family history, Katharine has a strained relationship with her mother for leaving the family and with her father for always taking her mother back. Although Katharine has faced numerous challenges in her life, she is hopeful that she can create a better life for her and the baby by placing him/her up for adoption.
Family Endeavor: Case Study
The rental lease agreement for the use of the Sharing Station as the headquarters of Family Endeavor was completed. DCM Lead informed that Family Endeavor DCMs began to make recruiting interviews for the DCM staff and will be doing it during the rest of the week. The SETDRG Chair informed that a candidate to lead the Construction Sub-Committee was identified and a meeting will be setting to discuss availability and the configuration of the Construction Sub-Committee. Also informed that the Austin Disaster Relief Network arrived last Thursday and started to do visits on Saturday. They will be doing counseling (wellbeing checkups) and the expectations are to make contact with the entire clients (305) in the data
Children Case Study
Scenario number two occurred, along with a child who is typicaly out of breath when playing with others outside and sitting. This child asks for fruit juices and soda pop over water everyday at school. This child typically has soda pop in his lunch box which is become a nuisance at lunchtime. The other children want soda when they see this child with a soda. The other day the children were sharing the soda and I'm afraid of spreading communal illnesses.
Dysfunctional Families: How Children Are Affected Essay
When a family decides to have a child, everything changes. That child becomes a number one priority. In order for a child to lead a healthy, functional life, a family needs to be strong and functional. When a family becomes dysfunctional, the most effected is the children. The children forget their children and act out which makes them difficult to live with. If a dysfunctional family, let alone the children, knew that therapy and help was available to them, more families would become healthy. In this paper, I will prove that children in dysfunctional families can self-diagnose and be encouraged to seek help and treatment so that their future can be affected by their own mistakes and not the mistakes of their families.
Essay On Social Work Intervention
With this family I firstly had to develop an understanding of the support the mother required for change to take place. It was necessary for P to understand what type of support she required for me to support her to independence.
At the end of 2008, Interior Department Chief Earl E. Devaney launched investigations into allegations of misconduct by employees of the Department of Minerals Management Service (MMS), which collect royalties paid by companies to produce oil and gas from public lands through royalty in form. Program officials have allowed the buyer agency sell gas and oil to check the offer down after they were awarded the contract of purchase. Agency workers are exposed to the "culture of substance abuse and promiscuity" and "world-account-fueled spending oil and gas executives' in MMS. In addition, MMS considers' organization of the work that has been a question mark with a conflict of interest, and free
Case Study Essay
Que: 1:- Outline and assess TWO communication theories/models, which would help meet the communication requirements at the Government Disability Workshop.
Interactional View Theory Essay
each family member and the problem can only be transformed when addressed by outside members of
Parents Case Study
In our study majority of mothers (82%) were in the age group of 21-30, followed by the age group 31-40years (12.67%) and only (4.66%) were in the age group of 18-20 years. One third were Hindu (77.33%) and (22.67%) are Muslim; one of half beneficiaries(52.67%) belonged to OBC category. Education Profile to the Beneficiaries reveled that 44% were below matric, 43% were above the matric and 12.66% were illiterates.(Table 1). Majority were housewives (92.67%).
- Interpersonal relationship
- Decision theory
- Decision making software
An official website of the United States government
The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.
The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.
- Account settings
- Advanced Search
- Journal List
- Fam Med Community Health
- v.7(2); 2019
Fundamentals of case study research in family medicine and community health
1 Department of Psychology and Education, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
Michael D Fetters
2 Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
The aim of this article is to introduce family medicine researchers to case study research, a rigorous research methodology commonly used in the social and health sciences and only distantly related to clinical case reports. The article begins with an overview of case study in the social and health sciences, including its definition, potential applications, historical background and core features. This is followed by a 10-step description of the process of conducting a case study project illustrated using a case study conducted about a teaching programme executed to teach international family medicine resident learners sensitive examination skills. Steps for conducting a case study include (1) conducting a literature review; (2) formulating the research questions; (3) ensuring that a case study is appropriate; (4) determining the type of case study design; (5) defining boundaries of the case(s) and selecting the case(s); (6) preparing for data collection; (7) collecting and organising the data; (8) analysing the data; (9) writing the case study report; and (10) appraising the quality. Case study research is a highly flexible and powerful research tool available to family medicine researchers for a variety of applications.
