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Activities and Initiatives by Country and Region
Priorities for action 1: understanding disaster risks, priorities for action 2: strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk, priorities for action 3: investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience, priorities for action 4: enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to "build back better" in recovery rehabilitation and reconstruction.
- Project Reports in JICA Library
You can find "Project Report" from JICA library website, please access and search from the links provided.
JICA's Cooperation on Disaster Risk Reduction 1990s-Up to Now
- Southeast Asia and the Pacific (PDF/365KB)
- East Asia and Central Asia (PDF/276KB)
- South Asia (PDF/303KB)
- Central and South America (PDF/417KB)
- Africa (PDF/264KB)
- Middle East and Europe (PDF/291KB)
Disseminating Japanese past-disaster lessons and experience to the world
- Disaster Reduction Learning Center (DRLC)
Scientific technology needs to provide a reliable risk assessment based on scientifically analysed data to plan effective disaster countermeasures. Japan maintains and utilizes every type of disaster statistical data. The government closely works with the Science Council of Japan in the Central Disaster Management Council and also promotes evacuation training and disaster risk reduction education with local communities. Based on the experiences in Japan, JICA helps promote "understanding disaster risks."
Disaster Risk Reduction Planning Based on Scientific Risk Assessment
Nepal "Project for Assessment of Earthquake Disaster Risk for the Kathmandu Valley"
Earthquakes had repeatedly struck Kathmandu Valley in the past. There were hardly no regulations on the construction of earthquake resistant structures, or restrictions on land usage or buildings by then. The 7.8 magnitude earthquake that hit Nepal in 2015 caused tremendous damage to the country and the surrounding areas. It killed 8,790 people, injured 22,300, and destroyed 510,000 houses.
Damage in Nepal from the 2015 earthquake
The project for the assessment of earthquake disaster risk for Kathmandu Valley had carried out hazard assessment using the most advanced academic knowledge available and the risk assessment based on knowledge and damage estimates using multiple occurrence scenarios. The risk assessment results helped to organize the project models in the local government. Examples are the creation of local disaster risk reduction plans and earthquake resistance plans for public infrastructures.
* Newsletters of the Project for Assessment of EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RISK for the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal
- JICA ERAKV NEWS No. 1 (PDF/1.10MB)
- JICA ERAKV NEWS No. 2 (PDF/1.91MB)
- JICA ERAKV NEWS No. 3 (PDF/1.66MB)
"Disaster Risk Reduction and Management" is a dual approach to a range of different measures for avoiding and reducing the risk of a disaster. In Japan, disaster countermeasures had relied on "public help" for a long time. The experience in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and the Great East Japan Earthquake demonstrated the importance of improving "self-help" and "mutual help" during a large-scale disaster. Japan's "Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act" clearly states that disaster risks should be managed and reduced comprehensively through the vertical roles of the national and local governments, the horizontal role of society in the whole area, and collaboration with other stakeholders such as private sectors, NGOs and local communities. -The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction views that "disaster risk governance" and the idea of "cooperation" is indispensable to build a disaster resilient social structure. The Sendai Framework also sets its priorities on "mainstreaming DRR," "disaster risk reduction plans and strategies" and "collaboration between government and multiple stakeholders." Legislations and standards have been developed and improved through history by experience. JICA will promote disaster risk governance by expounding on the importance of disaster risk reduction facilities, cooperation systems between related entities, and cooperation with those in the fields of science and technology.
Promotion of Mainstreaming DRR and Assessment of Underlying Risks
Sri Lanka "Disaster Management Capacity Enhancement Project Adaptable to Climate Change"
After the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami in December 2004, Sri Lanka established new institutions in national and local levels and has been improving its disaster countermeasures since then. JICA provided support for rehabilitation and reconstruction as well as support to further improve disaster risk reduction skills in the country.
By providing high-precision elevation data, JICA assists in the drawing of hazard map of landslides and floods.
In this project, JICA provided technical and financial support to improve the skill of government agencies involved in important public infrastructure projects. JICA helped the National Building Research Organization to increase their ability to improve landslide disaster countermeasures. JICA also assisted in the disaster risk reduction system model covering evacuation and disaster risk reduction activities of the local residents.
As a result of this project, a disaster impact assessment method was developed and is now conducted prior to infrastructure development and maintenance in Sri Lanka. JICA also helped the Meteorological Agency improve their skills to monitor and forecast the weather efficiently and accurately. The Meteorological Agency used to take 50 minutes to collect data in the event of a disaster because the collected data was processed manually. Thanks to improvements in the information network, they are now able to collect observation data within 10 minutes. Their ability to announce warnings more quickly has contributed to reducing the damage.
- Roadmap for Disaster Risk Reduction -Safe and Resilient Sri Lanka- (PDF/1.58MB)
The Ministry of Disaster Management of Sri Lanka and JICA made a Roadmap which, based on the main features of disasters, describes strategies and priority actions to effectively build a safe and resilient Sri Lanka in line with the Sendai Framework.
* Movies as output of the data collection survey in the Philippines may be accessed from the following sites:
- Long version (external link)
- Short version (external link)
In the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction Priorities Action 3, "Investing in Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience", increasing the amount of investment in disaster risk reduction to reduce the risk of disasters is important, not only to protect human lives, but also for the surrounding environment, including assets and opportunities for development. As a country plagued by many disasters, Japan has been working on disaster preparation and JICA understands from experience that investment in disaster risk reduction is a necessary element for continuous growth. JICA utilizes the best Japanese technologies to reduce disaster risks such as setting standards based on risk assessment, establishing regulations on land use, and promoting suitable disaster risk prevention projects. JICA also promotes "mainstreaming DRR" in development and sector plans.
Risk-Resilient Critical Infrastructure
Thailand: "Subway that can operate in the event of a flood because of prior disaster management –Blue Line Subway in Bangkok"
Traffic congestion and air pollution in Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, have become a serious problem to development from the 1990's. The Blue Line Subway that opened in 2004 was designed with help from Japan to provide an alternative to road transportation, and the design includes many elements of disaster risk reduction. Since Bangkok is located in a flood-prone area, the subway entrance was made higher than the sidewalk. They also incorporated a structure that prevents water from getting into the station in the event of flood, and designed a structure that functions as a water shield at the subway entrance. Some of the vents were set at a higher position, and a drainage pump was installed. A guideline or procedures to close down the stations has been provided. A system is also in place for the safe operation of public transportation. At the time of the 2011 flood when airports and roads were closed, the Blue Line Subway continued to operate even in flooded areas without water getting into the subway stations. This public infrastructure maintenance project contributed not only to resolving environmental problems such as traffic jam and air pollution, but also showed a great example of mainstreaming DRR.
