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Chicago Citation Style, 17th Edition: Multiple Authors or Editors

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Multiple Authors or Editors (14.76)

Example 1 – Two or Three Authors

N:           1. Catherine Margaret Orr and Ann Braithwaite,  Introducing Women's and Gender Studies: Concepts for Everyday Use  (London: Routledge, 2014), 203.

B:    Orr, Catherine Margaret, and Ann Braithwaite.  Introducing Women's and Gender Studies: Concepts for              Everyday Use . London: Routledge, 2014.

Example 2 – Two or Three Editors

N:           1. Frank Tallett and D. J. B. Trim, eds., European Warfare, 1350-1750  (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 111-12.

B:     Tallett, Frank, and D. J. B. Trim, eds.  European Warfare, 1350-1750 . Cambridge: Cambridge University              Press, 2010.

Example 3 – Four to Ten Authors or Editors

N:            1. Julie Evans et al.,  Equal Subjects, Unequal Rights: Indigenous Peoples in British Settler Societies  (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003),  29.

B:     Evans, Julie ,  Patricia Grimshaw ,  David Philips , and  Shurlee Swain .  Equal Subjects, Unequal Rights:              Indigenous Peoples in British Settler Societies.  Manchester:  Manchester University Press,  2003.

NOTE: For sources with more than ten authors or editors, include only the first seven in the bibliography, followed by  et al .

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Book with Two or Three Authors or Editors (Sec. 14.76)

If your work has two editors instead of two authors, insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by a comma and the word "eds." without the quotation marks.

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Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.)

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Article with Multiple Authors

( Chicago Manual of Style 14.76)

Authors, "Article Title,"  Journal Title and Volume , Issue (Date of publication): Page number or Other identifying information, DOI/URL.

Full Example

1. Ryan C. Black, Rachel A. Schutte, and Timothy R. Johnson, “Trying to Get What You Want: Heresthetical Maneuvering and U.S. Supreme Court Decision Making,” Political Research Quarterly 66 , no. 4 (December 2013): 826, https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912913482757.

Abbreviated Example

2. Black, Schutte, and Johnson, “Trying to Get What You Want,” 826.

2. Black, Schutte, and Johnson, Political Research Quarterly 66 , no. 4: 826.

Bibliography

Authors. "Article Title."  Journal Title and Volume , Issue (Date of publication): Page numbers of entire article. DOI/URL.

Black, Ryan C., Rachel A. Schutte, and Timothy R. Johnson. “Trying to Get What You Want: Heresthetical Maneuvering and U.S. Supreme Court Decision Making.” Political Research Quarterly 66 , no. 4 (December 2013): 819-830. https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912913482757.

Helpful Hints

With four or more authors cite all in the bibliography, but in the note cite only the first author followed by et al.

In the bibliography invert the first and last name of only the first author.

If no page numbers are included then section headings or other types of locating information can be used.

Note that there is a space following the colon before the page numbers.

If using an electronic version of an article a DOI is preferred to a URL, but if using a URL, you must use the address that appears when you are viewing the article, unless there is a shorter more stable one available. (See 14.6-14.8 for more).

See 14.18 for more information on where to put line breaks for URLs or DOIs.

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Chicago Citation Style (17th Edition): Two or Three Authors or Editors

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Book with Two or Three Authors or Editors (pp. 695-696)

The general format below refers to a book with two authors.  

If you are dealing with two editors instead of two authors, insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by a comma and the word "eds." without the quotation marks.  The rest of the format remains the same.

General Format 

1. Author First Name/Initial Surname and Author First Name/Initial Surname,  Book Title: Subtitle   (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page #.

Concise Note:  

2. Author Surname and Author Surname,  Book Title , page #. 

Bibliography:

Author Surname, First Name/Initial, and Author First Name/Initial Surname.  Book Title: Subtitle . Place of       Publication: Publisher, Year.

1. Liam P. Unwin and Joseph Galloway,  Peace In Ireland  (Boston: Stronghope Press, 1990), 139.  

Concise Note:

2. Unwin and Galloway,  Peace in Ireland , 139.

Unwin, Liam P., and Joseph Galloway.  Peace in Ireland . Boston: Stronghope  Press, 1990.  

Formatting of papers in Chicago Style:

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Citations and bibliographies in Chicago Style:

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About Citing Books

This guide is intended to cover only the Notes and Bibliography system for citing books.

For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and a specific example will be provided.

The following format will be used:

Full Note  - use the first time that you cite a source. Concise Note  - use after the first time you cite a source. Bibliography  - use when you are compiling the Bibliography that appears at the end of your paper.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from  The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) . 

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Chicago Style / Chicago Style Book Citation

How to Cite a Book in Chicago/Turabian

Book citations in Chicago style contain the author name, book title, publication city, publisher, and publication year. This guide will show you how to create a citation for a book in notes-bibliography style using the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style .

Guide Overview

  • Citing a book in print
  • Citing an edited book
  • Citing a translated book
  • Citing an edition other than the first edition
  • Citing a multivolume book
  • Citing an audiobook
  • Citing a book with multiple authors
  • Citing a book with no author
  • What you need

For more information on citing books in Chicago style, see these guides on how to cite a chapter , how to cite an e-book , how to cite the Bible , how to cite an encyclopedia , and how to cite a dictionary .

