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Generate citations in the Vancouver format quickly and automatically, with MyBib!

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🤔 What is a Vancouver Citation Generator?

A Vancouver citation generator is an online tool that creates citations in the Vancouver citation style. It does this automatically by taking in an identifier for a document, such as a website URL, book ISBN, or journal DOI, and then locating the remaining details to format the full citation.

🤓 What is the Vancouver citation style?

The Vancouver citation style is a citation style used in the fields of biomedicine, health, and physical sciences. It is used to correctly attribute the authors of work cited within your paper.

The Vancouver style uses numbers within the article body that refer to formatted citations in the reference list at the end of the paper. The complete collection of rules for citing in Vancouver style are documented in the official handbook: Citing Medicine , by authors Karen Patrias and Dan Wendling.

👩‍🎓 Who uses a Vancouver Citation Generator?

The Vancouver style is used broadly across the physical sciences--especially health and medicine. If you are studying health or medicine, or you are writing to be published in a journal that uses the Vancouver style (such as The Lancet and Revista MÉDICA de Chile ), then you will need to cite your sources using the Vancouver style.

🙌 Why should I use a Vancouver Citation Generator?

Every academic field, not just the sciences, will recommend using a tool to record references to others' work in your writing. A citation generator like MyBib can record this data, and can also automatically create an accurate reference list from it.

A referencing tool can also keep a list of the sources you have used as you are writing your paper, so is great for organization too.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's Vancouver Citation Generator?

MyBib's Vancouver citation generator was designed to be accurate and easy to use (also it's FREE!). Follow these steps:

  • Search for the article, website, or document you want to cite using the search box at the top of the page.
  • Look through the list of results found and choose the one that you referenced in your work.
  • Make sure the details are all correct, and correct any that aren't. Then click Generate!

The generator will produce a formatted Vancouver citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall reference list (which can be downloaded fully later!).

MyBib supports the following for Vancouver style:

⚙️ StylesVancouver
📚 SourcesWebsites, books, journals, newspapers
🔎 AutociteYes
📥 Download toMicrosoft Word, Google Docs

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

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  • Vancouver Referencing | A Quick Guide & Reference Examples

Vancouver Referencing | A Quick Guide & Reference Examples

Published on 18 February 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 19 August 2022.

Vancouver is a system of referencing commonly used in biomedicine, among other scientific disciplines. In Vancouver style, you place a reference number in the text wherever a source is cited:

This number corresponds to an entry in your reference list – a numbered list of all the sources cited in your text, giving complete information on each:

This quick guide presents the most common rules for Vancouver style referencing. Note that some universities and journals have their own guidelines for the formatting of Vancouver references.

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Table of contents

Vancouver in-text citations, creating a vancouver reference list, vancouver reference examples, missing information in vancouver references, frequently asked questions about vancouver referencing.

In Vancouver style, citations are marked in your text with numbers. These numbers appear either in parentheses or in superscript – choose one option and stick to it consistently:

Parentheses numbering Superscript numbering
Levitt (2) argues that … Levitt argues that …

The numbers usually appear after the name of the author or after a direct quote. They may also appear at the end of the sentence:

Naming authors

You will often need to mention the author when referring to a work or introducing a quote. Only use the author’s last name in your text. If a source has multiple authors, name only the first author followed by ‘et al.’:

It’s not always necessary to mention the author’s name in your text – but always include the reference number when you refer to a source:

Numbering references

Sources are numbered based on the order in which they are cited in the text: the first source you cite is 1, the second 2, and so on.

If the same source is cited again, use the same number to refer to it throughout your paper. This means that the numbers might not appear in consecutive order in your text:

Citing multiple sources

You can also cite multiple sources in the same place:

To cite several sources that appear consecutively in your numbered list, you can use an en dash to mark the range.

In this case, the citation refers the reader to sources 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7.

Citing page numbers

You must specify a page number or range when you directly quote a text, and it can be helpful to do so when you are paraphrasing a particular passage.

Place the page number after the reference number inside the same parentheses, preceded by ‘p.’:

If you’re using superscript numbers, the page number also appears in superscript, in parentheses after the reference number:

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Your reference list is where you provide the information your readers will need in order to look up the sources cited in your text. It consists of a numbered list of all your sources, providing key information including the author, title and publication date of each source.

The list appears in numerical order at the end of your paper. Each entry ends with a full stop, unless the last element is a DOI or URL.

Vancouver reference list example

Vancouver reference list example

Author names

Each entry starts with the author’s last name and initials.

When a source has more than one author, their names are separated by commas. If a source has more than six authors, list the first six followed by ‘et al.’

1 author Shields G.
2–6 authors Johnson FH, Singh J.
7+ authors James F, Pieters J, Deptford G, Harrison R, Bregman E, Empson A, et al.

Source titles

Only the first word of the title and subtitle, along with any proper nouns, are capitalised:

Titles in Vancouver referencing are consistently written in plain text. Do not use italics or quotation marks.

The information you provide differs according to the type of source you’re citing, since different details are relevant in different cases. Formats and examples for the most commonly cited source types are given below.

  • Book chapter
  • Journal article
Format x. Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
Example 1. Wilkinson IB, Raine T, Wiles K, Goodhart A, Hall C, O’Neill H. Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. 10th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2017.
Notes
Format x. Author(s). Title of chapter. In: Editor(s), editors. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Page range.
Example 2. Darden L. Mechanisms and models. In: Hull DL, Ruse M, editors. The Cambridge companion to the philosophy of biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 139–159.
Notes
Format x. Author(s). Article title. Journal Name (abbreviated). Year Month Day; Volume(Issue):page range. Available from: URL DOI
Example 3. Bute M. A backstage sociologist: Autoethnography and a populist vision. Am Soc. 2016 Mar 23; 47(4):499–515. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12108-016-9307-z doi:10.1007/s12108-016-9307-z
Notes
Format x. Author(s). Title [Internet]. Year [cited Date]. Available from: URL
Example 4. Cancer Research UK. Current research into breast cancer [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Feb 14]. Available from: https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/our-research/our-research-by-cancer-type/our-research-into-breast-cancer/current-breast-cancer-research
Notes

Some sources will be missing some of the information needed for a complete reference. See below for how to handle missing elements.

