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Strategic Management (BUS 411) Case study & analysis
by Souleyman Sane
Free Related PDFs
Anthony Olabode Ayodele (Bode Ayodele)
2015, DASH | Delft Architectural Studies on Housing
2021, Asia Pacific Journal of Management and Education
Consumer behavior is the study of consumers and the processes they use to choose, apply and dispose of products and services, including consumers’ emotional and behavioral responses. IKEA is a multinational home furnishings company founded in 1943 in Sweden that has grown rapidly. They manage to produce their products and services more widespread not only based on price but create a unique shopping experience. This study aims to examine the factors that affect consumer behavior in IKEA. Various factors like social factors, wide products assortment, price and others are investigated to analyze consumer behavior of IKEA’s customers. Likert Scale was used to get the final results from the questionnaire filled out by the respondents. The questionnaires were distributed to 250 respondents who use IKEA products. The Likert scale will be used to measure a person's perception and attitude or opinion. The results showed that they chose IKEA due to the cost-advantages and wide products as...
Pricing is an important element in business, and an appropriate pricing strategy is elementary for any business to see successful operations. Pricing affects the acceptability of the product and determines the growth rate of the brand in the market (Pan et al., 2018). For IKEA, the factors that influence the pricing range from customer needs, competitor strategies, and environmental elements. IKEA, being a well-developed brand with more than 48 suppliers in India alone, feels the challenge posed by these factors and the impact they have on its target market.
Kevin Zentner , Rachel Killoh , Zhen Sun
Ikea is a worldwide success story; their stores were visited 915 million times and their website was accessed over 2 billion times in 2016 (Highlights, 2016). As the world’s largest furniture retailer, Ikea services a number of market segments. With significant volume discounts and a vertically integrated supply chain, the production of low-cost goods target young families and low income segments. Conversely, the flagship Stockholm line of furniture entices sophisticated consumers towards mid-priced, superior value products with quality materials such as walnut, bone china, and rustic grain leather.
This paper presents an innovative concept for functional, low-priced, privately-owned housing products called BoKlok and analyses the development as well as the commercialization of this concept as a joint effort of the home furnishing company IKEA and the international construction enterprise Skanska. In the first chapter a short review on academic theory related to the paper is offered. In the second chapter the named housing products are introduced to the reader, their innovative characteristics are pointed out and an overview about the history of the concept as well as the current state of business related to the BoKlok products is given. In the third chapter the business model that is applied for merchandising BoKlok homes is analysed in detail. Chapter four and five each present a general overview about the companies IKEA and Skanska, which cooperated in the development project for the BoKlok concept. The development process as such is reviewed explicitly in chapter six. In chapter seven factors that significantly influenced the project results are identified and discussed in respect to relevant academic findings. Chapter eight illustrates how the BoKlok concept is continuously developed further in the present. The work concludes with providing some future perspectives for the concept in chapter nine.
Thanh Vo , Christina Poensgen , Arjun Sheerbahadursing
The report analyzed and evaluated the performance measurement and management system (PMS) of IKEA based on the 12-question framework suggested by Ferreira and Otley (2009). The focus of the analysis is mainly on six aspects within PMS including the key performance measures, target setting, performance evaluation, reward system, the use of PMS and finally the link between these parts of PMS and the way they are used (Question 5-8, 10 and 12). Information regarding the remaining questions (Question 1-4) within the framework are also included as supporting grounds for the main analysis.