Flood Resistant Subway
To minimize damage and influence from disasters and to achieve early restoration and recovery, the following three actions are important: (1) Strengthen the preparation for emergency measures in advance; (2) Take action in forecasting disasters; and (3) Improve organizations and structures to respond effectively at all levels. Assuming that disasters will happen, Japan made preparations for various situations in advance. These include memorandums of agreement on disaster response between the national government, local authorities and the private sector. Japan has revised its systems and structures through lessons learnt from large-scale disasters, and aims to utilize limited funds. As the second best choice after an unfortunate and unavoidable disaster, Japan believes that it is necessary to carry out "Build Back Better." This approach will make a country more resilient and will prevent repeated damage from similar disasters. JICA helps disaster-affected countries achieve "Build Back Better" by promoting precautionary measures, and restoring and recovering from disasters.
Seamless Approach from Response to Development and "Build Back Better"
Philippines "The Project on Reconstruction and Recovery from Typhoon Yolanda"
Typhoon Yolanda hit the Philippines with a historically unprecedented scale on November 8, 2013 and inflicted extensive damage to a wide area of the country.
Soon after the disaster, the Government of Japan dispatched a Disaster Relief Medical Team and a team of experts which immediately conducted an investigation to assess the affected areas and a survey on the needs for recovery. The Government of Japan has seamlessly connected its emergency response to assistance activities in order to provide assistance in cooperation with grass-root communities. This includes grant aid projects, technical advices and JICA Partnership Programs. JICA encourages high ranking officials to intensively embrace the concept of "Build Back Better" for sustainable reconstruction from disasters.
Concept of "Build Back Better" reconstruction assistance in Typhoon Yolanda
JICA projects are not just for recovery and reconstruction, but also help in the complete process of early recovery and reconstruction of affected areas. JICA projects help build disaster-resilient communities and society based on Japan's experience from the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. JICA encourages partnerships between autonomous bodies with cooperation of the related local governments. In addition, in drawing up the recovery and reconstruction plan, JICA strengthens partnerships among autonomous bodies with the cooperation of local governments. JICA also works on providing comprehensive recovery assistance such as measures to improve local people's income, encouraging the social participation of women.
Local authority officials at a recovery planning workshop
World + 7 more
Case Studies: Red Cross Red Crescent Disaster Risk Reduction in Action – What Works at Local Level, June 2018
Community/local action for resilience:
- Building the disaster resilience of asylum seekers
The Australian Red Cross in Queensland adapted a generic preparedness tool to support highrisk marginalised communities of asylum seekers to build their own resilience to disaster. Specific and relevant messaging was developed within a community education programme co-designed with members of the asylum seekers community, who became educators and facilitators to deliver the programme. The programme reached 900 people in a successful pilot, measured through positive shifts in knowledge of key actions to take in preparedness of disaster. The underlying achievement is the acceptance and trust of the communities, reflecting the respect for cultural and language diversity, and recognizing the capacity of asylum seekers communities to contribute and participate in their host country.
- Integrated Coastal Community Resilience and Disaster Risk Reduction in Demak, Central Java
Exacerbated erosion affected the ecology and increased vulnerability of coastal communities in Demak. The Indonesian Red Cross mobilized communities through Community-Based Action Teams to restore the ecosystem through mangrove plantation and implement livelihood generation to improve community resilience. Under an integrated approach, the community is connected with village authorities and scientists from the Bogor Agricultural Institute to implement sustainable local action. The programme has shown concrete results in reducing the risks of tidal disasters, while eco-tourism and crab cultivation farming have increased the income of the communities, along with their heightened awareness and preparedness for disaster.
- Winter shelters for rural herder communities
Rural herders in Mongolia must keep their livestock alive through extreme temperatures and exposure of harsh winters that follow after drought. In efforts to reduce livestock loss, the Red Cross supported herder communities to design and construct winters shelters for livestock in a participatory approach garnering the collective capacity of community, local government and the Red Cross. A strong community focus ensures that the herders drive the activities towards preserving their livelihoods and the traditional nomadic way of life under threat by climatic challenges.
- Youth-led actions for more resilient schools and communities: Mapping of School Safety approaches and Youth in School Safety training for youth facilitators
Over the last two years the Red Cross Red Crescent Southeast Asia Youth Network has improved Youth programming and networks on youth-led initiatives and solutions for DRR. A pilot Youth in School Safety Programme rolled out in six countries, training 150 youth volunteers who in turn conducted countless school safety actions. A comprehensive mapping of school safety actions in all 11 countries of South Asia is underway to showcase activities of RCRC Youth volunteers on the ground.
Private Sector Interventions:
- Australian Business Roundtable for Disaster Resilience and Safer Communities
Leaders of leading commercial organizations jointly commit resources to work constructively with government to make Australian communities safer and more resilient to natural disasters, by shifting national investment from recovery and response to preparedness and mitigation. The Australian Red Cross joins this Roundtable - contributing on emergency management and humanitarian aspects - to collectively deliver on community education, risk information, adaptation research, mitigation infrastructure and strategic alliances.
Disaster Risk Governance:
- A seat at the table: inclusive decision-making to strengthen local resilience
Disaster related laws and policies need to better include and protect those most at risk of disasters. This case study outlines the steps taken by the IFRC Disaster Law Programme - from global research undertaken jointly by IFRC and UNDP, to the provision of technical advice in supporting Asia Pacific National Societies, as the community-based actor and auxiliary to government, to ensure inclusive community empowerment and protection, gender and inclusion in national disaster laws and policies.
Gender and Inclusiveness:
- Participatory Campaign Planning for Inclusive DRR Knowledge and Messaging in Nepal
An innovative approach that embraces the essence of inclusiveness, the Participatory Campaign Planning methodology is applied to develop hazard messages and the means of communicating them that are tailored to different target groups, with the aim of making them more effective in creating behaviour change. This case study focuses on urban communities in Nepal and various elements to be considered within different target groups and their geographic environments.
- Community participatory action research on sexual and genderbased violence prevention and response during disasters
This collaborative research by the IFRC and the ASEAN Committee for Disaster Management was undertaken in recognizing that there are few SGBV studies that focus on low-income developing countries and fewer that go beyond the gendered effects on women and girls, overlooking men and boys and sexual minority groups. Key findings illustrate that the risks to SGBV are exacerbated during natural disaster situations in Indonesia, Lao PDR and the Philippines, and that “disaster responders” and actors addressing needs of SGBV survivors are not working together adequately to reduce these risks.
Early Warning and Early Action:
- Forecast-based Financing: Effective early actions to reduce flood impacts
When four pilot communities in the district of Bogura were affected by severe flood events in July and August of 2017, the Early Action Protocol of the Forecast-based Financing (FbF) approach was activated, and unconditional cash grant was chosen as the early action for floods to give people the flexibility to prepare individually for the impending flood and take the measures they see fit. This case study outlines the steps taken by Bangladesh Red Crescent Society and German Red Cross to implement FbF in Bangladesh. It analyses not only the effectiveness of the activation in Bogura, but the longer term impacts of this early action development.