Given their potential for answering ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions about complex issues in their natural setting, case study designs are being increasingly used in the health sciences. Conducting a case study can, however, be a complex task because of the possibility of combining multiple methods and the need to choose between different types of case study designs. In order to introduce family medicine and community health researchers to the fundamentals of case study research, this article reviews its definition, potential applications, historical background and main characteristics. It follows on with a practical, step-by-step description of the case study process that will be useful to researchers interested in implementing this research design in their own practice.
This article provides family medicine and community health researchers a concise resource to conduct case study research. The article opens with an overview of case study in the social and health sciences, including its definition, potential applications, historical background and core features. This is followed by a 10-step description of the process of conducting a case study project, as described in the literature. These steps are illustrated using a case study about a teaching programme executed to teach international medical learners sensitive examination skills. The article ends with recommendations of useful articles and textbooks on case study research.
Origins of case study research
Case study is a research design that involves an intensive and holistic examination of a contemporary phenomenon in a real-life setting. 1–3 It uses a variety of methods and multiple data sources to explore, describe or explain a single case bounded in time and place (ie, an event, individual, group, organisation or programme). A distinctive feature of case study is its focus on the particular characteristics of the case being studied and the contextual aspects, relationships and processes influencing it. 4 Here we do not include clinical case reports as these are beyond the scope of this article. While distantly related to clinical case reports commonly used to report unusual clinical case presentations or findings, case study is a research approach that is frequently used in the social sciences and health sciences. In contrast to other research designs, such as surveys or experiments, a key strength of case study is that it allows the researcher to adopt a holistic approach—rather than an isolated approach—to the study of social phenomena. As argued by Yin, 3 case studies are particularly suitable for answering ‘how’ research questions (ie, how a treatment was received) as well as ‘why’ research questions (ie, why the treatment produced the observed outcomes).
Given its potential for understanding complex processes as they occur in their natural setting, case study increasingly is used in a wide range of health-related disciplines and fields, including medicine, 5 nursing, 6 health services research 1 and health communication. 7 With regard to clinical practice and research, a number of authors 1 5 8 have highlighted how insights gained from case study designs can be used to describe patients’ experiences regarding care, explore health professionals’ perceptions regarding a policy change, and understand why medical treatments and complex interventions succeed or fail.
In anthropology and sociology, case study as a research design was introduced as a response to the prevailing view of quantitative research as the primary way of undertaking research. 9 From its beginnings, social scientists saw case study as a method to obtain comprehensive accounts of social phenomena from participants. In addition, it could complement the findings of survey research. Between the 1920s and 1960s, case study became the predominant research approach among the members of the Department of Sociology of the University of Chicago, widely known as ‘The Chicago School’. 10 11 During this period, prominent sociologists, such as Florian Znaniecki, William Thomas, Everett C Hughes and Howard S Becker, undertook a series of innovative case studies (including classical works such as The Polish peasant in Europe and America or Boys in White ), which laid the foundations of case study designs as implemented today.
In the 1970s, case study increasingly was adopted in the USA and UK in applied disciplines and fields, such as education, programme evaluation and public policy research. 12 As a response to the limitations of quasi-experimental designs for undertaking comprehensive programme evaluations, researchers in these disciplines saw in case studies—either alone or in combination with experimental designs—an opportunity to gain additional insights into the outcomes of programme implementation. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, the case study approach became recognised as having its own ‘logic of design’ (p46). 13 This period coincides with the publication of a considerable number of influential articles 14–16 and textbooks 4 17 18 on case study research.