FREE RELATED PAPERS
Providing deep and memorable experience to the consumers—in various manners and through all channels possible—is undoubtedly amongst the key factors for success in contemporary markets. Moreover, companies need to consider the trends of gamification, person-alization, eco-living as well as the extremely short life-cycle of their products. In this context, design is getting more and more important in branding and consumer' perceptions about the quality and benefits of the product available. It serves as a tool of communication not only for what the product is, but how it works and how exactly it will become part of the everyday life of the consumers as well. As such, design, in branding perspectives, has an active role and engages consumers in new kind of relationships that go beyond pure aesthetics. This article is an effort for a socio-semiotic analysis of the set of practices that IKEA implements regarding the use of design as a main basis on which it tries to create, deliver and maintain value of its huge global audience. What makes the company unique is its multimodal approach in terms of design-based brand management, point-of-sale design, furniture design, entire home interior solutions, catalogue design, and last but not least, lifestyle design. We can easily point out that it has built its own brand meaning by forming a recognizable and self-centered semiosphere, that highly influences the whole category it operates in, and sets the rules in people's self-expression, on the one hand, and their attitude towards the notion of 'home', on the other-home as constantly moving 'immobility' similar to fashion trends and practices. IKEA is a very good example of design semiotics, applied in marketing activities and real life as successfully mixing its own production with customers' desire for designing their own unique world of objects.
2017, Research in Economics
For more than a decade, market orientation approach has been most prevalent in marketing literature. According to this approach firms reactively respond to market conditions and customer trends. The market driving approach is characterised by an ability of the firm to proactively shape the market structure and offer completely new value propositions through its unique business process, thus changing the existing market conditions. The purpose of this paper is to explore how a global supplier network is developed to support the market driving strategy. IKEA is considered one of the leading market driving firms. We have studied its activities in establishing supplier networks in Russia and Poland. Findings confirm IKEA's market driving strategy and how it has been able to restructure the market and successfully develop an efficient supplier network as a part of its market driving strategy.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the marketing strategy in China of the furnishing retailer IKEA in the context of standardisation and adaptation of marketing activities. IKEA's strategy in China is compared to its corporate strategy throughout the rest of the world. Design/methodology/approach – The four P classifications are used as a framework to compare the central marketing strategies of IKEA with marketing strategies used in China. The paper builds on both primary and secondary data. Interviews with senior managers at IKEA are conducted and studies on business and retailing in China are used. Findings – The marketing strategies used by IKEA in China are found to be different from the standardised strategies it uses throughout the rest of the world. Several of the changed strategies are central to the business concept of IKEA. Research limitations/implications – The present paper shows the challenges for a standardised marketing concept and its implications. Originality/value – The paper provides, in the context of the standardisation and adaptation of marketing activities, a more nuanced and up-to-date picture of the strategies used by IKEA compared to previous studies.
This thesis studies the transformational change of the organization, necessitated by drastic changes in the business environment. The study of redesign processes in the organization is demonstrated on the example of IKEA of Sweden. The radical shifts in the direction and strategy of the organization have been studied. The research is qualitative and employs a deductive approach. It studies the interdependencies of the organizational systems and subsystems intending to determine the degree of adequacy of the process redesign mechanism in support of the organization's mission. The final objective of the research is to present arguments in support of the statement that the process redesign does not only contribute to a rational structural integration, but it develops commitment with the business strategy of the organization. Guidelines and insights on potential future inquiries have been provided. Keywords: value chain integration, transformation, agility, high-performance organization, redesign, process management, the IKEA way.
ayşe coşkun (orlandi)
ICOVACS 2008 International Conference on Value Chain Sustainability "Integrating Design, Logistics and Branding for Sustainable Value Creation"
Building on existing scholarship of IKEA as a site of Swedish nation-building and cultural promotion, this presentation considers IKEA in terms of its circulation and reception outside of Sweden by examining literary, filmic, and artistic texts that use IKEA as a central metaphor. Through this process, I examine how the “text” of IKEA as both a corporation and a metaphor is a fruitful site of investigation for research topics such as labor theory, carceral geographies, global capitalism, and the circulation of texts and ideas.
This paper analyses multinational corporation IKEA and its sustainability strategy as described in its official sustainability strategy document. Several theoretical frameworks each describing various levels of analysis, namely individual, organisational, and network perspectives are introduced and applied to IKEA. Moreover, the justifications for why certain theories have bene chosen as well as insights they provide to understand IKEA and its sustainability strategy are discussed and analysed critically.