As shown in the website example above, when no individual author is named, you can usually name the organisation that produced the source as the author.

If there is no clear corporate author – for example, a wiki that is created and updated collaboratively by users – you can begin your reference with the title instead:

Sources such as websites may lack a clear publication date. In these cases you can omit the year in your reference and just include the date of your citation:

No page numbers

You may want to show the location of a direct quote from a source without page numbers, such as a website. When the source is short, you can often just omit this, but where you feel it’s necessary you can use an alternate locator like a heading or paragraph number:

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Harvard referencing uses an author–date system. Sources are cited by the author’s last name and the publication year in brackets. Each Harvard in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the alphabetised reference list at the end of the paper.

Vancouver referencing uses a numerical system. Sources are cited by a number in parentheses or superscript. Each number corresponds to a full reference at the end of the paper.

Harvard style Vancouver style
In-text citation Each referencing style has different rules (Pears and Shields, 2019). Each referencing style has different rules (1).
Reference list Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2019). . 11th edn. London: MacMillan. 1. Pears R, Shields G. Cite them right: The essential referencing guide. 11th ed. London: MacMillan; 2019.

A citation should appear wherever you use information or ideas from a source, whether by quoting or paraphrasing its content.

In Vancouver style , you have some flexibility about where the citation number appears in the sentence – usually directly after mentioning the author’s name is best, but simply placing it at the end of the sentence is an acceptable alternative, as long as it’s clear what it relates to.

In Vancouver style , when you refer to a source with multiple authors in your text, you should only name the first author followed by ‘et al.’. This applies even when there are only two authors.

In your reference list, include up to six authors. For sources with seven or more authors, list the first six followed by ‘et al.’.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, August 19). Vancouver Referencing | A Quick Guide & Reference Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 5 July 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/vancouver-style/

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Vancouver Style Guide: Home

Introduction to vancouver.

The Vancouver Style is formally known as  Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals  (ICMJE Recommendations). It was developed in Vancouver in 1978 by editors of medical journals and well over 1,000 medical journals (including ICMJE members BMJ, CMAJ, JAMA & NEJM) use this style. This user guide explains how to cite references in Vancouver Style, both within the text of a paper and in a reference list, and gives examples of commonly used types of references.

Refer to the left hand column for written directions about how to cite Vancouver and refer to the right hand column for examples and formatting.

ICMJE Recommendations has many optional areas. This guide has been created for The Michener Institute and may differ from styles at other educational institutes and those required by individual journals.

  • APA Citation Guide While Vancouver is one citation style, your professor may request that you use APA style for citations instead. Please see the Michener LRC APA Citation guide for information about using this citation style.
  • Zotero A helpful tool for collecting resources and creating citations is Zotero software. Please see the Michener LRC Zetero guide to learn more.
  • Plagiarism: How to Avoid it For more information on avoiding plagiarism and using other sources in your work, please visit the LRC's Plagiarism guide.

In-Text Citations

  • Placement of citations:  In-text citation numbers should be placed after the relevant part of a sentence. The original Vancouver Style documents do not discuss placement of the in-text citation in regards to punctuation, so it is acceptable to place it before or after the period. Be consistent.
  • References are numbered  consecutively in the order they are first mentioned. Place each reference number in parentheses or square brackets throughout the text, tables, and legends. Superscripts may also be used instead of square brackets or parentheses. Be consistent. If the same reference is used again, re-use the original number. To cite multiple references in one sentence, separate the numbers using a comma, eg. (2, 7), for non-consecutive reference numbers, and a hyphen, eg. (3-5), for consecutive reference numbers.
  • Tables are numbered  consecutively. Supply a brief title for each table and give each column a short heading. Be sure that the table is mentioned in the text. If the data is taken from another source, include the source in the list of references at the end of the paper. Place explanatory matter in a note, not in the heading.
  • Personal communication  used as a reference should be avoided, unless it provides essential information not available from a public source. These can be emails, personal interviews, telephone conversations, class notes, class handouts that are not posted, etc. Do not include them in the reference list as they are not recoverable by others; instead cite the name of the person, the type of communication, and the date of communication in parentheses in the text, eg. "In a conversation with A. Jones (January 2020)..."
  • Internet sources  may, in time, be deleted, changed, or moved, so it is a good idea to keep a hard copy for your records. Also, take care to critically evaluate the reliability of the information.

Reference Page

  • The last page  of your paper is entitled References. References are single spaced, with double-spacing between references.
  • Numbering : List all references in order by number, not alphabetically. Each reference is listed once only, since the same number is used throughout the paper.
  • Authors : In the order they appear on the resource, list each author’s last name followed by a space and then initials without any periods; there is a comma and space between authors and a period at the end of the last author. If the number of authors exceeds six, give the first six followed by “et al.” For edited books, place the editors’ names in the author position and follow the last editor with a comma and the word editor (or editors). For edited books with chapters written by individual authors, list the authors of the chapter first, then the chapter title, followed by “In:”, the editors’ names, and the book title.
  • Title : Capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title. The rest of the title is in lower-case, with the exception of proper names. Do not underline the title; do not use italics. If there is an edition for a book, it appears after the title, abbreviated and followed by a period, for example: 3rd ed.
  • Publication information: Books:  After the title (and edition if applicable), place a period and space, then enter the cit y. If the city is not well known or there could be confusion,  enter the postal abbreviation for the state (U.S.) or province (Canada), or enter the country (elsewhere) of publication, followed by a colon. Give the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication followed by a semicolon. If the author is also the publisher, it is acceptable to use part of the name as the publisher, e.g., The Association for publisher if the author is Canadian Medical Association. Give the year of publication followed by a period. If no date of publication can be found, but the publication contains a date of copyright, use the date of copyright preceded by the letter “c”, e.g. c2015.
  • Publication information: Journals : List the abbreviated journal title, place a period and a space, year, (and abbreviated month and day if applicable), semi-colon, volume, issue number in parentheses, colon, page range, and a period. For example, Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6. (The issue number may be omitted if the journal is paginated continuously through the volume.) To find the journal title abbreviation, go to  Medline’s Journals Database  and search by journal title. If the title is not found, abbreviate according to the style used for similar titles in Medline.
  • Pages : For journals, the entire page range of an article is given,  not  the specific page on which the information was found; usage is 124-7 (pages 124 to 127) or 215-22 (pages 215 to 222). For books, no page numbers are given, with two exceptions: the page number of a dictionary entry is included, as well as the page range of a chapter with its own author.
  • Place the word Internet in square brackets after the book title or abbreviated journal title.
  • Indicate date of retrieval, preceded by the word “cited”, in square brackets after the date of publication. When possible, include the most recent update date before the date of retrieval within the square brackets, followed by a semicolon and a space.
  • Add retrieval information at the end of the citation using the full URL. There is no punctuation at the end of the URL unless it ends with a slash or if additional information such as a DOI follows it in the entry, in which case a period is added.
  • If a DOI exists, it is optional to add it after the retrieval information.
  • Include a short note after the URL if special access information is required.