- CPP Early Warning: Saving Thousands in Cyclone Mora
Through the Bangladesh Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP) interventions, a programme jointly run by the Government of Bangladesh and the Bangladesh Red Crescent Society (BDRCS), the communities of the coastal areas in Bangladesh have become more aware of the need to go to safe shelters during emergencies, have understood the significance of early warning and learned to pay heed to advice from CPP and youth volunteers. On 28 May 2017 - the eve of Cyclone Mora, more than 55,260 CPP volunteers and BDRCS youth volunteers were deployed to pass early warning message door to door in the coastal region, and announcing the danger of the approaching cyclone in the local language. Cyclone early warning messages were disseminated across a population area covering 11 million people, and almost half a million people were reached in this process and taken to safe places in less than 24 hours. The CPP has substantially reduce death tolls due to cyclones in Bangladesh.
- Flood Early Warning and Early Action System (FEWEAS)
The Flood Early Warning Early Action System (FEWEAS) was developed through a collaboration between the Indonesian Red Cross (PMI) and Institute Teknologi Bandung (ITB) to provide effective solutions for reducing disaster risk through a shared platform for community and government to address issues upstream and downstream in formulating appropriate strategy, planning and ground action for floods. FEWEAS is an internet-based application to predict and monitor rainfall and flooding. PMI Provincial and District staff and volunteers are using the FEWEAS to monitor floods along the Bengawan Solo River in East Java, and along the Citarum River in West Java. While the application provides flood alerts and updates to the community through smartphones, the communities and Community Based Action Teams can update their response, upload photos, videos and relevant information to further inform response actions.
- Forecast-based Financing for the vulnerable herders in Mongolia
The Mongolian Red Cross Society (MRCS) assisted 2,000 herder households in most-at-risk areas (40 soums in 12 provinces) with unrestricted cash grants in December 2017 and with animal care kits in January 2018, before the peak of the winter season. The MRCS used the Dzud Risk Map released by the Government in November 2017 to decide which soums to target for early action with the aim to reach the herders well before the loss of their livestock to reduce the impact of Dzud on the livelihoods of the herders. The Dzud Risk Map highlighted the risk of livestock death throughout the whole of Mongolia. A cost-benefit analysis is being conducted to further inform FbF in Mongolia.
- More than response: Building partnerships to engage communities in preparedness and early warning systems in the Pacific
A community early warning system (CEWS) model was developed in partnership by the Red Cross, government agencies and regional organizations in the Pacific to better link CEWS with national and sub-national systems. Taking these pilots to scale requires i) national mechanisms such as SOPs and action plans that systematically link warnings and climate information provided by National Meteorological Services to early preparedness actions at multiple scales, and; ii) available funding (at multiple scales) to support early actions. Recently a Roadmap for Forecast-based Financing for Drought Preparedness has been developed in the Solomon Islands. Through continued partnership approach, the Roadmap and outcomes from the regional ‘FINPAC’ CEWS project will be used to support the Government of the Solomon Islands and Solomon Islands Red Cross to implement a programme for communities, provincial and national authorities to apply forecast information for early action at scale. The drought thresholds developed in collaboration will form the basis of an FbF trigger system in the Solomon Islands.
Displacement and DRR:
- Preparing and reducing risks of disasters to displaced communities
Cox’s Bazar became the world’s most densely populated refugee settlement following the massive influx of people from Myanmar that started in August 2017. Being a coastal district prone to disaster, existing infrastructure and services cannot cope to cover the host population and incoming refugees, and preparedness interventions became critical. This case study follows actions taken to extend the coverage of the Cyclone Preparedness Programme, successfully integrating displaced people in camp settlements as temporary CPP camp volunteers, to support in establishing early warning system and ensure relevant preparedness and response action.
Urban Community/local action for resilience:
- What is an Urban ‘Community’? – New ways for local DRR actions in cities . Lessons learned from the 2015 Nepal earthquake response show that vulnerable populations in urban context do not often engage with or rely on local disaster management committees in the event of a disaster. Instead they organize themselves around their own networks, both informal and formal, such as family, temples, markets, service-providers, employment. A meaningful DRR intervention in urban communities must first recognize what defines an urban community and how they are organized to guide specific engagement and participatory-led approaches. The target group and network-based approach by Nepal Red Cross are innovations in organizing effective community-owned urban disaster resilience.
Green Response/ Enhancing Preparedness for Effective Response:
- Greening the IFRC Supply Chains; mapping of our GHG emissions
Under the Green Response initiative to improve environmental outcomes of life-saving operations, the IFRC in reviewing practices and policies is mapping the present level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated by relief operations and to implement GHG reduction activities to lower the environmental impact of emergency operations. The mapping contributes to the global emission baseline for IFRC supply chain monitoring, to design the reduction roadmap and build internal capacity.
- Environmental Field Advisor deployment in an emergency response
To improve the environmental outcomes and reduce negative impacts of operations and programmes, the IFRC deployed an Environmental Field Advisor (EFA) to the Population Movement Operation in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. The EFA conducted an environmental impact assessment and worked with project leads to identify and implement improvements. A significant achievement to date is the IFRC joining the UNHCR/IOM/WFP/FAO to provide LPG as cooking fuel to camp community households to combat massive deforestation cause by firewood collection.
Secretary-general's remarks to early warnings for all event at cop28 [as delivered].
World + 5 more
COSPPac Traditional Knowledge Database strengthening weather forecasting and observations in the Pacific
£100m for vulnerable countries tackling climate change, the green climate fund, the global partnership for education and save the children launch the world’s largest investment for green schools at cop28.
Accueil Numéros 15 Ressources marines : états des li... Risk Management and Disaster Miti...
Risk Management and Disaster Mitigation: A Case Study Applied to Haiti
Natural hazards do have impacts on development. Of heavy consequences on both the human life and the economic development these impacts are critical in most of the Caribbean islands in general and specifically in Haiti. Thus, there is an urgent need to implement strategies aiming at reducing risk for lessening losses. By implementing well designed risk management strategies vulnerability can be reduced, and as a consequence, investment and employment can be protected. Even so preparedness to sustainable development is at the global Agenda, with regards to the specific case of Haiti, we assume that, at present, the country is not at all involved in such a long run strategy. Government attention is focused on immediate urgencies to be solved. By questioning the particular case of tourism, we show the positive impact of risk management strategies on growth using a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA).