2000, SSRN Electronic Journal
IKEA is often cited as an example of a 'global' retailer which pursues a similar 'standardized' approach in every market. This paper systematically assesses the degree of standardisation (and adaptation) of four commonly identified retail marketing mix activities – merchandise, location and store format, the selling and service environment, and market communication – within three countries. These countries – Sweden, the UK and China – represent different cultural settings and are markets in which IKEA has been operating for different lengths of time. The data upon which the comparison is based was generated from personal interviews, in-country consumer research, company documentation and third party commentaries. The conclusions drawn suggest that whilst IKEA operates a standardized concept, degrees of adaptation can be observed in customer facing elements, and in the supporting 'back office' processes which support these elements. These adaptations arise from differences in consumer cultures and the length of time, and subsequent exposure to and experience of, the market. This suggests that standardisation in international retailing should be considered from the perspective of replicating the concept, rather than replicating the activities.
2012, Business and Management Research
IKEA is an internationally well-known largest furniture retailer. The purpose of this study is to study key determinants of IKEA's success. To reach the purpose of this research, we focused on the international strategy IKEA used to approach their customers and IKEA’s SWOT analysis. Besides, we also focus on how IKEA store layout influences consumer behavior. The primary data collection method was interviews conducted with IKEA customers by Google forms. This study found that IKEA’s unique management planning and marketing strategy attract customers to revisit the retail store.
Background: A systematic and continuous product policy management is important for a company's competitiveness and the question is to what extent and in what way companies engaged in the furniture manufacturing sector actually apply them. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to explore to what extent the design profession is involved in the product policy and teams which define market properties of products in the furniture industry. Methods: In order to achieve the objectives of this paper, the Model for Exploring the Role of Design in Defining Market Properties and the Product Policy in the Furniture Industry has been devised. Two surveys have been conducted, measuring the level of involvement of the design profession in the product policy, as well as the involvement of designers in the work of teams which define market properties of products in the furniture industry. Results: The design profession is not systematically and continuously involved in the function of the p...
Patrik Jonsson , Martin Rudberg , Stefan Holmberg
2013, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Graham H. Roberts
With more than sixty million visitors per year, the Mega Mall shopping complex in Teplyi stan, south-west Moscow, is the largest of its kind anywhere in Europe. Owned and managed by IKEA, the complex is one of thirteen identical centres currently open in nine Russian cities. Mega Mall is one of the undoubted success stories of Russia’s post-communist transition. But exactly how has IKEA gone about building the Mega Mall brand? How has Mega Mall succeeded in differentiating itself from the countless cloned shopping centres that are springing up all over the country? Are there any similarities between the way Mega Mall is marketed, and the manner in which IKEA is branded? And what does the success of the Mega Mall brand tell us about the state of Russia’s nascent consumer culture? This paper seeks to address these, and other questions. In the conclusion, attention is paid to some of the practical implications of the Mega Mall phenomenon for retail marketing managers in Russia. While our research methodology is based on field studies and observation, our paper is essentially conceptual, closer to sociology and philosophy than to economics.
2009, Space and Culture
2021, Ideas at Home Housing Concepts in Architecture
In 1954, the Royal Housing Board of Sweden published the first edition of God Bostad [Good Housing], a manual to realize a vision of “good living,” which benefitted from the introduction of norms, regulations, and standards intended to solve the housing crisis in Sweden. Followed by two further editions, this document became not only the main tool for state housing policy enforcement, but also a crucial normative reference on domestic space for future generations, until the 1970s when it lost relevance as deregulation began to affect housing production. In addition to this official publication in the heyday of the Welfare State, other unofficial, commercial actors promoted ideas which tended to normalize the home and constituted an alternative living culture. One of these was the newly founded company Ikéa, which had published its catalogue from 1951, displaying and marketing goods for sale, together with visions of the ideal home. This paper delves into a comparison between the 1954, 1960, 1964 editions of God Bostad and the corresponding Ikéa catalogues. Despite being different publications, issued by distinct actors one formal, technical, with a clear political agenda, the other commercial, published by a private enterprise adopting advertising language – both conveyed a doctrine which went viral in postwar Sweden. Firstly, the paper draws a parallel between the two genres: the manual and the catalogue, as effective vehicles for disseminating domestic cultures. Secondly, it examines their influence on the evolution of the domestic interior by looking at a particular room – the bedroom – where the official and “unofficial” visions collided, bringing about issues of gender, hygiene, and taste.