Citing a Book in Print

Citation structure:.

1. First name Last name, Book Title (City: Publisher, Year Published), page number.

Bibliography:

Last name, First name. Book Title . City: Publisher, Year Published.

Screen Shot 2014-03-31 at 5.34.45 PM

Citation Example:

1. Henry James, The Ambassadors (Rockville, MD: Serenity Publishers, 2009), 18.

James, Henry. The Ambassadors . Rockville,  MD: Serenity Publishers, 2009.

Citing an Edited Book

1. First name Last name, ed., Book Title (City: Publisher, Year Published), page number.

Last name, First name, ed. Book Title . City: Publisher, Year Published.

1. Hideaki Suzuki, ed., Abolitions as a Global Experience (Singapore: NUS Press, 2016), 46.

Suzuki, Hideaki, ed.  Abolitions as a Global Experience . Singapore: NUS Press, 2016.

Citing a Translated Book

1. Author First name Last name, Book Title , trans. Translator First name Last name (City: Publisher, Year Published), page number.

Author Last name, First name. Book Title . Translated by Translator First name Last name. City: Publisher, Year Published.

1. Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina , trans. Rosamund Bartlett (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), 122.

Tolstoy, Leo.  Anna Karenina . Translated by Rosamund Bartlett. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Citing an Edition Other than the First Edition

1. First name Last name, Book Title , # ed. (City: Publisher, Year Published), page number.

Last name, First name. Book Title . # ed. City: Publisher, Year Published.

1. Emma Howard, ed., Coins of England and the United Kingdom 2020: Decimal Issues , 6th ed. (London: Spink Books, 2019), 67.

Howard, Emma, ed.  Coins of England and the United Kingdom 2020: Decimal Issues . 6th ed. London: Spink Books, 2019.

Citing a Multivolume Book

One common way to cite a multivolume work in Chicago style is to cite the specific volume within the note, and the multivolume book as a whole in the bibliography. However, if you only use one specific volume of a multivolume book, you can specify the volume in the bibliography entry as well (instead of “2 vols.” you would format this as “Vol. 2”).

1. First name Last name, Book Title (City: Publisher, Year Published), volume number:page number.

Last name, First name. Book Title . # vols. City: Publisher, Year Published.

Last name, First name. Book Title . Vol. #. City: Publisher, Year Published.

1. Edwin Curley, ed., The Collected Works of Spinoza (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016) 2:37.

Curley, Edwin, ed.  The Collected Works of Spinoza . 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016.

Curley, Edwin, ed.  The Collected Works of Spinoza . Vol. 2. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016.

Citing an Audiobook

1. First name Last name, Book Title , read by First name Last name (City: Publisher, Year Published), format, # hr., # min.

Last name, First name. Book Title. Read by First name Last name. City: Publisher, Year Published. Format, # hr., # min.

1. Greene, Robert. 48 Laws of Power . Read by Richard Poe. Prince Frederick, MD: HighBridge Audio, 2015. Audible audio ed., 23 hr., 6 min.

Greene, Robert.  48 Laws of Power . Read by Richard Poe. Prince Frederick, MD: HighBridge Audio, 2015. Audible audio ed., 23 hr., 6 min.

Citing a Book with Multiple Authors

When citing a book with multiple authors in Chicago Style, the first name in the bibliography entry should be formatted as “last name, first name” and every subsequent name should be formatted as “first name last name”. In the note, all names should follow the format “first name last name”. If there are up to three author or editor names, include all names in the note and the bibliography entry. If the book you are citing has four or more authors or editors, list up to ten names in the bibliography and only the first name followed by “et al.” in the note. If there are more than ten authors or editors (which will rarely be the case for most books), only the first seven should be included in the bibliography entry followed by the phrase “et al.” and the note should still contain just the first name followed by “et al.”.

1. First Author First name Last name et al., Book Title (City: Publisher, Year Published), page number.

First Author Last name, First name, Second Author First name Last name (continue as needed). Book Title . City: Publisher, Year Published.

1. David H. Snyder et al., Amphibians and Reptiles of Land Between the Lakes ( Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2016), 12.

Snyder, David H., A. Floyd Scott, Edmund J. Zimmerer, and David F. Frymire.  Amphibians and Reptiles of Land Between the Lakes . Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2016.

Citing a Book with No Author

If you need to cite a book that has no author/an unknown author, first double check that the book doesn’t instead have an editor and/or translator. If it does, follow the appropriate format listed above. If no author/editor/translator can be identified, begin the citation with the title of the book.

1. Book Title (City: Publisher, Year Published), page number.

Book Title . City: Publisher, Year Published.

1. Diary of an Oxygen Thief (self-pub., 2006), 13.

Diary of an Oxygen Thief.  Self-published, 2006.