Les catastrophes naturelles ont sans conteste des impacts sur le développement. Ces derniers, qui occasionnent de lourdes conséquences à la fois sur la vie humaine et le développement économique, sont préjudiciables dans la plupart des îles des Caraïbes et plus particulièrement en Haïti. Ainsi, il devient urgent de mettre en œuvre des stratégies visant à réduire les risques afin de minimiser les pertes occasionnées. En établissant des stratégies de gestion des risques bien conçues, la vulnérabilité des pays peut être réduite, et, par conséquent, l'investissement et l'emploi protégés. Même si le développement durable est à l'ordre du jour à l’échelle mondiale, il semble que ce ne soit pas le cas d'Haïti à l’heure actuelle, le pays n'étant pas du tout impliqué dans une telle stratégie à long terme. L'action du gouvernement se focalise sur la résolution des urgences immédiates. En s'interrogeant sur le cas particulier du tourisme, nous montrons, en utilisant une analyse coûts-avantages, l'impact positif des stratégies de gestion des risques sur la croissance.
Mots-clés : , keywords: , index géographique : , texte intégral, introduction.
1 The vulnerability of the Caribbean countries due to their geographic location is compounded by the absence of economic diversity. Hurricanes as so flooding or other kind of natural disaster exert economic shocks similar to macroeconomic and other kinds of shocks. Most Caribbean countries remain very dependant upon tourism, mainly, and small range of export farm commodities such as coffee, mangoes, essential oils and sisal in Haiti. Moreover, the relatively narrow geographical parameter of most Caribbean countries means that a single natural disaster may seriously affect the entire natural territory, exerting measurable negative impacts on GDP, through various channels, including dampened fiscal revenues, loss of employment or of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).
2 Geographically, Haiti is located in the Caribbean Sea on the Hispaniola Island shared with the Dominican Republic. Haiti occupies the western third of the island and contains spectacular mountains and a tourist coastline under a tropical climate. There is an area in the east, though, which is semi-arid due to the mountains which cut off the trade winds which carry the humidity to the rest of the island. Haiti has a rough and very mountainous terrain. There is very little fertile farmland and only a few areas have irrigation. The country is located in the middle of the hurricane belt and the nation often experiences severe storms. There are also periods of drought throughout the year and flooding and earthquakes both pose serious issues to the inhabitants of this small country. But coastal erosion and sea level rising are also serious cause for concern.
3 Haiti covers an area of 27, 750 square kilometres. Of this area, 27,560 square kilometres comprises land, while 190 square others comprise water. There are also small plains and river valleys. However, there are no navigable rivers. Artibonite is Haiti's longest river, while Etang Saumâtre is the largest lake. The most fertile valley of the country is Plaine de l'Artibonite, there are also several islands in the country which is part of the geography (Gonave, while it is inhabited by the rural people, Île à Vache, Ile de Anacaona and Cayemites). Cause to its location, Haiti is vulnerable to a wide range of natural hazards. The most common and historically are tropical storms and hurricanes (Jeanne 2004, Wilma 2005, Fay, Gustav, Hannah, Ike, 2008). Reflecting a rugged physical topography, most of the population and infrastructure are located on the coast, making Haiti particularly vulnerable to strong winds. Landslides, mud and rivers floods are common features. As part of the Caribbean, other hazards Haiti is prone to be affected by are tsunamis.
Figure 1. Location of Haïti
4 Economically, Haiti, is the poorest country in the place with a GNI per capita valued at US $ 560 in 2007 and a growth rate of 1,3 % in 2008 (World Bank Report, 2008). According to the 2006 census, the whole population was estimated at a little more than nine million people, life expectancy was in 2007 of 52 years with an illiteracy rate of 44 percent. About the three-fourths of the population is impoverished-living on less than US $ 2 per day, and the UN Human Development Index (HDI) ranks Haiti 154 th least developed among the world’s 177 countries, still regarded as “fragile” by donors in a post-conflict context and also as a Less Developed Country (LDC) according to the UN classification. Haiti is a small open and dollarized economy featuring all the yet well known characteristics of Dutch Disease (Granvorka, 2008). Since the last two decades, and according the Haitian Association of Economists (UNDP Report, 2005), Haiti is uphold into a poverty trap. Despite a very weak recovery of growth during year 2003-2004, Haiti experienced a very poor evolution on both the social and economic levels over the recent period, 2000-2008. It is a perpetual state of violence and instability is considered as the worst governed and undemocratic State as showed by widely used governance indicators. Since year 2000, Haiti has showed a poor economic evolution and has become increasingly politically and institutionally instable. Furthermore, its principal economic indicators have significantly worsened. The deterioration of Haiti’s economy is also rooted in the predatory policies of past Haitian governments and to some extent the misguided assistance of foreign donors and the IFI. Actually, and for time, Haiti faced great social, economic, environmental and political challenges either as to access to capital markets, good governance, economic performance, education, social development and environmental protection. For example, t he forests are used for fuel and charcoal and supplies fuel for over 2 million people and most of the large rivers are used for irrigation. Because of their inability to afford fuel on foreign markets, deforestation remains the first alternative for most of consumers in Haiti. These practices are symptomatic of the lack of environmental policies.
5 At an environmental level, like all the Caribbean countries, i.e. , that of the Caribbean States Association (CSA) Haiti is engaged in Action 21. Nonetheless, the country has not implemented either policies or institutions dedicated to environmental concerns. One of the possible explanations is that this lack is linked to sustainable development largely associated with rich countries. At present, Haiti is involved in very day to day concerns to maintain a minimal economic level. On the other hand, it is useful to bear in mind that since year 2005, the World Bank and other international funds disbursed some US$ 350 million for different purposes such as, risk mitigation, environmental policies implementation, warning policies…. in the country. The disasters of last summer in Haiti (Fay, Gustav, Hannah and Ike, 2008) stimulated a re-examination of the country’s situation. The country experienced four hurricanes within one month. It was submerged under water which caused the destruction of access roads and as a result the cities remained isolated from each other for several weeks. Nine of the ten departments were devastated (Roc, 2008). The entire harvest were damaged (UN, 2008) and at present the country is still involved in rebuilding. All the economic sectors have been hampered and the amount of rebuilding has been estimated at around some thing like US$ 900 i.e. of GDP.