International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality in Asia Pasific
IKEA is a Swedish multinational group that provides home services and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, kitchen appliances, and home accessories. Several factors can emphasize the success of a company such as brand loyalty, the company's status, and the products and services. These success factors give various benefits to customers and to the company itself. The purpose of this proposal is to examine the success factor of IKEA in terms of environmental performance aspect. This case picked will be mainly in Asia. The study used secondary data to collect data from the Internet which are journals and articles from the IKEA branches in Malaysia. Also, we want to know how IKEA provides strategic approaches to improve the company.
2005, Journal of Business Research
The aim of this paper is to give practical focus in research relationships, looking at the challenges faced by researchers using inductive approach in order to define the research area and collect data. It is based on the researchers' experience to penetrate an environment without tradition for academic research. The subjects of study are 9 companies in the pine furniture
Brand equity is seen as a very crucial topic by academicians and marketing managers and it is a very important intangible asset of a firm which affects consumer preferences and their buying intentions positively. In today’s consumer-oriented markets, firms need to develop a distinctive image and maintain it to have a sustainable competitive advantage against their competitors. Brand equity has a significant role for businesses to enhance customer value, differentiate brands, evaluate brand performance and obtain competitive advantage in the market. Creating retail brand equity is a strategic issue for retailers as it gives retailers some advantages like benefiting from the leverage effect of the brand by presenting private label products and differentiating from their competitors as their revenues and profits enhance. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between the antecedents of retail brand equity of the brand IKEA by structural equation modelling and propose...
The paper is a case study for the different types of risks faced by IKEA as the company started its operations in China. How the risks were mitigated, avoided or accepted has been discussed.
2019, International Review
Nowadays, furniture retail sale is a very competitive area and besides large and well-known global brands, a high share of the overall market consists of independent retail shops. The owners and sellers of furniture are daily faced with the increasing requirements of the ever more demanding market, to which they must constantly and repeatedly adjust. The choice of furniture stores regarding to some of selling place attributes could affect customer’s fi nal decision about furniture purchase; however, there is little information about the relationship between furniture selling places attributes. In this study, the basic information is given regarding the selected furniture selling place attributes (size of selling area, number of salespersons, storage area, and number of suppliers) in Slovenia, Slovakia, and Croatia.
In this paper we present an analysis by examining the dynamics of IKEA global market entry in Russia and try to expand the factors relevant to international market entry to IKEA discourse as alternatives strategies prior to the global expansion strategy. In this paper, we outline role of internal logic, a market and/or industry analysis that should be performed to provide the information needed for a sound decision-making regarding entry market strategy in global market. The same idea of specifying the relevancy of market and industry analysis as major requirement for entry in the global market analysis model which is relevant to prior entry in emerging international markets focusing on the timing of entry, the magnitude of investment at entry, and the area of competitive emphasis at entry-affects and long-term performance in the marketplace.
A review about IKEA in China
This research aims to design a business model (Cozzy.com) platform of innovative furniture and accessories with the addition of bundling products based on design, customized and matching space.The design of business models based on nine components of the business model. Collecting data using interviews and a survey of potential customers. The results of the study explain that Cozzy Creative Indonesia needs to target two sides of consumers together. Digital media is the main channel that companies need to do to reach broad customers. Product grouping based on the type of design, and the availability of custom products are the value propositions that will be offered to customers.
2019, Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences
Yalçın KIRDAR, Prof. Dr.