Citation Examples

Journal article, up to 6 personal author(s):

1. Al-Habian A, Harikumar PE, Stocker CJ, Langlands K, Selway JL. Histochemical and immunohistochemical evaluation of mouse skin histology: comparison of fixation with neutral buffered formalin and alcoholic formalin. J Histotechnol. 2014 Dec;37(4):115-24.

Electronic journal article:

2. Poling J, Kelly L, Chan C, Fisman D, Ulanova M. Hospital admission for community-acquired pneumonia in a First Nations population. Can J Rural Med [Internet]. 2014 Fall [cited 2015 Apr 27];19(4):135-41. Available from: http://www.srpc.ca/14fal.html by selecting PDF link in table of contents.

Electronic journal article, 7 or more personal authors, optional DOI information:

3. Aho M, Irshad B, Ackerman SJ, Lewis M, Leddy R, Pope T, et al. Correlation of sonographic features of invasive ductal mammary carcinoma with age, tumor grade, and hormone-receptor status. J Clin Ultrasound [Internet]. 2013 Jan [cited 2015 Apr 27];41(1):10-7. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcu.21990/full. DOI: 10.1002/jcu.21990

Book, personal author(s):

4. Buckingham L. Molecular diagnostics: fundamentals, methods and clinical applications. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis; c2012.

Book or pamphlet, organization as both author and publisher:

5. College of Medical Radiation Technologists of Ontario. Standards of practice. Toronto: The College; 2011.

Book, editor(s):

6. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, editors. Robbins basic pathology. 16th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; c2013.

Book,editor(s), specific chapter with individual author(s) :

7. Altobelli N. Airway management. In: Kacmarek R, Stoller JK, Heuer AJ, editors. Egan’s fundamentals of respiratory care. 10th ed. St. Louis: Saunders Mosby; c2013. p. 732-86.

Electronic book, personal author(s), requiring password :

8. Martin A, Harbison S, Beach K, Cole P. An introduction to radiation protection [Internet]. 6th ed. London: Hodder Arnold; 2012 [cited 2015 May 28]. Available from: http://lrc.michener.ca:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=466903&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_iii with authorized username and password.

Electronic book, organization as author, freely available:

9. OpenStax College. Anatomy & physiology [Internet]. Version 7.28. Houston: The College; 2013 Apr 25 [Updated 2015 May 27; cited 2015 May 28]. Available from: http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/.

Dictionary entry:

10. Stedman’s medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2012. Hematoma; p. 756.

Entry in a print reference work:

11. Canadian Pharmacists Association. CPS 2013: compendium of pharmaceuticals and specialties. 48th ed. Ottawa: The Association; c2013. Atropine: Systemic; p. 297-9.

Entry in an online reference work:

12. Canadian Pharmacists Association. eCPS. [Internet]. Ottawa: The Association; 2015. Methimazole; [revised 2012 Mar; cited 2015 May 28]; [about 6 screens]. Available from: http://lrc.michener.ca:2048/login/ecps with authorized username and password.

Wiki entry:

13. Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia [Internet]. St. Petersburg (FL): Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2001 –   Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa; [modified 2015 May 28; cited 2015 May 28]; [about 34 screens]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_virus_epidemic_in_West_Africa

Newspaper article:

14. Carville O. Health ‘snooping’ cases on the rise. Toronto Star. 2015 May 27;Sect. GT:1 (col. 3).

Electronic newspaper article:

15. Wisniewski M. Five babies at Chicago daycare diagnosed with measles. Globe and Mail [Internet]. 2015 Feb 5 [cited 2015 Feb 6];Life:[about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health-and-fitness/health/five-babies-at-chicago-daycare-diagnosed-with-measles-report/article22805944/.

Legal material (note: this is not addressed in Vancouver Style):

16. Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, S.O. 2005, c.11 [Internet]. 2009 Dec 15 [cited 2015 May 29]. Available from: http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_05a11_e.htm

Report available on a web page:

17. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Depression among seniors in residential care [Analysis in brief on the Internet]. Ottawa: The Institute; 2010 [cited 2015 May 29]. 18 p. Available from: https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/ccrs_depression_among_seniors_e.pdf

Page on a website:

18. Alzheimer Society of Canada [Internet]. Toronto: The Society; c2015. Benefits of staying active; 2013 Jan 28 [cited 2015 May 29];[about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.alzheimer.ca/en/kfla/Living-with-dementia/Day-to-day-living/Staying-active/Benefits-of-staying-active

Streaming video:

19. Allen S, Waerlop I. The Gait Guys talk about great toe dorsiflexion [video on the Internet]. [place unknown]: The Gait Guys; 2014 May 11 [cited 2015 May 29]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8O8TLtunUQ

Electronic image:

20. Bickle I. Swallowed foreign body [radiograph]. 2014 Jul 14 [cited 2015 May 29]. Available from: http://radiopaedia.org/cases/swallowed-foreign-body-1

Blog post (no given name, so screen name used as author):

21.  Munkee. In-111 pentetreotide imaging. 2013 Mar 19 [cited 2015 May 29]. In: Nuclear Munkee [Internet]. [place unknown]:[Munkee]; [date unknown] [about 3 screens]. Available from:  http://nuclearmunkee.blogs pot.ca/2013/03/in-111-p entetreotide-imaging.html

Poster presentation/session presented at a meeting or conference:

22. Chasman J, Kaplan RF. The effects of occupation on preserved cognitive functioning in dementia. Poster session presented at: Excellence in clinical practice. 4th Annual Conference of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology; 2006 Jun 15-17; Philadelphia, PA.