What You Need

A citation for an book usually includes the following:

  • Author name
  • Volume or edition information
  • City of publication
  • Publisher name
  • Publication year
  • Page number (in note only)

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Citation, Documentation of Sources

Q. What if two authors with the same surname are cited, and their writings are published in the same year? How can I tell them apart when I am using the author-date citation system?

A. Use a first initial (R. Jones 2000; B. Jones 2000). If the initials are also the same, add a short title to your text citation (Jones, Big Book , 2000; Jones, “Little Article,” 2000). If the works are by the same author, assign letters to the dates in your reference list and refer to them (Jones 2000a, 2000b).

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Chicago Referencing – Repeat Citations

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  • 29th June 2018

If you have a useful source text, you may need to cite it more than once in your work . And the Chicago Manual of Style has specific rules for doing this! Here, then, is our guide to repeat citations in Chicago style referencing .

Footnote Citations

In Chicago footnote referencing , after giving full source information in the first footnote, you can shorten subsequent citations of the same source to prevent repetition. These shortened footnotes should include the author’s surname, a shortened title, and the page(s) cited:

1. Alan C. Jenkins, Wildlife in the City: Animals, Birds, Reptiles, Insects and Plants in an Urban Landscape (London: Holt & Company, 1983), 13. 2. Esther Woolfson, Corvus: A Life with Birds (London: Granta Publications, 2008), 234. 3. Jenkins, Wildlife in the City , 102.

If citing two people with the same surname in your work, make sure to include the initial of the person you are citing again as well as their surname.

When citing the same source repeatedly, you can shorten the citation even further to just the author’s name and a page number:

1. Alan C. Jenkins, Wildlife in the City: Animals, Birds, Reptiles, Insects and Plants in an Urban Landscape (London: Holt & Company, 1983), 13. 2. Esther Woolfson, Corvus: A Life with Birds (London: Granta Publications, 2008), 234. 3. Jenkins, Wildlife in the City , 102. 4. Jenkins, 112. 5. Woolfson, Corvus , 235. 6. Woolfson, 117. 7. Jenkins, Wildlife in the City , 84.

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The key is making sure the source you’re citing is clear each time.

Author–Date Citations

Chicago referencing also has an author–date system , which uses in-text citations. To reference the same source more than once in this, all you have to do is give the same citation again:

Alan Jenkins (1983) describes how birds of prey survive in urban settings. He says that peregrine falcons are a “spectacular example of adaptive behavior” (Jenkins 1983, 13).

All you need to do with repeat author–date citations, then, is make sure they are consistent! And if you’d like any extra help making sure the referencing in your work is correct, we have expert proofreaders available. Sign up for a 500-word free trial to find out how our proofreading service works.

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Citing Your Sources: Chicago: Author-Date (17th)

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Chicago Author-Date

About chicago 17th ed.: author-date.

The Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date system is used by scholars in the social sciences and sciences. For arts, history, and humanities, see the  Notes/Bibliography system.

Citing sources in this style consists of two parts:

  • An in-text citation
  • A reference list

The in-text citation points the reader to the full information about the source found in the reference list.

See How to Format In-Text Citations , How to Format the Reference List , and the examples of types of sources in the left navigation for further details.

How to Format In-Text Citations

An in-text citation provides your reader with two pieces of information:

  • The the last name of the author(s) used in the corresponding reference list entry
  • The year the work was published

Standard Formatting of the In-Text Citation

For more detailed information see Chicago Manual of Style , 15.21 - 15.31 .

  • Enclose the author's last name and the year of publication in parentheses with no intervening punctuation. (Smith 2016)
  • For no author , see the "How do I deal with ____?" section.
  • For two to three authors, include the last names of authors using commas and and (Smith, Lee, and Alvarez 2016)
  • For four or more authors, include the last name of the first author and et al. (Smith et al. 2016)
  • When editors, translators, or compilers are used as the author, do not include their role (trans., ed., comp.) in the in-text citation.
  • When the reference list has works by authors with same last name , include their first initial in the in-text citation (B. Smith 2016) (J. Smith 2009)
  • If an author has published multiple works in the same year , alphabetize the titles in the reference list and then add a, b,c, etc. to the year (Lee 2015a) (Lee 2015b)
  • To cite specific page(s) , add a comma and the page number(s) (Smith 2016, 21-23)
  • If the author's name appears in the sentence, do not include the name again in the parentheses Smith (2016) indicates that good citation practices are important.
  • To cite more than one reference in a single in-text citation, separate the references by semicolons. If the works are by the same author, use just the year and separate with a comma. See CMOS 15.30  for details. (Smith 2016; Lee 2015) (Smith 2016, 2013; Lee 2015)

How to Format the Reference List

General formatting of the reference list.

For more detailed information see Chicago Manual of Style , 1 5.10 - 15.20

The reference list provides the full details of the items you have cited in your paper. Here are some general features of the reference list:

  • Usually titled References or Works Cited  
  • Entries begin with author(s) and date of work; other required elements depend on the type of source. See examples in the left navigation.  
  • alphabetize using the letter-by-letter system, in which an entry for “Fernández, Angelines” would come before the entry for “Fernán Gómez, Fernando” (d in " Fernández" comes before G in " Gómez")  
  • If there is no author , use the first word of the title of the work (excluding The, A, An).  
  • Single-author  entries precede  multiauthor  entries beginning with the same name.  