Maltepe University Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi
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Strategic Management Case study
This case study is a great example of how Companies uses Strategic Management as the principle while forming any strategy for their business. It also showed how Apple, Kellogg's & Skoda used strategic management priciples like aims & objectives, planning & organizing, communication, different matrixes (BCG, GE9) to overcome all the hurdles and reach new heights.
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- 1. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT CASE STUDY STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT DATE : 24.04.21
- 2. Overview • Introduction to Strategic Management • Different types of Matrix • Case Study – 1 – Kellogg’s • Strategy using aims & objectives • Key Takeaways • Case Study – 2 – Skoda • Strategy using SWOT analysis • Key Takeaways • Case Study – 3 – Apple • Strategy using GE9 & SWOT Matrix • Key Takeaways • Call to Action
- 3. “Strategic Management is a stream of decisions and actions, which leads to the development of an effective strategy or strategies to help achieve corporate objectives.” - Glueck and Jauch
- 4. • It is a systematic process. • It focuses on objectives. • It involves multiple decision. • It is universally applicable. Features of Strategic Management
- 5. BCG GROWTH-SHARE MATRIX GE MULTIFACTOR PORTFOLIO MATRIX TYPES OF MATRIX
- 6. “Nourishing families so they can flourish and thrive” - Kellogg’s
- 7. The Kellogg Company doing business as Kellogg’s, is an American multi-national food manufacturing company headquartered in Battle Creek, Michigan, United States. Kellogg’s produced cereal and convenience foods, including crackers and toaster pastries and market their product by several known brands Corn Flakes, Frosted Flakes, Pringles, Eggo and Cheez-It. Kellogg’s aim to reinforce the importance of a balanced lifestyle so its consumer understand how balanced diet and exercise can improve life. Kellogg’s has a 42% market share in Uk’s breakfast cereal market. The company has developed range of products for the segments within the market and targeted all age groups over three years old.
- 8. CASE STUDY When preparing a strategy for success, a business needs to be clear about what it wants to achieve. It needs to know how it is going to turn its desire into reality in the face of intense competition. Setting clear and specific aims and objectives is vital for a business to compete. This Case Study looks at the combination of these elements and show how Kellogg's prepared successful strategy by setting aims and objectives linked to its unique brand and unique position in the minds of its consumer.
- 9. Designing & Planning Communication Elements of Successful Strategy Aims & Objectives
- 10. One of the most powerful tools that organisation use is Branding. Managing a brand is a part of a process called product positioning. To promote the message “Get the Balance Right”, Kellogg’s was part of various debate about health and lifestyle. Encourage and support physical activity among all sectors of population. Increase the association between Kellogg’s and health & activity. Introducing food labelling to communicate with the consumers to provide valuable information. Sponsoring activities and run community programmes for its consumers This are some of the objectives set by Kellogg’s which were clear, specific and measurable. Setting Aims & Objectives
- 11. Kellogg’s put forward a strategy, designed to meet the stated aim and range of business objectives. Introduced Kellogg’s GDAs to its packaging, showing the recommended Guideline Daily Amount. Kellogg’s has been working for many years to encourage people to take part in physical activity. Kellogg’s become the main sponsor of swimming in Britain, after working closely with the Amateur Swimming Association (ASA) to ensure that “everyone has the opportunity to enjoy swimming as part of healthy lifestyle”. This reinforces the brand position & image. Since 1998, Kellogg’s has invested more than $500000 to help national learning charity ContinYou to develop nationwide breakfast club initiative. They ensure that children are fed and ready to learn when the bell goes. Planning & Organizing
- 12. Effective Commination is a vital for any strategy to be successful. Kellogg’s success is due to how well it communicated its objectives to consumer to help them consider how to “Get the Balance Right”. External Communication Kellogg’s uses Jack & Aimee to communicate a message that emphasis the need to “Get the Balance Right”. Kellogg’s advises parents and children about the importance of exercise. Produced a series of flyers for its customers on topic health and lifestyle. Internal Communication Kellogg’s produces house magazine which is distributed to every employees and staffs working for them. To encourage a healthy environment among the workers they provide pedometer and other health accessories. Communication