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  • Last Updated: Aug 23, 2022 9:19 AM
  • URL: https://guides.hsict.library.utoronto.ca/vancouver-style

BibTeX bibliography style: vancouver

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BibGuru Vancouver Citation Generator

Cite websites, books, articles, ...

BibGuru Vancouver Citation Generator citation generator

What is a Vancouver citation generator and how can it help you?

Getting citations and reference lists correctly done can be very confusing and time-consuming.

The Vancouver citation style is very complex, as it has many different variations within the style, which opens the door for confusion and mistakes.

The good news is that our Vancouver citation generator can do it automatically for you and it is FREE to use! 🎉

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With BibGuru we have made a citation tool that truly helps students to focus on the content of their work instead of worrying about how to get their reference list correctly done.

Those days of wasting time entering data manually or losing grades on incorrect bibliographies are finally gone!

If you need to know more about Vancouver citations check out our How do I cite in Vancouver style? section.

Why, when, and what do I have to cite?

Why The broad scientific knowledge we have today is the accomplishment of many researchers over time. To put your own contribution in context , it is important to cite the work of the researchers who influenced you. Cited sources can provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer important definitions and data. Citing also shows that you have personally read the work.

When In addition to crediting the ideas of others that you used to build your own argument, you need to provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge. Common knowledge is knowledge that is known by everyone, or nearly everyone, and can basically concern any subject. An example for common knowledge would be "There are seven days in a week".

What The number of sources you cite in your work depends on the intent of the paper. In most cases, you will need to cite one or two of the most representative sources for each key point. However, if you are working on a review article, the aim is to present to the readers everything that has been written on a topic, so you will need to include a more exhaustive list of citations.

What is the Vancouver citation style?

Citing medicine book image

The Vancouver citation style is a numeric citation system used in biomedical, health and some science publications. It uses numbers within the text that refer to numbered entries in the reference list.

Hundreds of scientific journals use author-number systems, which essentially follow the same logic (numbered citations pointing to numbered list entries), but are different in trivial details such as punctuation, casing of titles and italic.

The Vancouver style is pretty new amongst these citation styles, it was first defined in 1978 at the conference of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) in Vancouver, Canada.

The Vancouver style is now published in Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (NLM), and is mainly focused on citation style and bibliographic style.

How do I cite in Vancouver style?

These are the main conventions when using the Vancouver style for your paper:

  • Numeric references are used in the text, mostly numbers in brackets, e.g. (1)
  • The same citation number is used whenever the same source is cited in the text
  • These in-text numbers are matched to full, numbered references for each publication in the reference list
  • The reference list is sorted in the order the citations appeared in the text, not alphabetically
  • Very little punctuation is used
  • Abbreviations which are already well-established are used for journal titles
  • If you have written a section of your text with several references, you can indicate that by listing each source separated by a comma
  • Authors should be cited by last name, then initials (e.g. Levoy G.), with no comma between last name and initials, nor full stop after the initials or spaces between the initials. Indicate the end of the author's name with a full stop
  • If there are more than 6 authors, cite the first six followed by et. al. or 'and others'

This is how you would cite a book with one author:

Reference list:

1. Cox T. Cultural diversity in organizations. San Francisco, Calif: Berrett-Koehler; 2005.

And this is how you would cite a journal article:

2. Leach P. James Paine's Design for the South Front of Kedleston Hall: Dating and Sources. Architectural History. 1997;40:159.

The list above summarizes the essential rules of Vancouver referencing, but there are many variations within the style which can make it very complicated. But you don't need to worry about getting your Vancouver citations wrong with BibGuru.

Use our Vancouver citation generator above to create the fastest and most accurate Vancouver citations possible.

You can create a reference list in the BibGuru Vancouver citation generator by entering all of your sources (one by one) into the main search box, choose the source category of each, click enter, and that's it. BibGuru organizes your references according to Vancoucer style’s guidelines. All you have to do after is copy and paste the list into your paper.

Yes, you can have different lists of references in your BibGuru Vancouver citation generator. You only need to create a 'new project' for a different list of references.

Yes, the BibGuru Vancouver citation generator creates in-text citations for every reference. All you have to do is click the 'Bibliography and in-text citations' view option, and this will automatically create an accurate in-text citation for each source.

The Vancouver style was defined in 1978 at the conference of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) in Vancouver, Canada. Therefore, the style took the name of its birth place.

Yes, one of the citation systems of Vancouver style is to make in-text references with superscript numbers. These numbers are then listed sequentially in a reference list at the end of the paper.

Yes, one of the citation systems of Vancouver style is to make in-text references with numbers in round brackets. These numbers are then listed sequentially in a reference list at the end of the paper.

Every source referenced in-text is given a number according to the order in which they are introduced. The same citation number is used whenever the same source is cited throughout the text. These in-text numbers are matched to full, numbered references for each publication in the reference list. Finally, the reference list is sorted sequentially, meaning: in the order the citations appeared in the text, not alphabetically.

Yes, the official Vancouver style is now published in Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (NLM) .

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  • Reference list / Bibliography
  • In-text citations
  • Indirect citation / Secondary source

Place of publication

Two to six authors, more than six authors, multiple works by the same author, different editions, edited book, chapter in an edited book, chapter in a non-edited book, chapter from an electronic book, electronic book from a full text database, book in a series, translation of a book.

  • ChatGPT and other generative AI tools
  • Dictionaries / Encyclopaedias
  • Specialised health resources
  • Journal articles
  • Conferences
  • Government / Reports
  • Theses / Dissertations
  • Other Internet sources
  • Social media
  • Pamphlets / Brochures / Package inserts
  • Lecture notes
  • Audiovisual material
  • Personal communication
  • Legal material
  • Tables / Figures / Images / Appendices

Place of Publication

  • Place is the city where the book was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two letter abbreviation for the state or province in brackets eg. Palm Springs (CA). See Appendix E of Citing medicine
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country written out or using the two letter ISO country code in brackets eg. Cambridge (GB); Berlin (DE); Sydney (AU). See Appendix D in Citing medicine.