These publications were instrumental in shaping contemporary case study practice, yet they reflected divergent views about the nature of case study, including how it should be defined, designed and implemented (see Yazan 19 for a comparison of the perspectives of Yin, Merriam and Stake, three leading case study methodologists). What these publications have in common is that case study revolves around four key features.
First, case study examines a specific phenomenon in detail by performing an indepth and intensive analysis of the selected case. The rationale for case study designs, rather than more expansive designs such as surveys, is that the researcher is interested in investigating the particularity of a case, that is, the unique attributes that define an event, individual, group, organisation or programme. 2 Second, case study is conducted in natural settings where people meet, interact and change their perceptions over time. The use of the case study design is a choice in favour of ‘maintaining the naturalness of the research situation and the natural course of events’ (p177). 20
Third, case study assumes that a case under investigation is entangled with the context in which it is embedded. This context entails a number of interconnected processes that cannot be disassociated from the case, but rather are part of the study. The case study researcher is interested in understanding how and why such processes take place and, consequently, uncovering the interactions between a case and its context. Research questions concerning how and why phenomena occur are particularly appropriate in case study research. 3
Fourth, case study encourages the researcher to use a variety of methods and data types in a single study. 20 21 These can be solely qualitative, solely quantitative or a mixture of both. The latter option allows the researcher to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the case and improve the accuracy of the findings. The four above-mentioned key features of case study are shown in table 1 , using the example of a mixed methods case study evaluation. 22
Key features of case study as presented by Shultz et al 22
There are many potential applications for case study research. While often misconstrued as having only an exploratory role, case study research can be used for descriptive and explanatory research (p7–9). 3 Family medicine and community health researchers can use case study research for evaluating a variety of educational programmes, clinical programmes or community programmes.
Case study illustration from family medicine
In the featured study, Japanese family medicine residents received standardised patient instructor-based training in female breast, pelvic, male genital and prostate examinations as part of an international training collaboration to launch a new family medicine residency programme. 22 From family medicine residents, trainers and staff, the authors collected and analysed data from post-training feedback, semistructured interviews and a web-based questionnaire. While the programme was perceived favourably, they noted barriers to reinforcement in their home training programme, and taboos regarding gender-specific healthcare appear as barriers to implementing a similar programme in the home institution.
A step-by-step description of the process of carrying out a case study
As shown in table 2 and illustrated using the article by Shultz et al , 22 case study research generally includes 10 steps. While commonly conducted in this order, the steps do not always occur linearly as data collection and analysis may occur over several iterations or implemented with a slightly different order.
Ten steps for conducting a case study
SPI, standardised patient instructor.
Step 1. Conduct a literature review
During the literature review, researchers systematically search for publications, select those most relevant to the study’s purpose, critically appraise them and summarise the major themes. The literature review helps researchers ascertain what is and is not known about the phenomenon under study, delineate the scope and research questions of the study, and develop an academic or practical justification for the study. 23
Step 2. Formulate the research questions
Research questions critically define in operational terms what will be researched and how. They focus the study and play a key role in guiding design decisions. Key decisions include the case selection and choice of a case study design most suitable for the study. According to Fraenkel et al , 24 the key attributes of good research questions are (1) feasibility, (2) clarity, (3) significance, (4) connection to previous research identified in the literature and (5) compliance with ethical research standards.
Step 3. Ensure that a case study is appropriate
Before commencing the study, researchers should ensure that case study design embodies the most appropriate strategy for answering the study questions. The above-noted four key features—in depth examination of phenomena, naturalness, a focus on context and the use of a combination of methods—should be reflected in the research questions as well as subsequent design decisions.