- 13. ONE: Kellogg’s demonstrated good corporate responsibility by promoting and communicating the message of “Get the Balance Right” TWO: By setting out measurable objectives Kellogg’s were able to achieve their broad aim. THREE: Developed strategies that engaged Kellogg in a series of activates and relationships with other organization, FOUR: The strategies helped to create a message about balanced lifestyle for its consumer. FIVE: The strategies also helped them to set up activities that help them to achieve balanced lifestyle. SIX: Kellogg’s provided right information and helped consumers to make informed choices about food & health. Key Takeaways
- 14. “From No-class to World- class in One Decade” - Skoda
- 15. In Czechoslovakia, two cyclist Vaclav Klement & Vaclav Laurin designed and produced their first own bicycle as Laurin & Klement. 1895 The business was named as Skoda and started manufacturing cars, cycles, farm ploughs & airplanes. 1925 Skoda had to overcome hard times over the next 65 years due to World War 1. This included war, economic depression and political changes. Gap of 65 Years The Czech Management started looking for strong foreign partner. 1990 Volkswagen AG (VAG) was chosen because of its reputation for strength, quality & reliability and Skoda became a subsidiary. 1994 Skoda automobiles became a wholly-owned subsidiary and started sales over more than 100 countries. 2000 History of Skoda
- 16. CASE STUDY To improve performance in the competitive car market, Škoda UK’s management needed to assess its brand positioning. Brand positioning means establishing a distinctive image for the brand compared to competing brands. Only then could grow from being a small player. To aid decision-making, Škoda UK obtained market research data from internal and external strategic audits. This enabled it to take advantage of new opportunities and respond to threats. The audit provided a summary of the business’s overall strategic position by using a SWOT analysis. SWOT is an acronym which stands for: Strengths the internal elements of the business that contribute to improvement and growth Weakness the attributes that will hinder a business or make it vulnerable to failure Opportunities the external conditions that could enable future growth Threats the external factors which could negatively affect the business SWOT This case study focuses on how Škoda UK’s management built on all the areas of the strategic audit. The outcome of the SWOT analysis was a strategy for effective competition in the car industry.
- 17. STRENGTHS Škoda has been in the top five manufacturers in the survey for the past 13 years. In Top Gear’s 2007 customer satisfaction survey, voted Škoda the ‘number 1 car maker’. Škoda’s Octavia model has also won the 2008 Auto Express Driver Power ‘Best Car’. Škoda adopted a strategy focused on building cars that their owners would enjoy. It has considered ‘the human touch’ from design through to sale. Škoda’s biggest strength was the satisfaction of its customers. This means the brand is associated with a quality product and happy customers. WEAKNESS Škoda has only 1.7% market share. This made it a very small player in the market for cars, due to out-dated perceptions of the brand. In the past the cars had an image of poor vehicle quality, design, assembly, and materials. Crucially, this poor perception also affected Škoda owners. From 1999 onwards, under Volkswagen AG ownership, Škoda changed this negative image. Škoda cars were no longer seen as low-budget or low quality. It needed to stop being defensive in promotional campaigns. The car- buying public and the car industry as a whole needed convincing that Škoda cars were great to own and drive. SWOT ANALYSIS
- 18. OPPORTUNITIES Škoda noted that its competitors’ marketing approaches focused on the product itself. Škoda UK discovered that its customers loved their cars more than owners of competitor brands, such as Renault or Ford. It focused on its existing strengths and provided cars focused on the customer experience. The focus on ‘happy Škoda customers’ is an opportunity. It enables Škoda to differentiate the Škoda brand to make it stand out from the competition. This is Škoda’s unique selling proposition (USP) in the motor industry. THREATS The UK car market includes 50 different car makers selling 200 models. Within these there are over 2,000 model derivatives. Škoda UK needed to ensure that its messages were powerful enough for customers to hear. If not, potential buyers would overlook Škoda. In the UK the Škoda brand is represented by seven different cars. Each one is designed to appeal to different market segments. Each model range is priced to appeal to different groups within the car market. The combination of a clear range with competitive pricing has overcome the threat of the crowded market. SWOT ANALYSIS