Du Bois, W. E. B. 1898. "The Study of the Negro Problems." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 11 (January): 1-23. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1009474.

———. 1903. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches . Chicago: A. C. McClurg.

———. 1947. The World and Africa: An Inquiry into the Part Which Africa Has Played in World History . New York: Viking.  

Olney, William W. 2015a. "Impact of Corruption on Firm-Level Export Decisions." Economic Inquiry 54 (2): 1105–27.

Olney, William W. 2015b. "Remittances and the Wage Impact of Immigration." Journal of Human Resources 50 (3): 694-727.

How do I deal with ___?

Missing citation elements.

(World Bank 2011)

( New York Times  1912)

If the author is unknown, start the reference list entry with the title. For the in-text citation, use the title, which can be shortened as long as the first word matches the reference list entry ( CMOS ,  15.34 )

(Human Rights Campaign, n.d.)

(Library of Congress, n.d., under "Slave Narratives and the New Debate about Slavery")

  • Place: Use n.p. if it is unknown. If it can be surmised, put in brackets with a question mark. ( CMOS , 14.132 )
  • Publisher: If not listed on the title page or copyright page, use "self-published" or "printed by author." (CMOS,  14.137 )

More than one author

  • List authors in order they appear on title page
  • In the reference list, invert the first author's name only and place a comma before and after the first name
  • Use the word "and," not an ampersand (&)
  • For works with 4-10 authors, list all names in the reference list, but only use the first author's name followed by et al. in the in-text citation.
  • For works with more than 10 authors, only include the first 7 authors and et al. in the reference list ( CMOS ,  15.9 , 15.16 ,  15.29 ,  14.76 )

In-text Citations:

(Geis and Bunn 1997, 17)

(Chih-Hung Ko et al. 2009, 600)

Reference List:

Geis, Gilbert, and Ivan Bunn. 1997. A Trial of Witches: a Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution . London: Routledge.

Ko, Chih-Hung, Ju-Yu Yen, Shu-Chun Liu, Chi-Fen Huang, and Cheng-Fang Yen. 2009. "The Associations between Aggressive Behaviors and Internet Addiction and Online Activities in Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Health 44 (6): 598-605.

Using a source quoted in a secondary source

It is always better to consult the original source, but if it cannot be obtained, give information about the original source in the running text and include "quoted in" in your in-text citation for the secondary source. Include only the secondary source in your reference list. ( CMOS , 15.56 )

In his 1844 book Thoughts on the Proposed Annexation of Texas to the United States , Theodore Sedgwick opines "The annexation of Texas instead of strengthening the Union, weakens it" (quoted in Rathbun 2001, 479).

Rathbun, Lyon. 2001. "The Debate over Annexing Texas and the Emergence of Manifest Destiny." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 4 (3): 459-493.

Examples: Books, Chapters

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 15.9 , 15.40 - 15.45

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. Book Title . Place: Publisher.

For e-books, include the provider of the book, the URL, or e-book application/device at the end of the citation. (CMOS, 14.159 - 14.163 )

Feder, Ellen K. 2007. Family Bonds: Genealogies of Race and Gender . Oxford: Oxford University Press. ProQuest ebrary.

Nairn, Tom. 1997. Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited . London: Verso.

Stewart, K. J. 1864. A Geography for Beginners . Richmond: J. W. Randolph. http://docsouth.unc.edu/imls/stewart/stewart.html.

Edited Book

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 15.9 , 15.36

Author Last Name, First Name, ed. Year. Book Title . Place: Publisher.

Dmytryshyn, Basil, ed. 1999. Imperial Russia: A Source Book, 1700-1917 . New York: Academic International Press.

Chapter or Essay in Book

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 15.9 , 14.106 - 14.112

Roell, Craig H. 1994. "The Piano in the American Home." In The Arts and the American Home, 1890-1930 , edited by Jessica H. Foy and Karal Ann Marling, 193-204. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Entry in a Reference Book

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 14.232 ,  14.233 ,  14.234

Well-known encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually cited in the running text only. For other reference works, cite as a book or book chapter.

Examples: Articles

Journal article.

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 15.9 , 15.46

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume (Issue): Page Range of Article. URL/DOI.

For journal articles consulted online, use a URL based on a DOI (begins with https://doi.org/). Otherwise, use the URL provided with the article.

Hunter, Margaret. 2016. "Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African American and Latina/o Students." Theory into Practice 55 (1): 54-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2016.1119019.

Thompson, Maxine S., and Keith Verna M. 2001. "The Blacker the Berry: Gender, Skin Tone, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy." Gender and Society 15 (3): 336-57. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3081888.

Magazine Article

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 15.4 9

Magazine articles can be cited in the running text (e.g., As Scott Spencer mentions in his May 1979 Harper's article "Childhood's End," ....) and not included in the reference list. However, if a formal citation is needed, follow the example below, repeating the year with the month and day.