6 This human and economical tragedy is the price to be paid for a dysfunctional government and deforestation. Other factors, like soil erosion, water shortages, loss of biodiversity, demographic pressure, poverty and anarchic exploitation of quarries are among other key elements contributing to the ecological disaster that is Haiti. According the Haitian Institute for Statistics (IHSI, 2007) businesses in the cities cut down over 53,000 trees a year, over 80 % of the population has no access to electricity and over 90 % of them use wood-based charcoal for their daily needs. As an irony, the Ministry of the Environment Budget accounts for only 2.1 % of the global budget (Budget of the Republic, fiscal year 2007-2008). Finally, anarchic building and exploitation of sandpits around Port-au-Prince reveals that there is no State management of spatial issues, despite recent laws aiming to close sandpits. The first impact of this is the increasing insecurity and a decrease of investment. So, an environmental strategy appears as an emergency one to spur growth first, and then eventually, initiate sustainable development. In that view, hazard management must be incorporated into the development planning process. But in fact, what are natural hazards? One could answer that they are at the same time spillovers for environment and part of sustainable development concerns as they are now incorporable into development planning so that their impact on economic sectors can be reduced. Natural phenomena become disasters when they provoke physical and human losses at the same time. They may be atmospheric, seismic, geologic, hydrologic, volcanic and wildfire. Recurring natural disasters, hurricanes, floods and mudslides have wrought devastation on the Haitian population. They affected more than 800,000 people. The country’s national and local institutions are weakened and the impact upon citizens and national development has been widespread.
7 In the GDP structure (IHSI, 2007) services, including tourism afforded for 25, 3 % of the total economic output. In these figures, hotels and restaurants and other tradable services are included. Tourism is not disaggregated. It is probably useful to recall that tourism is made of different activities which include hotels and restaurants of course but also recreational activities. This particular sector has suffered from the country’s political upheaval. In the 1970s and 1980s, tourism was an important industry, drawing an average of 150,000 visitors annually. Despite the 1991 coup, it has recovered slowly and the Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO) has joined the Haitian government in efforts to restore the island’s image as a tourist destination. According to data provided by this organization, in 2001, 141,000 foreigners visited Haiti to boom up to 436 600 in 2004. Most came from North America (United States and Canada), but further improvements in hotels, restaurants, and other infrastructure are still needed to make tourism a major industry for Haiti. We make the hypothesis that funded by tourism, a public risk management policy could significantly increase GDP. In that view, the remainder of the paper is as follows: section 1 introduces a brief geographic and economic description of Haiti including the risks to which it is vulnerable to. Section 2 reviews the literature relevant to economics of environment with a special focus on Stavins’ cost-benefit theory. Section 3 shows the channels transmission of the positive impacts of a risk strategy on GDP through tourism. Section 4 concludes.
1. Environmental Policy with regards to the Cost-Benefits Analysis/Theory (Stavins, 2004)
8 The essential theoretical foundations of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) are that benefits are defined as increases in utility (well-being) where costs are the reductions in human well being. For a policy to qualify on cost-benefit ground its social benefits must exceed its social costs, the geographical boundary for CBA is usually the national territory. There are two basic aggregation rules. First, aggregating benefits across different social groups involve to sum willingness to pay (WTP) for benefits, or willingness to accept (WTA) compensation for losses regardless of the circumstances of the beneficiaries or losers. A second aggregation rule implies that higher weights be given to benefits and costs accruing to low income groups. One rationale for this second rule is that marginal utilities of income will vary, being higher for the low income group. As aggregating over time involves discounting, discounted future benefits and costs are known as present values. Inflation can result in future benefits and costs appearing to be higher than in reality. Inflation should be netted out to secure constant price estimates. The effect of time i.e . the time it takes for the benefits of a change to repay its costs is taken into consideration by calculating a payback period. There are two CBA forms. A simple one that uses only financial costs and financial benefits and a more sophisticated one that tends to apply a financial value on intangible costs and benefits as in the case of the cost of environmental damage by measuring willingness to pay for an environmental gain and willingness to accept compensation for an environmental loss. The notions of willingness to pays and willingness to accept compensation for losses (WTP and WTA) are grounded in the theory of welfare economics and correspond to notions of compensating and equivalent variations. WTP and WTA should not, according to past theory, diverge very much. In practice they appear to diverge, often substantially, and with WTA > WTP. Hence the choice of WTP or WTA may be of importance when conducting CBA. According to Pearce, Atkinson et al. (2006): “there are numerous critiques of CBA”. Perhaps some of the more important ones are:
That the extent to which CBA rests on robust theoretical foundations as portrayed by the Kaldor-Hicks compensation test in welfare economics,
the fact that the underlying “social welfare function” in CBA is one of an arbitrarily large number of such functions on which consensus is unlikely to be achieved,
The extent to which one can make an ethical case for letting individuals’ preferences be the (main) determining factor in guiding social decision rules. The whole history of neoclassical welfare economics has focused on the extent to which the notion of economic efficiency underlying the Kaldor-Hicks compensation test can or should be separated out from the issue of who gains and loses – the distributional incidence of costs and benefits.
9 CBA has developed procedures for dealing with the last criticism, e.g. the use of distributional weights and the presentation of “stakeholder” accounts. Affirmations 1 and 2 continue to be debated. Criticism, as 3, reflects the “democratic presumption » in C.B.A. i.e . individual’s preference should count” (p 17). The argument for government intervention in the environmental realm is that natural disaster is an externality affecting individuals other than the decision makers. Incentives for private actors to internalize the costs of their actions were thought as a solution to the externality problem, (Pareto, 1896; Pigou, 1920; Kaldor-Hicks, 1939; Coase, 1960). According the Kaldor-Hicks criterion, if the objective is to maximize the difference between benefits and costs, then the related level of environment protection is defined as the efficient level of protection:
10 Where q is the abatement by source ( to ), B (.) is the benefit function for source is the cost function for the source, and is the efficient level of protection (disaster mitigation). The condition required according equation (1) is that marginal benefits be equated with marginal costs.
11 Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Regulations CBA relies upon the viability of reliable estimates of social benefits and costs, including estimates of the social discount rate. The value of net benefit at present (PVNB) is defined as follows:
12 Where are benefits at time t, are costs at time t, is the discount rate, and is the terminal year of analysis. A positive PVBN means that the policy has the potential to yield a Pareto improvement. It meets the Kaldor-Hicks criterion. This criterion provides the rationale for both CBA and discounting according Goulder and Stavins (2002). In the environment field, cost is a measure of the value of what must be sacrified to prevent or reduce the risk of an environmental impact. Benefits are considered as the collective WTP for reducing or preventing of environmental damages or WTA compensation to tolerate environmental damages. Hanemann (1991) includes psychological aversion to risk and loss in his theoretical explanations of CBA of environmental protection which also includes ecological impacts or material damages. In the environment field, people derive passive or none whether they want or not to preserve their own goods for future use by themselves or their heirs or not. These estimates may be compared to the “Value of Statistical Life” (VSL). VSL being a convention written as:
13 Where MWTP and MWTA refer to marginal willingness to pay and marginal willingness to accept, and SRC is the small risk change. So, VSL aggregates the amount a group is willing to pay for small reductions in risk. It is simply a convention, not an economic value of an individual life.