Step 4. Determine the type of case study design
Researchers need to choose a specific case study design. Sometimes, researchers may define the case first (step 5), for example, in a programme evaluation, and the case may need to be defined before determining the type. Yin’s 3 typology is based on two dimensions, whether the study will examine a single case or multiple cases, and whether the study will focus on a single or multiple units of analysis. Figure 1 illustrates these four types of design using a hypothetical example of a programme evaluation. Table 3 shows an example of each type from the literature.
Examples of published studies using the four types of case study designs suggested by Yin 3
Types of case study designs. 3 21
In type 1 holistic single case design , researchers examine a single programme as the sole unit of analysis. In type 2 embedded single case design , the interest is not exclusively in the programme, but also in its different subunits, including sites, staff and participants. These subunits constitute the range of units of analysis. In type 3 holistic multiple case design , researchers conduct a within and cross-case comparison of two or more programmes, each of which constitutes a single unit of analysis. A major strength of multiple case designs is that they enable researchers to develop an in depth description of each case and to identify patterns of variation and similarity between the cases. Multiple case designs are likely to have stronger internal validity and generate more insightful findings than single case designs. They do this by allowing ‘examination of processes and outcomes across many cases, identification of how individual cases might be affected by different environments, and the specific conditions under which a finding may occur’ (p583). 25 In type 4 embedded multiple case design , a variant of the holistic multiple case design, researchers perform a detailed examination of the subunits of each programme, rather than just examining each case as a whole.
Step 5. Define the boundaries of the case(s) and select the case(s)
Miles et al 26 define a case as ‘a phenomenon of some sort occurring in a bounded context’ (p28). What is and is not the case and how the case fits within its broader context should be explicitly defined. As noted in step 4, this step may occur before choice of the case study type, and the process may actually occur in a back-and-forth fashion. A case can entail an individual, a group, an organisation, an institution or a programme. In this step, researchers delineate the spatial and temporal boundaries of the case, that is, ‘when and where it occurred, and when and what was of interest’ (p390). 9 Aside from ensuring the coherence and consistency of the study, bounding the case ensures that the planned research project is feasible in terms of time and resources. Having access to the case and ensuring ethical research practice are two central considerations in case selection. 1
Step 6. Prepare to collect data
Before beginning the data collection, researchers need a study protocol that describes in detail the methods of data collection. The protocol should emphasise the coherence between the data collection methods and the research questions. According to Yin, 3 a case study protocol should include (1) an overview of the case study, (2) data collection procedures, (3) data collection questions and (4) a guide for the case study report. The protocol should be sufficiently flexible to allow researchers to make changes depending on the context and specific circumstances surrounding each data collection method.
Step 7. Collect and organise the data
While case study is often portrayed as a qualitative approach to research (eg, interviews, focus groups or observations), case study designs frequently rely on multiple data sources, including quantitative data (eg, surveys or statistical databases). A growing number of authors highlight the ways in which the use of mixed methods within case study designs might contribute to developing ‘a more complete understanding of the case’ (p902), 21 shedding light on ‘the complexity of a case’ (p118) 27 or increasing ‘the internal validity of a study’ (p6). 1 Guetterman and Fetters 21 explain how a qualitative case study can also be nested within a mixed methods design (ie, be considered the qualitative component of the design). An interesting strategy for organising multiple data sources is suggested by Yin. 3 He recommends using a case study database in which different data sources (eg, audio files, notes, documents or photographs) are stored for later retrieval or inspection. See guidance from Creswell and Hirose 28 for conducting a survey and qualitative data collection in mixed methods and DeJonckheere 29 on semistructured interviewing.