Multiple places of publication

If more than one place of publication is given, use the first one or the one set in the largest type or in bold. Do not give multiple places.

Elements of the citation Author(s) – Family name and initials (no more than 2 initials with no spaces between initials). Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication.
Reference list
In-text reference The book, “Secrets from the black bag”, by Butler shows that...

Butler purported ...
EndNote reference type Book
Elements of the citation Author(s) – Family name and initials, multiple authors separated by a comma. Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication.
Reference list
In-text reference ‘... needed to influence policy.’



Cheers, Darracott and Lonne have highlighted the fact that ‘...'.
EndNote reference type Book
Elements of the citation Author(s) – Family name and initials  (no more than 2 initials and no space between initials), Multiple authors separated by a comma. After the 6th author add - "et al." Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication.
Reference list
In-text reference Hofmeyr states that...
EndNote reference type Book
Elements of the citation Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication.

Note: Begin a reference with the title of the book if no person or organization can be identified as the author and no editors or translators are given. Do not use anonymous
Reference list
In-text reference ...do not die from the disease.
EndNote reference type Book
Elements of the citation Author(s) – Family name and initials, Multiple authors separated by a comma. Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication.
Reference list
In-text reference The main clinical and research interests of Dr Marilyn Campbell.  are focused on...
[if not previously cited]
EndNote reference type Book
Elements of the citation Author(s) – Family name and initials, multiple authors separated by a comma. Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication.

Include the edition number after the book title for all editions except the first edition.
Reference list
In-text reference What has become known as the “Bible of General Practice” in Australia...
EndNote reference type Book
Elements the of citation Editor(s) – Family name and initials, editors. Title of book. edition (if not first) - ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication.
Reference list
In-text reference In all cases, it is important to note the outer diameter of the tube...
EndNote reference type Edited book
Elements of the citation Author(s) of chapter - Family name and initials, Title of chapter. In: Editor(s) of book - Family name and initials, editors. Title of book. edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication. p. [page numbers of chapter].

multiple authors/editors always separated by commas
Reference list
In-text reference As discussed by Rowlands and Haine ...
EndNote reference type Book section
 
Elements of the citation Author(s) of book – Family name and initials. Title of book. edition (if not first) - ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication. Chapter [chapter number], Chapter title; p. [page numbers of the chapter].
Reference list
In-text reference ...due to endometriosis.
EndNote reference type Book

In the enter the followed by the and (Note: include all the punctuation shown – EndNote will put in the full‐stop after the page numbers)
Elements of the citation       Author(s) of book – Family name and initials. Title of book [Internet]. # edition. Place of Publication: Publisher Name; Year of Publication. Chapter [chapter number], Chapter title. [cited date - year, month abbreviated, day]. Available from: URL
Reference list  
In-text reference Darwin  believes that the natural selection...
EndNote reference type Electronic book

field: enter -  Publication year followed by the Chapter number and Chapter title (include all the punctuation shown)
Elements of the citation Author(s) of book – Family name and initials. Title of book [Internet]. # edition. Place of Publication: Publisher Name; Year of Publication [cited date - year, month abbreviated, day]. Available from: URL
Reference list
In-text reference Bartlett [12] concludes that...
EndNote reference type Electronic book

field: enter -  Internet
 
field: enter - date the book was cited eg.
 
Elements of the citation Author(s) – Family name and initials (no more than 2 initials with no spaces between intitials). Title of chapter. In: Editor(s) of book. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher Name; Year of Publication. p. [pages of chapter]. (Series title; vol [volume number]).
Reference list
In-text reference The binding of ligand to most seven‐transmembrane (STM) G‐protein‐coupled receptors leads to changes in the coupling of G proteins to the receptor ...(13)
EndNote reference type Book Section

Title of Series =

field: enter  - the pages, series title and volume number in brackets 
Elements of the citation Author(s) – Family name and initials. Title of book. Name of translator - family name and initials, translator. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication.
Reference list
In-text reference Luria , discovered that...
EndNote reference type Book

field: enter -  Title of book. Name of translator.   
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Referencing and managing information

Vancouver referencing conventions

Vancouver uses numbers in the text and a references list.

In-text citation

At every point in the text where a particular work is referred to by quoting or paraphrasing, include the number which identifies the reference used, in brackets. References are numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited in the text. 

References list

References are presented in numerical order by the order in which they appear in the document.

You should only include sources that you have referenced in your work. 

If you are asked to include a bibliography (in addition to, or in place of, a references list) you can include further items that were read that informed your research and thinking for the assignment, in addition to those that you directly referenced . 

How to reference using Vancouver style

Examples on how to reference particular sources using Vancouver style:

Act of Parliament

Book chapter from an edited book.

  • Conference proceeding

Journal article

Newspaper article, radio broadcast, television broadcast, thesis or dissertation.

  • Website / webpage

Country. Title of Act and year. Chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Great Britain. Environment Act 1995. Chapter 25. London: The Stationery Office.

Author(s) surname Initial(s). Title of blog entry. Date blog entry written. Title of blog [online]. Year. [Accessed date]. Available from: URL.

Welle K. Impressions from the Stockholm World Water Week. 25 August. ODI blog: commentary from leading development experts [online]. 2006. [Accessed 9 July 2007]. Available from:  http://blogs.odi.org.uk/blogs/main/archive/category/1020.aspx

Author surname Initial(s). Title: subtitle. Edition (if it is not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Cooke A. A guide to finding quality information on the Internet: selection and evaluation strategies. 2nd ed. London: Library Association Publishing; 2001.

Two to six authors:

First author surname Initial(s), second author surname Initial(s), third author surname Initials. Title: subtitle. Edition (if it is not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Feldman RS, Meyer JS, Quenzer LF. The American Psychiatric Press textbook of psychopharmacology. 2nd ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1998.

Seven or more authors/editors:

If there are 7 or more authors/editors, only the first 6 are listed followed by et al.