14 Revealed Preference Methods of Environmental benefit Estimation Two methods exist for estimating the environmental benefit. The first method, the averting behaviour one, is an indirect method based on WTP is inferred from observations of people’s behavioural responses to changes in environmental quality choices on the risk market). The key concept is WTP which represents the choice realized ex ante by the citizens between their financial resources and risk reduction. They can develop an averting or lessening choice. Practically, behaviour is measured through averting or mitigating expenditures. In the case of our concern, i.e. , tourism, WTP for all expenses linked to tourism is to draw on evidence from private options to use public goods. The second and direct one is founded on hedonic pricing method. This method requires data on public support services with the range and capacity of those facilities. Support services might include police, sewer, water, medical facilities, rescue services, etc… In brief, it is about to know whether existing facilities can handle the visitors expected, and whether it will be profitable to make propositions for increased tourists. By regressing the property value on key attributes, the hedonic price function is estimated as:
15 Where P = using pricing (including lands) x = vector of structural attributes, z = vector of neighbourhood attributes, and e = environmental attribute of concern.
16 From equation (4) the marginal implicit price of any attribute including environmental quality can be calculated as the partial derivative of the housing price with respect to the given attribute.
17 P e measures the aggregate marginal WTP for the attribute in question.
18 When P e = the fitted value of the marginal implicit price of from the first-stage equation = a vector of factors that affect WTP for including buyer characteristics. Nonetheless, other techniques exist in WTP and WTA estimations, proxies use, societal revealed preference and cost of illness or human capital measures. These techniques, according the literature, do not provide valid measures of economic benefits.
19 Cost-effectiveness in Environmental Policy The objectives of environmental policies being known, economic analysis may enlighten the design of environmental policies. The key-criterion is the cost-effectiveness one, defined as the allocation of control among sources. Sources are the aggregate target achieved at the lowest cost, this latter is the allocation which satisfies the following cost minimization problem.
20 Where = flooding or disaster control by source i ( I = 1 to N) = cost function for source = aggregate cost of floods control = uncontrolled flooding by source and = the aggregate floods target imposed by the regulatory authority.
21 If the cost functions are convex, then necessary and sufficient conditions for satisfaction of the constrained optimization problem posed by equation (7) (8) (9) are the following (Kuhn and Tucker, 1951).
22 Equations (10) (11) imply the crucial conditions for cost effectiveness that the sources exerting some degree of control experience the same marginal control costs (Baumol, Oates, 1988).
23 Some instruments for environmental policies implementation Environment being considered as a public good, policies related to environment may also be considered as a public one. The questions are whether or not implement an environmental policy and which one. In that view government disposes of some decision tools. Among them,
24 The cost of business as usual Natural hazards can damage buildings and infrastructure causing a series of direct and indirect losses. The direct losses, borne by the property owner and partially offset by insurance payments, can be approximated by the cost of repair and reconstruction. The indirect losses arise as a consequence of disruption of production and services and spread through the entire economy. An example of this is what would happen to imports and exports if a seaport were out of service for an extended period. Indirect losses are difficult to estimate and can easily exceed direct losses Studies of infrastructure that failed due to natural hazards generally find that:
Better design and construction could have largely eliminated the damage,
these changes would have added 5 to 10 percent to the original project cost; and
This added up-front cost would have been a small fraction of the cost of reconstruction.
In other words, most damage and disruption can be prevented, and it pays to do so.
25 Market reduction function Market creation establishes markets for inputs or outputs associated with environmental quality in the sense that it facilitates the voluntary exchange of rights ant thus promote a more efficient allocation and use of scarce supplies (Howe, 1997). Information programs and product labelling requirements have been demonstrating that well-informed producers and consumers can help foster market-orientated solutions to environmental concerns (Hamilton, 1995 ; Koran and Cohen, 1997).
26 Government subsidy Government subsidy reduction represents also a market-based tool. Subsidies can provide incentives to address environmental policy. But, if they can help in improving environmental quality, they can at the same time, be spillovers. By increasing profits in targeted sectors, they can contribute to new entries on the targeted markets, and thus, lessening environmental quality. Rather to internalize the cost of prevention, it externalises it. To conclude this section one might say that if CBA appears as an idealistic method for environmental policy estimation, nonetheless, it reveals some limits. As a matter of fact, the access to data is often problematic and too many times, CBA strays out the general characteristics of the project. Estimation may be partial, above all if it is about evaluating a damage related to a particular event. The sensitivity analysis is often dampened by uncertainty about damages, equipments costs and failings. Otherwise, the subjective perception of risk (citizens perception Vs experts perception), cannot lead to fiscal equity in CBA and at present, only the financing organisations use CBA. In Haiti, due to its “fragile” situation, many multilateral funds are dedicated to that particular matter as 80 % of the State budget is depending upon the international community with funds for a wide variety of programs.
2. CBA applied to environmental policy in Haiti: will tourism spur growth? A hypothesis
27 The environment often displays characteristics of a public good, and in this case there is open access. These public goods aspects of the environment are sources of social utility, but they appear to command a price of zero in the market. Even when prices exist, they reflect administered powers rather than market forces, and environmental impacts are one source of missing markets ( i.e . externalities). So, when evaluating a policy, the environment must be treated as a free production factor, even if real costs may be involved. An example is the use of a given territory by tourists. In an Environment Impact Assessing (EIA), the costs appear in CBA. The Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) is a tool used to choose the most appropriate option or to rank projects. The decision is based on expected economic costs and benefits. The analysis process involves the measurement of the expected impacts, the effects of time, income distribution and potentially irreversible consequences. According Adam Smith, “the market knows”. That means that the market will allocate resources in the ways that would maximize profits and welfare for the society in its whole. Events, and unsurprisingly natural diseases and their spillovers, come and recall us that the market does not always know. So, to balance between costs and benefits for welfare, we need to implement methods. Among them is CBA which is a tool also applied in the Environmental sphere to analyze the effects of regulation. CBA process must follow steps which are not described here. Instead of that, we describe, within a formal frame, how CBA applied to environment assessment can spur growth by impacting tourism positively. We also show that CBA leads to determine the maximum of tourist entries required for avoiding externalities. Thus, we are in the frame of a typical social CBA because costs and benefits to society as a whole are looked at. The other CBA kind is the financial one.
- 1 According CTO, a tourist is someone volunteer to leave his usual home country for reasons different (...)