Step 8. Analyse the data
Bernard and Ryan 30 define data analysis as ‘the search for patterns in data and for ideas that help explain why these patterns are there in the first place’ (p109). Depending on the case study design, analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data can be done concurrently or sequentially. For the qualitative data, the first step of the analysis involves segmenting the data into coding units, ascribing codes to data segments and organising the codes in a coding scheme. 31 Depending on the role of theory in the study, an inductive, data-driven approach can be used where meaning is found in the data, or a deductive, concept-driven approach can be adopted where predefined concepts derived from the literature, or previous research, are used to code the data. 32 The second step involves searching for patterns across codes and subsets of respondents, so major themes are identified to describe, explain or predict the phenomenon under study. Babchuk 33 provides a step-by-step guidance for qualitative analysis in this issue. When conducting a single case study, the within-case analysis yields an in depth, thick description of the case. When the study involves multiple cases, the cross-comparison analysis elicits a description of similarities and divergence between cases and may generate explanations and theoretical predictions regarding other cases. 26
For the quantitative part of the case study, data are entered in statistical software packages for conducting descriptive or inferential analysis. Guetterman 34 provides a step-by-step guidance on basic statistics. In case study designs where both data strands are analysed simultaneously, analytical techniques include pattern matching, explanation building, time-series analysis and creating logic models (p142–167). 3
Step 9. Write the case study report
The case study report should have the following three characteristics. First, the description of the case and its context should be sufficiently comprehensive to allow the reader to understand the complexity of the phenomena under study. 35 Second, the data should be presented in a concise and transparent manner to enable the reader to question, or to re-examine, the findings. 36 Third, the report should be adapted to the interests and needs of its primary audience or audiences (eg, academics, practitioners, policy-makers or funders of research). Yin 3 suggests six formats for organising case study reports, namely linear-analytic, comparative, chronological, theory building, suspense and unsequenced structures. To facilitate case transferability and applicability to other similar contexts, the case study report must include a detailed description of the case.
Step 10. Appraise quality
Although presented as the final step of the case study process, quality appraisal should be considered throughout the study. Multiple criteria and frameworks for appraising the quality of case study research have been suggested in the literature. Yin 3 suggests the following four criteria: construct validity (ie, the extent to which a study accurately measures the concepts that it claims to investigate), internal validity (ie, the strength of the relationship between variables and findings), external validity (ie, the extent to which the findings can be generalised) and reliability (ie, the extent to which the findings can be replicated by other researchers conducting the same study). Yin 37 also suggests using two separate sets of guidelines for conducting case study research and for appraising the quality of case study proposals. Stake 4 presents a 20-item checklist for critiquing case study reports, and Creswell and Poth 38 and Denscombe 39 outline a number of questions to consider. Since these quality frameworks have evolved from different disciplinary and philosophical backgrounds, the researcher’s approach should be coherent with the epistemology of the study. Figure 2 provides a quality appraisal checklist adapted from Creswell and Poth 38 and Denscombe. 39
Checklist for evaluating the quality of a case study. 38 39
The challenges to conducting case study research include rationalising the literature based on literature review, writing the research questions, determining how to bound the case, and choosing among various case study purposes and designs. Factors held in common with other methods include analysing and presenting the findings, particularly with multiple data sources.
Resources with more in depth guidance on case study research include Merriam, 17 Stake 4 and Yin. 3 While each reflects a different perspective on case study research, they all provide useful guidance for designing and conducting case studies. Other resources include Creswell and Poth, 38 Swanborn 2 and Tight. 40 For mixed methods case study designs, Creswell and Plano Clark, 27 Guetterman and Fetters, 21 Luck et al , 6 and Plano Clark et al 41 provide guidance. Byrne and Ragin’s 42 The SAGE Handbook of Case-Based Methods and Mills et al ’s 43 Encyclopedia of case study research provide guidance for experienced case study researchers.
Family medicine and community health researchers engage in a wide variety of clinical, educational, research and administrative programmes. Case study research provides a highly flexible and powerful research tool to evaluate rigorously many of these endeavours and disseminate this information.
The authors would like to acknowledge the help of Dick Edelstein and Marie-Hélène Paré in editing the final manuscript.
Correction notice: This article has been corrected. Reference details have been updated.
Contributors: SF and MDF conceived and drafted the manuscript, and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Funding: The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests: None declared.
Patient consent for publication: Not required.
Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.