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Magazine Title , Month Day, Year, Page Range of Article.

If citing an online magazine, end the citation with the URL, library database, or app.

Spencer, Scott. 1979. "Childhood's End." Harper's , May 1979, 16-19.

Tobar, Héctor. 2016. "Can Latinos Swing Arizona?" New Yorker. August 1, 2016. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/08/01/promise-arizona-and-the-power-of-the-latino-vote.

Tobar, Héctor. 2016. "Can Latinos Swing Arizona?" New Yorker (iPhone app). August 1, 2016.

Newspaper Article

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 15.49 ,  14.191  -  14.200

Newspaper articles can be cited in the running text (e.g., As John Eligon mentioned in his November 18, 2015 New York Times article ....) and not included in the reference list. However, if your professor requires it, follow the examples below, repeating the year with the month and day.

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Newspaper Title , Month Day, Year. sec. Section.

Page numbers are not included because articles can appear on different pages in different editions. For regularly occurring columns, cite with both the column name and headline or just the column name. If citing an online newspaper, include the URL at the end. If citing from a library database, include the database name.

Eligon, John. 2015. "One Slogan, Many Methods: Black Lives Matter Enters Politics." New York Times , November 18, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/19/us/one-slogan-many-methods-black-lives-matter-enters-politics.html.

Erlanger, Steve. 1998. "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role." New York Times , May 8, 1998, sec. A.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1966. "Negro Faces Dixie Justice." My Dream. Chicago Defender , April 23, 1966. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.

Examples: Web Pages, Blogs, Social Media

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 15.51 , CMOS quick guide

Author Last Name, First Name. Last Modified Year. "Page Title." Website Title. Last modified Month Day, Year. URL.

If there is no personal author, start with the page title or site sponsor. If there is no last modified date, use n.d.

DeSilver, Drew. 2018. "The Real Value of a $15 Minimum Wage Depends on Where You Live." Pew Research Center. Last modified October 10, 2018. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/10/the-real-value-of-a-15-minimum-wage-depends-on-where-you-live/.

Human Rights Campaign. n.d. "Maps of State Laws and Policies." Accessed April 25, 2019. http://www.hrc.org/state_maps.

Blog Posts and Comments

For more information see:  Chicago Manual of Style ,  15.51  and  14.208

Blog posts and comments are generally cited in the running text and omitted from the reference list. If a reference list entry is needed, follow the example below.

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Post Title," Blog Title (blog), Month Day, Year. URL.

If the blog has the word "blog" as part of its name, "(blog)" should not be included in the citation. If the blog is a part of a larger publication, include that title, too.

Stewart, Jenell. 2016. "Natural Hair Creates a More Inclusive Standard," My Natural Hair Journey (blog), Huffington Post , July 12, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jenell-stewart/natural-hair-creates-a-more-inclusive-beauty-standard_b_10949874.html.

Social Media

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 14.209 and 15.52

Citations for social media content can often be incorporated into the text:

Reacting to the Obergefell v. Hodges decision, Obama tweeted, "Today is a big step in our march toward equality. Gay and lesbian couples now have the right to marry, just like anyone else. #LoveWins" (@POTUS44, June 26, 2015).

If you cite an account frequently or an extensive thread, use the format below for the reference list. Direct or private messages shared through social media are treated as personal communication (see COMS , 15.53 ).

Use the screen name in the author position if there is no real name. If you have already fully quoted the text of the post, that element is not needed in the note. If relevant, include media type (photo, video, etc.) after the name of the social media service.

Examples: Music, Film, TV, Images

Note: In many cases media can be cited in the running text or grouped in a separate section or discography, but author-date style citation can be created by adapting the format used in the notes/bibliography style, moving the year to the second position. You can choose whom to list as the author depending on the focus of your citation. While you should always cite the format you used, the original date of the work, if known, should be privileged in the citation. ( CMOS , 15.57 )

Music Score

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 14.255

Published music scores are cited like books and book chapters.

Composer Last Name, First Name. Year. "Song Title." In Book Title , edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Inclusive Pages for Song. Place: Publisher.

Johnson, Charles L. "Crazy Bone Rag." 1997. In Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21 , edited by David A. Jasen, 41-45. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

Music Recording

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 14.263

Performer or Conductor Last Name, First Name. Original Release Year. Album Title . Record Label Catalog Number, Year of Format Used, Medium or Streaming Service or File Format. 

The Beatles. 1970. Let it Be . Capitol 3 82472 2, 2009, compact disc.

Beyoncé. 2016. Lemonade , Parkwood Entertainment, MP3.

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 14.265

bibliography:

Director First Name Last Name, dir. Original Film Release Year. Film Title . Place: Studio/Distributor, Release Year of Medium Used. Medium.

Scott, Ridley, dir. 1991. Thelma & Louise . Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004. DVD.

Online Video

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 1 4.267

The format of citations depends on the information available. Generally, include details about the original published source (if applicable) and details related to the digitized copy such as source type, length, and where it is posted. See the two examples of format below.

Video Creator Last Name, First Name. Original Release Year. Video Title . Original Production Company. From Provider of Online Video. Source Type, Running Time. URL.