28 In the following, the aim is to implement an environmental policy to nurture tourism. A priori , this policy should cost nothing to the State as the tax is directly collected for the Government either at arrival or departure by the authorities upon each tourist. As mentioned previously, tourism is integrated into the services sector and this latter afforded for 25, 3 % in GDP for 2007. In Haiti, it is very difficult to obtain updated data. Ours are provided by CTO, and the most relevant relate to year 2004. According the Haiti Business Directory for 2007, the country has 67 hotels and restaurants as a net total of 1758 rooms spared between mountain, sea-side and urban categories. The main tourist ones are sea-side located. The question is, will tourism do for the country what we want done? We suppose that a fiscal tax dedicated to environmental policy financing is provided by tourists 1 themselves. This tax might be collected either by the hotels or by the Airport and Port Authority and applied upon each visitor entry. It also might be included into the travel cost. We use a cost-benefit technique balancing cost against benefits to show the estimated net effects on GDP. We first draft a CBA based upon the environmental tax, then we show the transmission channels through the multiplier according to tourist expenditures in 2004, and finally, we compare with the expected multiplier gained from CBA. Considering the poverty of our data, we use a rough-and-ready model. In Haiti data are not available over a long period of time. Ours are coming from two different sources, CTO and IHSI for the same period but remain not comparable. That is the reason why our CBA is rough-and-ready and also why we extrapolate future impacts.
29 A CBA proposal including an environmental tax applied to tourism We consider a tax collected by Authorities either at arrival or departure which can be formalized by P x F (t) where P is the nominal level of the tax and F ( t ) is the arrival or departure flow at time t . The tax generates costs such as commissionning to collectors, corruption.. The equation (1) describes the fiscal benefit which is the amount of tax collected minus the costs supposed to be fixed at first hypothesis, It is of the following form :
30 The fiscal benefit is invested into environmental actions and specially into risks management. It may be communication, training, flooding warning… Then, it could be supposed a very rational hypothesis based upon work or utility function of tourist decision as they are sensitive to environment and specially risk averse. So, a link between flow of tourists and the environmental plan may be established. This link is very simply formalized by equation (3)
31 Which says that tourist flow at time t -1 is a function of benefit invested at time t . We posit a simple and linear relation equation (4).
32 It is transformed into a continuous differential equation
33 By derivation of F we obtain
34 we obtain the final equation which is of the form of a differential one of the following form :
36 which can be solved by equation (11)
38 In this very simple model, Benefits and Costs grow with the tax level implemented. Althought idealistic it is quite irrealistic cause the tourist flow cannot grow indefinitiley. In such a case, the tax generates spillovers instead of well being because the tourist is too important. More important, via this simple model we show that this environmental policy is twofold : it develops security for people while enhancing growth through tourism. This transformation of CBA allows us to show that risk management is an economic tool as well as a political one in the realm of well being. In order to eliminate the exponential flow and its probable negative effects as mentioned above, the model has been complexified into a system of equations where costs progress with the tourist flow, and where they are also limited by C, which is in fact, the maximum of tax to be collected, equations (12) (13). From equation (8) becoming now equation (12)
39 Equation (13) is a differential system showing the equilibrium point where the flow must stop growing.
40 At equilibrium F, the flow is fixed. It does not grow exponentially, avoiding thus environmental problems linked to expanded flows. The cost maximum is a tool at Government’s disposal to manage the tourist flow. In the following Tabs. We illustrate our CBA when has been affected with different values. They show the progressive character of a family of flow curves for a given C. It is due to the differential equation which is unsteady. The curves (Tab. 1 and Tab. 2) leave a point to explode from thatvery point, and cost is scaled.
Tab. 1. – Hypothesis 1
Tab. 2. – Hypothesis 2
43 Based upon the multiplier method we also calculate the tourist receipt. In order to show the multiplier effect of flow coming from the environmental policy. The first figure gives us the multiplier coming from a US$ 116 expenditure in 2004 according CTO data. At first round it is of US$ 58, and at 2 nd round it is of US $ 13.
44 According this hypothesis, at first round, within a 3 years delay after the risk policy has been implemented, we found US$ 69,5 dedicated to local purchases. At second round and subsequents, we got US$ 15,28 against US$ 13 in the previous frame without any environmental policy implementation. The variation rate is of 18 % in positive. To conclude this section one might say that the public sector can play an important role in reducing losses from future disasters by examining that will be cost effective from the residents’ perspective and the tax payers. Considering the environmental tax paid by tourists it may serve as a signal given by the Governement for reducing inequalities in the use of a public good and the increase of the population’s well being. Tax may contribute to develop a feeling of security perceived both by the residents and those outside such as not only tourists but also foreign investors. Finally, from the view point of good governance, it also may be a strong signal towards the international community given by Hait still considered as the worsened governed country in the hemisphere.
Recommandations and Concluding Remarks
45 The geographic location of Haiti and the siting of tourism near the beaches make the country vulnerable to any natural disasters. Hurricanes and storms during summer 2008 have highlightened the challenges associated with reducing losses. They have been evaluated at about US$ 900 million. The temporary closing of hotels, roads repairing among others, meant fewer visitors to Haiti leading to loss of income not only in tourism but also in all the different sectors of the economy. As a matter of fact, the vulnerability of the tourism sector and others are not confined to their own capital stock. Other kinds of damages do affect the economy when they apply to roads, airports or harbours. Regarding Haiti one might be tempted to think that much of the damages were the consequences of deforestation, anarchic building, heavy rurbanization in Port-au-Prince, e.g , and no warning or risk mitigation process. Dealing with risks in decision-making processess is everywhere, and moreover in the Caribbean, the cornerstone of policies aiming at sustainable development. The concept of risk is central (Bouma and al , 2005) and it has to be incorporated into the estimation of social and economic effects.
46 A risk assessment approach applied to flooding The risk management has a very clear and define objective : change the risk exposure for more sustainability. One faces a context which is both uncertain and antagonistic. And decisions have to be taken within that very context. Thus two questions, at least, arise. What is risk ? what must we do ? In order to answer these questions one must consider various aspects. They are social, economical, technical, financial, political and institutional at the same time within a social CBA framework where at final psychologic and subjectivism do influence the decisions. In a few words, it is about to bargain between efficiency and equity.
47 Social constrainsts The importance of the damages is expressed either in number of deaths or in sums amount linked with the probability of risks occurrence. So, the typical problem is how to estimae the value of one human life (VSL) ( Stavins, 2004). Several questions come on the ground. How to deal with moral objections ? How to operate beteween individual and group risk ? A disaster generating 10 000 deaths could be more severe than ten times 1 000 deaths as it could imply a greater social upheaval. If the State is in charge of the common well being, the agents need to be informed. They apply for transparency. So, the question is the following : is protection a public concern ? When does it become a full private matter ?
48 Economical aspects These aspects are part of a typical economical process where probabilities given by the scientists are used to calculate a damage yet avoid and updated during the implementation year. Data required are those related to the damages linked to each sort of risk with a probability rule for each of them. Statistic rules used include an actualization rate. As an example, suppose a risk leading to a damage D with a given initial and yearly probability of p , liable to occur each year at time t . The actualization rate is given by i , and the probable updated damage at year 1 is given by the following equation :
49 In such a case, the lack of data is problematic. Thus, dialogue with the different agents is crucial. At least, when the Total Economic Value (TEV) is found, it provides an all-encompassing measure of the economic value of any environmental asset. It does not encompass values such as intrinsic ones. Benefits correspond to the measures aiming at risk reducing. Costs are the investments linked to the measures implemented and they include functionning expenditures. The cost-benefit relation may also be determined according differents ways. By comparaing damages dismishing when a risk occurs, by testing scenarii or by applying economical tools.