First author surname Initial(s), second author surname Initial(s), third author surname Initial(s), fourth author surname Initial(s), fifth author surname Initial(s), sixth author surname Initial(s), et al., editors.  Title: subtitle. Edition (if it is not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, et al., editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 14th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 1998.

Book with organisation as author:

SCONUL Advisory Committee on Information Literacy.   Learning outcomes and information literacy. London: SCONUL; 2004.

Edited book:

Editor(s) surname Initial(s), editor(s). Title: subtitle. Edition (if it is not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Ennis F, editor. Infrastructure provision and the negotiating process. Aldershot: Ashgate; 2003.

Editors should have editor or editors after their name or list of names. If there are no authors or editors given, the title should be listed first, followed by place of publication.

Author(s) surname Initial(s). Title of chapter: subtitle. In: Author(s) surname Initial(s). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. p. page numbers.

Haefner H. Negative symptoms and the assessment of neurocognitive treatment response. In: Keefe RSE, McEvoy JP, editors. Negative symptom and cognitive deficit treatment response in schizophrenia. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2004. p. 85-110.

When the author's name is the same for the chapter as for the book it does not need to be repeated.

Greenhalgh T. Checklists for finding, appraising, and implementing evidence. In:   How to read a paper: the basics of evidence based medicine. London: BMJ Publishing Group; 2000. p. 177-9.

Page numbers should be preceded by p.

Conference proceedings

Individual conference paper.

Author(s) Initial(s). Title of contribution. In: Editor(s) surname Initial(s). editor(s). Title of conference proceedings, date, place of conference. Place of publication: publisher; Year. p. page numbers.

Nelmes G. Container port automation. In : Corke P., Sukkarieh S. editors. Field and service robotics: results of the 5th international conference, 29-31 July 2005, Port Douglas. Berlin: Springer; 2006. p. 3-8.

If conference proceedings are published in a journal, the article/contribution should be cited as for a journal article.

If the proceedings have been published as chapters in a book, treat the entire proceedings as a book, and individual presentations as a book chapter. Add details of the conference to the book title.

Conference proceedings as a whole

Editor(s) surname Initial(s). editor(s). Title of conference proceedings, date, place of conference. Place of publication: publisher; Year.

Corke P., Sukkarieh S. editors. Field and service robotics: results of the 5th international conference, 29-31 July 2005, Port Douglas. Berlin: Springer; 2006

Title. [DVD]. Place of production: Production company; year.

Acland's DVD atlas of human anatomy: the lower extremity. [DVD]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

Author(s) surname Initial(s). Title: subtitle [online]. Edition (if not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication [Accessed Date]. Available from: URL of database / location in which the book is held

Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper: the basics of evidence based medicine [online]. London: BMJ Publishing Group; 2000 [Accessed 8 September 2008]. Available from:  http://www.netlibrary.com/AccessProduct.aspx?ProductId=66703

e-book reader format, e.g. Kindle

Author(s)/Editor(s) surname Initials(s). Title: subtitle. Edition (if not the first edition). [Name of e-book reader]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Llewelyn H, Ang HA, Lewis KE, Al-Abdullah A. Oxford handbook of clinical diagnosis. 2nd ed. [Kindle DX e-book]. Oxford: OUP; 2009.

Title of film. [film]. Directed by: Full name of director. Place of production: Production company; year.

An inconvenient truth. [film]. Directed by: Davis Guggenheim. USA: Paramount; 2006.

If the film is a video recording (on DVD or VHS) use the same format but change [film] to the relevant media.  This is because video recording may contain extra footage not shown in the film.

Journal article (print)

Author(s) surname Initial(s). Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. Year of publication;volume number(issue number):page numbers.

Meric F, Bernstam EV, Mirza NQ, Hunt KK, Ames FC, Ross M I, et al. Breast cancer on the world wide web: cross sectional survey of quality of information and popularity of websites. BMJ. 2002;324(7337):577-81.

Journal article (electronic)

Author(s) surname Initial(s). Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal [online]. Year of publication;volume number(issue number):page numbers. [Accessed date]. Available from: URL

Ross CTF. A conceptual design of an underwater vehicle. Ocean engineering [online]. 2006;33(16):2087-2104. [Accessed 6 July 2007]. Available from:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/

When citing online journal articles, it is now widely preferred to include a DOI (Direct Object Identifier) where available rather than a URL.

De Pinto M, Jelacic J, Edwards WT. Very-low-dose ketamine for the management of pain and sedation in the ICU. Acute Pain [online]. 2008;10(2):100. [Accessed 8 September 2008]. Available from:<doi:10.1016/j.acpain.2008.05.023>

Author(s) surname Initial(s). Title of article: subtitle of article. Newspaper title (in full) Year Month and date of publication; section name (if applicable):page numbers of contribution.

Rowbottom M. The Big Question: how prevalent is the use of drugs in sport, and can it be defeated? The Independent 2006 Aug 1;Sect. Sport:5

Title of programme/Series title, Episode number, Episode title. Transmitting organisation/channel. Date and year, Time of transmission.

Desert island discs, Lily Allen. BBC Radio 4. 29 June 2014, 11:15.

Yes, Prime Minister, Episode 1, The Ministerial Broadcast. BBC2. 16 January 1986, 20:30.

News at ten. ITV. 27 January 2001. 22:00.

Author's surname Initial(s). Title: subtitle. Award level of thesis, Awarding institution; Year of publication.

Deb S. Psychopathology of adults with a mental handicap and epilepsy. MA thesis, University of Leicester; 1991.

Croser C. Biochemical restriction of root extension under mechanical impedance. PhD thesis, University of Birmingham; 1997.

Surname(s), Initial(s) (or organisation). Full text of tweet. [Twitter]. Date and year tweet posted [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Cruciform Library. MedTech Week 2014 at UCL Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IBME)16-20 June via @UCL_IBME  http://bit.ly/1pbWe53   pic.twitter.com/pzXx3P4DlP [Twitter]. 9 June 2014 [Accessed 2 July 2014]. Available from:  https://twitter.com/ucl_crucitwit

Website or webpage

Author(s)/Editor(s) surname Initial(s). Title. [online]. Publisher: place of publication; Year [Accessed date]. Available from: URL

SukYin A. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene and breast cancer. [online]. Human Genome Epidemiology Network, National Office of Public Health Genomics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta GA; 2002 Jun [Accessed 8 September 2008]. Available from:  http://www.cdc.gov/genomics/hugenet/factsheets/FS_COMT.htm

Year can include month if preferred.