Digitizing Organization. Original Year. "Video Clip Title." Source Type, Running Time. From Original Performance or Source Date. Posted Date. URL.

U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration.1951.  Duck and Cover . Archer Productions. From Internet Archive, Prelinger Archives. MPEG video, 9:15. http://archive.org/details/DuckandC1951.

John F. Kennedy Library Foundation. 1960. "TNC:172 Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate, 1960." YouTube video, 58:34. From televised debate September 26, 1960. Posted September 21, 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw.

Director Last Name, First Name, dir. Year aired.  TV Show Title. , Season number, episode number, "Episode Title." Aired Month Day, Year, on Network. Medium or URL for online access.

Silberling, Brad, dir. 2014.  Jane the Virgin. Season 1, episode 1, "Chapter One." Aired October 13, 2014, on The CW. https://www.netflix.com/title/80027158.

For more information see: CMOS Shop Talk

Images are usually not included in the reference list. In the running text or caption indicate the artist, year the work was created, title of the work, and where it is located.

Examples: Government Documents

For more information see:  Chicago Manual of Style , 1 5.58  and 15.59

If you make extensive use of legal or government documents, cite them in the  Chicago Notes  format as supplementary footnotes instead of as in-text citations. See  CMOS   15.31 . 

If you are using just a few documents, cite them in the running text using the legal citation form recommended in The Chicago Manual of Style , 14.269 - 14.305  and in the Chicago Notes section of this guide.

In Griswold v. Connecticut (381 U.S. 479 (1965)), the court ruled that ...

In remarks about the DREAM Act on the Senate floor (156 Cong. Rec. S10259 (daily ed. December 15, 2010)), Senator Durbin discussed ...

Examples: Unpublished/Archival

Interview/discussion.

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 15.48

Unpublished interviews are cited as an in-text citation only; they do not appear in the reference list.

  • In the parenthetical citation, put "personal communication" after the name of the person being interviewed. (Maud Mandel, personal communication)
  • For class discussions, put the course number, "class discussion," and the date of the class. (ECON 110 class discussion, April 19, 2019)

Manuscript/Archival Material

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style , 15.49

Manuscript materials are cited in the running text indicating the date of the cited item and using the name of the manuscript collection in the in-text reference. 

The reference list provides details about the manuscript collection only, not the individual items.

If only one item from a collection is cited, the details of that item can be included in the reference list and the author used in the in-text citation.

Collection Name. Repository Name. Place.

Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Item. Item Description. Month Day, Year of Item. Collection Name. Repository Name, Place.

If the item was accessed online, include the URL at the end of the citation.

Hopkins Family Papers. Williams College Special Collections. Williamstown, MA.

(Hopkins Family Papers)

Hopkins, Mark. 1861. Letter to Jaime Margalotti. March 22, 1861. Hopkins Family Papers. Williams College Special Collections, Williamstown, MA.

(Hopkins 1861)

Need More Info?

cite multiple authors chicago

  • Chicago Style Q&A Provides official answers to questions submitted by users of the Chicago Manual of Style .
  • CMOS Shop Talk A blog by the editors and staff of the Chicago Manual of Style , which includes posts and pages for students writing papers.

What Needs to be Cited?

  • Exact wording taken from any source, including freely available websites
  • Paraphrases of passages
  • Summaries of another person's work
  • Indebtedness to another person for an idea
  • Use of another student's work
  • Use of your own previous work

You do not need to cite common knowledge .

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  • URL: https://libguides.williams.edu/citing

Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide

  • Getting Started with Chicago
  • Books & Chapters

Book and Chapter Citation Overview

Books with single authors, books with multiple authors, chapters in edited books or collections.

  • Social Media
  • Video & Film
  • Books & Chapters

A footnote ¹ or an endnote ²  generally lists the author, title, and facts of publication in that order. The constituent parts are separated by commas (and the facts of publication are enclosed in parentheses).  This is followed by the page numbers or other locators of the material being cited. (For electronic material lacking page numbers, these may include chapter or paragraph numbers, section headings and the like.)

It is preferable the notes be supplemented by a bibliography giving the sources consulted in alphabetical order. In a bibliography, the elements are separated by periods and the facts of publication are not enclosed in parentheses. The first-listed author's name in usually inverted, last-name first

If the bibliography includes all the works included in the notes, a shortened form of footnote or endnote can be used which does not duplicate all the elements that appear in the bibliography.

For an extensive collection of examples of notes and bibliography entries go here .

Please note, when citing sources consulted online ,   the uniform resource locator, or URL, should generally be included as the final element in a citation. Further information can be found here .

As many e-books and other electronic formats feature  scrollable text it may not be possible to cite specific page numbers. For advice on other options go here .

1. Footnotes go at the bottom of the page.

2. Endnotes contain the same information as footnotes but are placed at the end of your paper preceding the bibliography.

Footnotes and endnotes :

Authors' names are given in standard order (first names first) and significant words in (English-language) titles are capitalized:

Allissa V.  Richardson,   Bearing Witness While Black : African Americans, Smartphones, and the New Protest #journalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2020), 75.