50 Technical aspects Studies (Tinbergen, 1959 ; Van Danzig, 1959 ; Van Ast and al ., 2003) reveal that a decision-making process need to be considered when assessing a risk approcah. This latter, applied to flooding or any one else must go on the six following steps that we do not fully describe in this paper :
Inventorization of the effects to be monetarized,
Selction and use of valuation methods,
Use of discount rate,
Acknowledgement of non-monetary values,
Presence of limiting conditions,
Risk attitude of decision-makers.
51 Each of these steps is operationalized by formal and/or informal rules, and the result of the process will depend upon step 1. But more important, risk and its perception can influence the outcomes of techniques that allow imputing a value on the possible consequences of flooding (step 2). Regarding flooding, one must observe the swellings of the rivers, one must also analyse the environmental and functional values, evaluate and quantify the environmental goods such as the tourist and/or wet areas, in brief consider the dynamic between soil and rivers.
52 Financial, political and institutional aspects Financial means to fund an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) are well known by all the caribbean countries. They relate to credit, loans or emergency funds provided either by the different World Bank funds or by IDB for both ex ante and ex post measures. But it is also well known that to be efficient the more efficient structures have to be determined within a CBA perspective. That also means that when it is about to define whether risk reducing is or not a public concern it is time to drive concertation by including the private sector through public-private partnerships clearly identified. To conclude this paper we could say that the caribbean countries are all of them deeply concerned by risk and disaster management which relate to geography, economy and external dependency. Haiti of course faces the same problem and if we would make one recommandation, on one hand it would concern the recurring problem related to property rights. This must be prioritized through a strong legal and organizational framework as an effective and efficient EIA depends upon it. On the other hand, such an attitude could be perceived both by residents and foreigners as a strong signal towards governance and participative democracy. But two measures appear critical :
First reinforce statistics institutions. When trying to implement environmental policies, long data time series are of high importance. As an example, for evalutating flooding risk occurrence in the future one needs to observe the past floods events over decades. They will serve then for establishing probabilities in intensity and time occurrence alson based on GIS maps.
Secondly, define a strong and formalized property rights for lands. It is useful for identitying owners who, eventually, could be involved either in an environmental policy or in agricultural policies. This last measure is of great importance to make foreign investors feel secure when investing in the country.
53 At least, we must say thay property rights are fundamental to the environment and as such must not be an additional charge but a mean to nurture the endogenous growth. But behind economics, we find behavioural management. Risk management must be envisaged as a win-win game for the economy and the environment. That is what we tried to demonstrate by the relationship between tourism for financing environment, and environment for nurturing growth.
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1 According CTO, a tourist is someone volunteer to leave his usual home country for reasons different than professional reasons for one day at least and one year as a maximum. He must be volunteer, have no job and perceive no wages.
Table des illustrations
Pour citer cet article, référence électronique.
Charley G. Granvorka et Pascal Saffache , « Risk Management and Disaster Mitigation: A Case Study Applied to Haiti » , Études caribéennes [En ligne], 15 | Avril 2010, mis en ligne le 15 avril 2010 , consulté le 03 décembre 2023 . URL : http://journals.openedition.org/etudescaribeennes/4559 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/etudescaribeennes.4559
Charley G. Granvorka
CEREGMIA, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane ; [email protected]
Université des Antilles et de la Guyane ; Maître de conférences ; [email protected]
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Case Study 1: Disaster Risk Reduction
Current climate variability already leads to high economic costs in Europe, including from major floods. Climate change is likely to increase these extremes, even in the short‐medium term. As these will be amongst the highest near‐term economic costs, managing these risks is an early priority for adaptation. This case study compares options for adapting and improving disaster risk reduction for near future, but uncertain, changes due to extreme weather events resulting from climate change. Specifically the following research questions are asked:
- Given that there is interference with an extreme event baseline and many benefits are difficult to quantify, how can we make an economic case for adaptation to extreme events?
- How do we project insights from current disaster risk management practice forward to future adaptation to extremes?
- How does iterative risk management play out in practice?
- What are the fiscal risks imposed by extreme events modified by climate change?
- Develop an improved protocol for comparative economic analysis of options for adapting and improving disaster risk management (DRM) to near future changes in extreme weather events.
- Identify the potential scale of public finance resource commitments for improved disaster risk management under climate change in the EU.
- Develop rules for transferability of the case study results to general guidance for the economic assessment of adaptation.
A key output from this case study will be the development of an inventory of implemented DRM investments in the EU. Looking at economic appraisal for a range of options at a range of government scales, from community to national and EU wide levels, the study will draw out conclusions based on the current scope for appraisal and information requirements for disaster risk management in the EU. The study uses the IIASA CATSIM model to produce a pan-European analysis of fiscal disaster risk and related DRM decisions as a response to future flood and drought risk. Using this information the study identifies risks and their potential repercussions and identifies possible options for better planning in order to reduce fiscal risks. Outputs will include a new methodology for stochastic extreme event planning and insights into the scale and scope of fiscal disaster risk modified by climate change.
D5.1) Report: Assessing the economic case for adaptation to extreme events at different scales: Development of guidance for the economic analysis of extreme weather events will be reported. (Month 24) D5.2) Report: Pan-European Modelling of economic decisions related to disaster risk management in light of climate change: Economic protocols will be applied to modelled extreme weather events at the European scale. (Month 30) D5.3) Report: Policy recommendations, lessons learned and guidance: The fiscal consequences of extreme weather events, and the implications of these for public policy in Europe will be evaluated and reported . (Month 36)
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Disaster Risk Reduction Development Case Study
June 19, 2013.
UNDP through its Disaster Risk Management Programme identified the level of actual risks faced by district level hospitals as the basis for selecting four pilot facilities to conduct DRR activities. In order to fully analyze the level of risks faced by possible pilot hospitals, a detailed vulnerability and safety assessment was required. The primary focus of the WHO efforts was on assessing hospital vulnerability and improving capacity through technical support to increase the ability to respond. Limited funding was available for physical risk reduction works, especially for structural improvements. The funding that was available for facility safety improvements did, prove to be cost-effective by targeting non-structural elements within critical areas of the hospitals that could fail or that were non-functional. The HSI findings indicated that the overall current safety levels in the majority of the country’s hospitals placed their occupants, and their ability to function during or after a disaster, at significant risk (the case for 50% of the facilities surveyed) or could be considered inadequate to protect the lives of patients and staff.
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