If a specific author cannot be found, attribute to the organisation or corporation.

Overseas Development Institute, Humanitarian Policy Group. Welcome to HPG. [online]. ODI: London; 2007 [Accessed 9 July 2007]. Available from:  http://odi.org.uk/hpg/index.html

Wiki name. Title of article .  [online]. Year [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Wikipedia. Jeremy Bentham .  [online]. 2014 [Accessed 2 July 2014]. Available from:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeremy_bentham

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Bibcitation is a free citation generator that creates bibliographies, references and works cited. Automatically generate MLA, APA, Chicago and other citations and create an accurate bibliography in one click.

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Our Complete Guide to Citing in Vancouver Format

Laptop with screenshot on screen of manual for Vancouver style

In this user-friendly guide, we're going to demystify the Vancouver citation style. You'll discover how to format in-text citations and compile an authoritative reference list, without breaking a sweat.

Ready to master Vancouver citations? See how our citation generator can take the guesswork out of your referencing, and understand how to get the Vancouver format spot-on, every single time.

And don't worry, creating a Vancouver bibliography isn't as complex as it sounds!

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Vancouver style overview.

The Vancouver Referencing Style , established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), is frequently used in the medical and scientific communities. The system is characterized by the use of numbers for citations, offering a concise and practical way to cite sources in your scholarly work.

This guide will provide you with the essentials of using the Vancouver style to acknowledge the contributions of other authors and uphold academic integrity.

In the Vancouver style, there are two key components of citations: in-text citations and the reference list.

In-text citations in the Vancouver style are typically represented as numbers either in brackets, parentheses, or as superscripts within the body of your work. These numbers correspond to the sources listed in the reference list. When you quote or paraphrase a source, you indicate its number.

The reference list , also called a bibliography in Vancouver style, presents full details of all sources cited within your work. The list is compiled in the order in which the sources appear in your text. The structure of each entry can vary based on the type of source.

At Bibcitation, we understand that the Vancouver style, with its unique numbering system and detailed references, can be challenging to master. That's why we've developed an intuitive Vancouver citation generator to assist you. Simply provide the necessary information, and we'll deliver a perfectly formatted citation, whether it's for a book, a journal article, a webpage, or another type of source.

Create In-text Citations in Vancouver

In the Vancouver Referencing Style, in-text citations are numerically represented within your paper's text, guiding readers to the corresponding full citation in the reference list. Each source you cite gets a unique number depending on its first appearance in the text.

Let's explore some examples of in-text citations using the Vancouver style:

Standard citation: The most typical form of citation includes a number in brackets or parentheses at the end of the related sentence. For instance: The research results were significant (1) .

Several sources at once: When referencing multiple sources at once, you would list each number consecutively in the order you mention them, separated by commas within one set of parentheses. For example: Several studies have explored this phenomenon (1,2,3) .

Subsequent citation of a source: If you cite the same source again later in your work, you reuse its original number. For instance: As noted earlier, the research findings were significant (1) .

Direct quotations: When you include a direct quote from a source, you would append the specific page number after the citation number like so: According to Brown, "This was an unexpected finding" (2, p.157) .

Multiple authors: The number of authors does not affect the in-text citation in Vancouver style. Whether a source has one author or multiple, the in-text citation remains a number.

Referencing sources within sources: If you're citing a source you found in another source, you should, ideally, locate the original source and cite that. However, if this isn't possible, you can use the number for the indirect source you have.

For instance: The findings of this study have been contradicted in more recent research (1 cited in 2) .

Long quotations: For extended quotations in Vancouver style, use an indented paragraph without quotation marks. You should place the in-text citation after the final punctuation.

Example: The significance of accurate referencing has been aptly stated by White (3, p.18):

Reference management plays a pivotal role in upholding scholarly integrity and avoiding plagiarism. By recognizing the contributions of original authors, you enhance your work's credibility and allow readers to track the sources you have consulted.

With Vancouver's numeric system, citing in-text is straightforward and unobtrusive, making it an effective choice for many academic disciplines, especially within the scientific and medical fields.

Format Your Vancouver Bibliography

The reference list, often called a bibliography in the Vancouver style, is a crucial aspect of your scholarly work. It enumerates all the sources you've cited in your paper, serving as a roadmap for your readers to validate and track your research materials.

Here's your guide to crafting a Vancouver style reference list:

Position and title: Begin the reference list on a separate page at the end of your document. The heading "References" (without quotes) should be centered at the top of the page. The heading should be in plain text, without any special formatting like bold, italics, or underlining.

Spacing and indentation: Maintain consistent double-spacing throughout the reference list. Ensure a 1-inch margin on all sides of the page. Unlike Harvard style, Vancouver uses a flush left style, with no indentations for any lines in each citation.

Sequence of citations: In the Vancouver style, entries are arranged in the numerical order they were cited in the text, not alphabetically. This system aligns with the numbered in-text citations, providing a clear reference path for readers.

Citation formats: The Vancouver style provides specific formats for each source type, such as books, journal articles, online materials, etc. Each citation should include pertinent details like the authors' names, title of the work, journal title (if applicable), year of publication, volume and issue numbers (if a journal), and page numbers.

Consistent punctuation and case: Note that in Vancouver style, only the first word of an article or book title and any subtitle (and proper nouns) are capitalized. The rest of the title should be in lowercase.

Accuracy check: As with any referencing style, it's crucial to ensure each citation's accuracy. Cross-verify each entry for correct spelling, punctuation, and format adherence to the Vancouver style rules.

Screenshot of a Vancouver reference list

By adhering to these guidelines, you can ensure that your Vancouver-style reference list is clear, consistent, and easy to navigate.