A shortened form of citation may be used when the work is cited in the bibliography.

    Richardson, Bearing Witness , 75.

Entries in a bibliography :

   Richardson, Allissa V.   Bearing Witness While Black : African Americans, Smartphones, and the New Protest #journalism.  New York: Oxford 

      University Press, 2020.

Footnotes and Endnotes:

For works with two or three authors, include all their names in the footnotes or endnotes. For works with four or more authors, include only the first in the footnoes or endnotes but include them all in the bibliography.

   Rinaldo Walcott and Idil Abdillahi,  BlackLife: Post-BLM and the Struggle for Freedom  (Winnipeg: ARP Books, 2019), 25-33.

    Walcott and Abdillahi, BlackLife, 25-33.

   Walcott, Rinaldo and Idil Abdillahi.   BlackLife: Post-BLM and the Struggle for Freedom.  Winnipeg: ARP Books, 2019.

Footnotes and endnotes:

For edited collections, where the chapters are written by different hands, begin with the author and title of the chapter being cited followed by the name of the book, its editor, the facts of publication, and the page(s) being cited. Precede the book's title with the word 'in'.

   Silvia Argentina Arauz, "Mothering in the Movement," in  Until We Are Free: Reflections on Black Lives Matter in Canada, ed. Rodney Diverlus,    

    Sandy Hudson, and Syrus Marcus Ware (Regina: University of Regina Press, 2020), 238.

​ A  shortened form of citation  may be used when the work is cited in the bibliography.

   Arauz, "Mothering," 238.

Entries in a bibliography:

Note that 'edited' is spelled out in full and that the range of pages for the chapter as a whole are given rather than only the page(s) cited in the endnote or footnote.

   Arauz, Silvia Argentina Arauz. "Mothering in the Movement," in  Until we are free : reflections on Black Lives Matter in Canada, edited by  Rodney       

     Diverlus, Sandy Hudson, and Syrus Marcus Ware, 237-245. Regina: University of Regina Press, 2020.

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  1. How to Cite Books with Multiple Authors: APA, MLA, & Chicago

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  5. Chicago/Turabian Style and How to Use It

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  1. Mastering APA 7th Edition: Citing Multiple Authors

  2. How do you cite multiple authors in APA?

  3. Darien Douglas On Accountability, Turning Life Around, Being a Author & More [CLOTH TALK PODCAST]

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COMMENTS

  1. Chicago Style: Citing a Multiple Authors

    The following templates and examples will help you to build citations for sources with three authors using the notes and bibliography system. Full reference template: 1st Author Surname, 1st Author First Name, 2nd Author First Name and Surname, and 3rd Author First Name and Surname. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Publication Year.

  2. How do I cite a source with multiple authors in Chicago style?

    How do I cite a source with multiple authors in Chicago style? In a Chicago style footnote, list up to three authors. If there are more than three, name only the first author, followed by " et al. ". In the bibliography, list up to 10 authors. If there are more than 10, list the first seven followed by "et al.". Full note.

  3. Books

    Citing indirect sources. Because authors are generally expected to be intimately familiar with the sources they are citing, Chicago discourages the use of a source that was cited within another (secondary) source. In the case that an original source is utterly unavailable, however, Chicago requires the use of "quoted in" for the note: N:

  4. Chicago In-text Citations

    Revised on April 9, 2024. An in-text citation is used to point readers toward any source you quote, paraphrase or refer to in your writing. The Chicago Manual of Style has two options for in-text citations: Author-date: you put your citations in parentheses within the text itself. Notes and bibliography: you put your citations in numbered ...

  5. Chicago Citation Style, 17th Edition: Multiple Authors or Editors

    Other Sources. Plagiarism. Multiple Authors or Editors (14.76) Example 1 - Two or Three Authors. N: 1. Catherine Margaret Orr and Ann Braithwaite, Introducing Women's and Gender Studies: Concepts for Everyday Use (London: Routledge, 2014), 203. B: Orr, Catherine Margaret, and Ann Braithwaite. Introducing Women's and Gender Studies: Concepts for.

  6. Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide

    Most authors choose the system used by others in their field or required by their publisher. Students who are unsure of which system to use will find more information here. For a more comprehensive look at Chicago's two systems of source citation and many more examples, see chapters 14 and 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style.

  7. B. Two or Three Authors or Editors

    This guide will show you how to cite your sources using the Chicago citation style. It is based on the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. It provides selected citation examples for commonly used sources in the of notes/bibliography style. ... Book with Two or Three Authors or Editors (Sec. 14.76) If your work has two editors instead ...

  8. Chicago Style Citation Guide

    The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) contains guidelines for two styles of citation: notes and bibliography and author-date.. Notes and bibliography is the most common type of Chicago style citation, and the main focus of this article. It is widely used in the humanities. Citations are placed in footnotes or endnotes, with a Chicago style bibliography listing your sources in full at the end.