- 19. ONE: Skoda offered a range of products in a highly competitive and fragmented market. TWO: The company responded positively to internal & external issues to avoid losing sales & market share. THREE: The SWOT Model helped managers to look internally as well as externally and the information derived from the analysis gave direction to the strategy. FOUR: It highlighted the key internal weaknesses, it focuses on strengths and alerts managers to threats & opportunities. FIVE: Skoda transformed its brand image & build its competitive edge over rivals. SIX: Developed marketing strategy based on customer happiness and focused on customer experience which helped them to overcome weakness and opened to new opportunities. Key Takeaways
- 20. “Making technology so simple that everyone can be a part of the future” - Apple
- 21. Apple is an American multi-national technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California that designs, develops and sells consumer electronics, computer software and online services. It is considered as one of the Big Five companies in US. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne in April, 1976. In 1996, the Apple brand was bordering on bankruptcy. They were making bad decisions with inconsistent strategies and most importantly, there was no big idea for what Apple stood for. After Steve Jobs came into Apple in 1997, everything he did was built around the big idea of "making technology so simple that everyone can be part of the future." He took a consumer first approach in a market that was all about the gadgets, bits and bytes. BACKGROUND
- 22. STRENGTHS Most valuable brand – Apple is ranked #1 for the 8th consecutive year by Interbrand, with a brand value of $ 322 billion. Globally Iconic – One of the most reliable company when it comes to personalized advance computers and smart technology devices. Proficient Research – Apple puts dedication into its product designs. Careful study & further research is performed to help understand customers need and requirements. WEAKNESS High priced product – The products are priced for middle and high-income consumers. Low-Income consumers can’t simply afford Apple products. Incompatibility with other software – Apple’s product do not support other software or technologies making them incompatible with other devices. Allegation of Tracking – Apple has been accused of using tracking apps in its phone, which revealed the precise location of the users and poses threat to them. SWOT ANALYSIS
- 23. OPPORTUNITIES Consistent customer growth – Apple provide top quality technology that offers great customer experience. Customer retention rate is 92%. Expansive Distribution Network – Apple has the opportunity to expand its distribution network & can generate higher revenue & sales. Qualified professionals – Apple’s researchers, developers and product specialists are team of highly qualified having years of experience in branding consumer products. THREATS Coronavirus Outbreak – The outbreak has significantly affected and may continue to disrupt Apple’s sales in the fiscal year 2021. Apple bullied by Counterfeits – Apple has become vulnerable to third world countries illegally utilized the brand to sell counterfeit products. Market Penetration – Their has been a significant change in market penetration by other brands. Android has captured 72.23% of the market share while Apple has only 24.55% globally. SWOT ANALYSIS
- 24. GE MULTIFACTOR PORTFOLIO MATRIX Business Unit Strength Industry Attractiveness STRENGTH AVERAGE LOW HIGH IPAD IPHONES MEDIUM IPAD & ITUNES LAPTOP LOW I MAC & SOFTWARES
- 25. BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP MATRIX HIGH LOW HIGH IPHONES APPLE WATCHES APPLE TV HOME PODS LOW MACBOOKS & IMACS IPAD
- 26. ONE: Apple offers a range of products in a competitive market of different segments. TWO: The company responded positively to internal & external issues to avoid losing sales & market share. THREE: The SWOT, BCG & GE9 model helped Apple to look internally as well as externally and the information derived from the analysis gave direction to the strategy. FOUR: It highlighted the key internal weaknesses, it focuses on strengths and alerts managers to threats & opportunities. FIVE: Apple transformed its brand image & build its competitive edge over rivals. SIX: Developed strategy based on customer first approach and focused on customer experience which helped them to overcome weakness and opened to new opportunities. Key Takeaways
- 27. • Strategic management is a continuous process which is essential in the success of the organization. Organizations are supposed to make sure that they engage in strategic management because organization success and survival depend on strategic management. • The Case Studies were great example of how companies used strategic management as principle while making a strategy to get the best out of the situation they were facing. Call to Action
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Challenges of small and medium enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic: Case of Georgia
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on SMEs in Georgia, identify the challenges of SMEs in pandemic conditions, and analyze government economic policy measures. For this purpose, 102 small and medium entrepreneurs from different regions of Georgia were interviewed. The survey was conducted by sending a questionnaire through digital channels. The results were processed using data analysis, quantitative and qualitative research methods, and presented graphically. As a result, key challenges and development directions that are typical for SMEs operations in Georgia during the pandemic were identified. For 60.8% of surveyed SME owners, lockdown is the main challenge. Sales volume of 45.1% of SMEs decreased. In addition, 39.3% of the surveyed SME owners increased the innovative capabilities of a company and 37.2% increased the sales volume of a company through digital channels. The main challenge of the pandemic, lockdown, gave impetus to a change in entrepreneurial behavior. In a pandemic, entrepreneurial activity has become more favorable through digital channels. During the pandemic, there is a need to continue the government’s program of tax incentives and subsidies for SMEs. In addition, the government should promote education in the fields of entrepreneurship, innovation, and technology.
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on performance of small enterprises that are e-commerce adopters and non-adopters
Researchers have emphasized the role of e-commerce for small enterprises in improving their performance. However, there is limited evidence on the use of e-commerce by small enterprises, and e-commerce adopters and non-adopters dealing with COVID-19. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in the impact of COVID-19 on income between small enterprises that are adopters and non-adopters of e-commerce. This study also explored the impact of restrictions on community activities, the intention to adopt e-commerce, and the types of assistance required by small enterprises due to the pandemic. Data were collected through an online questionnaire survey among small enterprises that operate in the culinary field (1,024 small enterprises in Indonesia). The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, cross-tabulation, and the Mann-Whitney test. This study finds that non-adoption of e-commerce caused small enterprises to experience a decline in income, which worsened due to restrictions of community activities, compared to adopters of e-commerce. Therefore, to overcome this negativity, small enterprises were pushed to adopt e-commerce. Finally, working capital assistance is the main assistance required due to the pandemic both by e-commerce adopters and non-adopters. This study has significant implications for how small enterprises and governments may benefit from e-commerce dealing with extreme disruptions such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
Acknowledgment We are grateful to Mulawarman University for providing us with the funding necessary to gather the necessary data for the study and complete this empirical investigation. We also would like to thank two anonymous reviewers and seminar participants at Mulawarman University for their helpful feedback.
Generational links between entrepreneurship, management and puritanism
This paper deals with relationships between puritanism, management and entrepreneurship. As this is an on-going debate among economic historians, it focuses on the period from the early 1800s until present times, where Norwegian high profile puritan entrepreneurship serves as the case. The theoretical framework is that entrepreneurship is seen as an important liaison factor representing multifactor productivity in a Solow growth model. The paper provides new insight within different areas on the basis of utilization of available sources. Firstly, it gives new estimates of the entrepreneurship of the puritan leader, Hans Nielsen Hauge (1771–1824). Secondly, it organizes his followers in three generations. The first is those who directly took up his heritage, i.e. Haugeans. Their heydays lasted until the middle of the 19th century. The second generation is characterized as Haugean descendants. These were highly influenced by the movement’s values. They dominated the scene from the late 1800s to the late 1900s. The third generation is called Neo-Haugeans, largely a fruit of the revival of Haugean values during the last decades. Thirdly, the paper maps attributes and motivation of this puritan entrepreneurship during generations. The authors conclude that it was guided by high degree of innovation, family ownership, wide portfolios, and continuity, when stewardship seems to be an important motivational factor.
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