  9. Library: Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.): Multiple Authors

    Article with Multiple Authors (Chicago Manual of Style 14.76)Note Model. Authors, "Article Title," Journal Title and Volume, Issue (Date of publication): Page number or Other identifying information, DOI/URL. Full Example. 1. Ryan C. Black, Rachel A. Schutte, and Timothy R. Johnson, "Trying to Get What You Want: Heresthetical Maneuvering and U.S. Supreme Court Decision Making," Political ...

  10. Author-Date Style

    Find it. Write it. Cite it. The Chicago Manual of Style Online is the venerable, time-tested guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format. ¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice. ¶ Over 1.5 million copies sold!

  11. Two or Three Authors or Editors

    The general format below refers to a book with two authors. If you are dealing with two editors instead of two authors, insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by a comma and the word "eds." without the quotation marks. The rest of the format remains the same. General Format . Full Note: 1.

  12. PDF Chicago Style: Multiple Citations

    Chicago Style: Multiple Authors & Citations. Chicago Manual of Style format citations can follow two methods: author-date and notes-bibliography. Author-Date: Sources cited with parentheses including author last name and publication year like APA and ends with a reference list. Notes-Bibliography: Sources cited with superscripts that correspond ...

  13. How to Cite a Book in Chicago Style

    When citing a book with multiple authors in Chicago Style, the first name in the bibliography entry should be formatted as "last name, first name" and every subsequent name should be formatted as "first name last name". In the note, all names should follow the format "first name last name". If there are up to three author or editor ...

  14. FAQ Item

    A. Use a first initial (R. Jones 2000; B. Jones 2000). If the initials are also the same, add a short title to your text citation (Jones, Big Book, 2000; Jones, "Little Article," 2000). If the works are by the same author, assign letters to the dates in your reference list and refer to them (Jones 2000a, 2000b).

  15. How to Cite Multiple Authors in Chicago (Notes-Bibliography) Style

    This video is based on the 16th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and explains how to cite works by more than one author in your footnote/endnote and bi...

  16. Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition

    Introduction. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation, and as such, it has been lovingly dubbed the "editor's bible.". The material on this page focuses primarily on one of the two CMOS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System ...

  17. Chicago Referencing

    If citing two people with the same surname in your work, make sure to include the initial of the person you are citing again as well as their surname. When citing the same source repeatedly, you can shorten the citation even further to just the author's name and a page number: 1. Alan C. Jenkins, Wildlife in the City: Animals, Birds, Reptiles ...

  18. In-text Citations

    This style of Chicago in-text citation looks the same for every type of source. ... Citing sources with multiple authors. In both styles, when you cite a source with two or three authors, list the names in the order they appear in the original publication: (Johnson and Smith 2017, 119) 1. Johnson, Smith, and Dale, "Literature Review," 127 ...

  19. Citing a Journal Article in Chicago Style

    To cite an online journal article in Chicago notes and bibliography style, list the author's name, the title of the article, the journal name, volume, issue, and publication date, the page range on which the article appears, and a DOI or URL. For an article accessed in print, follow the same format and simply omit the DOI or URL.

  20. Citing Your Sources: Chicago: Author-Date (17th)

    About Chicago 17th ed.: Author-Date. The Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date system is used by scholars in the social sciences and sciences. For arts, history, and humanities, see the Notes/Bibliography system. Citing sources in this style consists of two parts: The in-text citation points the reader to the full information about the source ...

  21. Books & Chapters

    For works with two or three authors, include all their names in the footnotes or endnotes. For works with four or more authors, include only the first in the footnoes or endnotes but include them all in the bibliography. Rinaldo Walcott and Idil Abdillahi, BlackLife: Post-BLM and the Struggle for Freedom (Winnipeg: ARP Books, 2019), 25-33.

  22. Welcome to the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    Mission. The Purdue On-Campus Writing Lab and Purdue Online Writing Lab assist clients in their development as writers—no matter what their skill level—with on-campus consultations, online participation, and community engagement. The Purdue Writing Lab serves the Purdue, West Lafayette, campus and coordinates with local literacy initiatives.

  23. Cilta-cel, a BCMA-targeting CAR-T therapy for patients with multiple

    2. Cilta-cel has demonstrated long-term efficacy in heavily pretreated RRMM patients. The efficacy and safety of cilta-cel in heavily pretreated MM patients was established in two studies, the first-in-human, phase I LEGEND-2 trial of LCAR-B38M CAR-T cells (generated using the same CAR construct as cilta-cel) and the pivotal phase Ib/II CARTITUDE-1 trial of cilta-cel [Citation 11, Citation 13].

  24. Chicago Author-Date Style

    Revised on April 9, 2024. The Chicago Manual of Style provides guidelines for two styles of source citation: notes and bibliography and author-date. Author-date style is the preferred option in the sciences and social sciences. In author-date style, an in-text citation consists of the author's name, the publication year, and (if relevant) a ...

  25. Chicago Style Footnotes

    If you need to cite multiple sources in one sentence, you can combine the citations into one footnote, separated by semicolons: 1. Hulme, "Romanticism and Classicism"; Eliot, The Waste Land; Woolf, "Modern Fiction," 11. Sources with multiple authors. Footnotes for sources with two or three authors should include all the authors' names.