Cite Books in Vancouver

Mastering the Vancouver style can feel a bit like learning a new language, but don't worry, we're here to guide you through its alphabet and grammar. Our first topic is citing books in Vancouver style. It's an essential aspect of referencing as books continue to serve as a rich source of information for any researcher.

Here's the general structure for citing a book in Vancouver style:

For example:

Multiple authors: Include up to six authors in the citation, using the same format. If there are more than six authors, list the first six followed by 'et al.' For example:

No author: If no author is listed, begin the citation with the book title.

Multi-volume book: When citing a specific volume of the book in Vancouver, make sure to include the abbreviation “Vol.” after the book title:

Book edition: When citing books with multiple editions in the Vancouver style, you need to specify the edition number using the abbreviation “ed.” after the title:

Edited book: Citing an edited book in the Vancouver style requires a slightly different format to highlight the editor(s) rather than the author(s):

Organization as author: If an organization is the author of your source, use the organization's name as the author.

Mastering these variations will ensure your book references in Vancouver style are spot on, enhancing the credibility of your work.

Cite Journal Articles in Vancouver

In this chapter, we are focusing on journal articles, a vital source of information, particularly in the medical and scientific fields. Here, we will teach you the basics, nuances, and variations to help you cite journal articles with ease.

The standard structure of a journal article citation in Vancouver style is:

No author: If no author is listed, the title of the article becomes the first element in the Vancouver citation.

Online journals: If a journal is available online and the article has a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), include the DOI at the end of the citation.

Journal without volume or issue numbers: In such cases, simply leave out the volume and issue details.

With this guide in your reference toolbox, accurately citing journal articles in Vancouver style should be a breeze. As always, attention to detail is paramount in the world of citation!

Cite Websites in Vancouver

Buckle up for another exciting expedition into the land of Vancouver citations. This time, our destination is the world wide web, a vast and varied landscape that's rich with information. Here's how to properly cite a website in the Vancouver style:

No author: If an online source has no identifiable author, begin your Vancouver citation with the title of the webpage.

No publication date: In cases when an online source has no publication date, use the abbreviation "n.d." (no date). and Include the date you accessed the website.

No place or publisher: If no place of publication or publisher is identifiable, use the term "s.n." (sine nomine), which means "without a name" in Latin.

Whether it's the latest research findings or health advisories, websites provide crucial information for our papers. Remember these rules while citing websites in Vancouver style, and you'll ensure your references are as clear and accurate as your research!

Cite Book Chapters in Vancouver

In the world of academic writing, it's often necessary to dive deep and pinpoint specific sections of a larger work. That's where citing a book chapter in the Vancouver style comes in. This method allows you to directly attribute ideas to a certain chapter within a larger body of work, enhancing clarity and precision.

To cite a chapter from a book in the Vancouver style, use the following structure:

When the book has no editor or is written by the same author(s) , the structure changes slightly:

Remember that the authors' names should be written as Last name First initial, with a comma separating different authors. The editor(s) of the book should be mentioned in the "In:" part of the citation. Edition and page range are essential components as well.

Cite Newspapers & Magazine Articles in Vancouver

For a magazine article, your citation will follow a slightly different format:

Cite a magazine article in Vancouver:

Note that when citing online newspapers or magazines , you may need to include a URL and the date you accessed the information if the article is not available in print or database form:

Remember, in Vancouver style, each source is assigned a number that correlates with the order in which it appears in the text. When you reference a source, you'll use the corresponding number in your in-text citations.

Cite Conference Papers in Vancouver

In scholarly writing, citing conference papers can help demonstrate that you're up-to-date with the latest discussions in your field. The Vancouver citation style provides a specific structure to follow when referencing these sources.

The general format for a conference paper is:

If the proceedings are published in a journal, you can cite them as a journal article.

An online conference paper citation would also require the URL and the date of access, for instance:

Remember, in the Vancouver citation style, each source you cite will have a number assigned in the order of appearance in your work. This number is used for in-text citations. Be sure to double-check your references for accuracy and completeness!

Cite Social Media Posts in Vancouver

In the modern world, information and insights from social media are increasingly used in academic research, and thus it's important to understand how to properly cite them using the Vancouver style.

The general format for citing a social media post in Vancouver style is:

Example of a Vancouver citation for a Twitter post:

If you'd like to create a Vancouver reference for a Facebook post , you can follow a similar citation structure. Just remember to change the platform name!

Example of a Vancouver citation for an Instagam post:

When generating a Vancouver reference for a LinkedIn post , you should use the following citation structure:

Please note that as the Vancouver style numbers citations in the order of appearance, be sure to number the in-text citation appropriately. Additionally, the access or citation date is usually not required in Vancouver style.

But, for certain types of online content like social media posts, which can be edited or removed, it might be a good idea to include it. Always follow your institution's guidelines or consult your professor or a librarian.

Cite Theses & Dissertations in Vancouver

When it comes to citing a thesis or a dissertation in Vancouver style, the general format to follow is:

A Vancouver citation for a thesis or dissertation available online would also require the URL and the date of access. For instance:

If the thesis or dissertation has a DOI, you can replace the URL with DOI.

Remember, all in-text citations should be numbered and correspond to the numbered reference in the reference list. Ensure that you keep track of your references as they appear in your text.

Cite Data in Vancouver

Citing data sets and databases in the Vancouver style typically involves these components: author(s), title of data set/database, type of medium, publication place, publisher, year of publication, and availability, which often includes the URL or DOI.

The general format is:

Things to keep in mind:

  • When the author is the same as the publisher, you can drop the author's name.
  • If a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is provided, use it in place of the URL.
  • For database content that changes over time (e.g., Wikis), include the date of the version or revision number along with the date you accessed the source.
  • When the date of publication is not available, replace it with 'undated'.

Remember that in-text citations for Vancouver follow the numerical style. The reference list should be ordered numerically in the order references appear in your text. The numbers are placed in brackets or superscript.

For example, the citation (1) refers to the first source listed in your reference list. Be consistent with your numbering and ensure each number corresponds to the right source.

Cite Dictionaries and Encyclopedias in Vancouver

Citing dictionaries and encyclopedias correctly is essential for academic and scientific work. In the Vancouver style, citing these reference works follows a similar structure to other citations but has a few specific rules. Let's explore these:

  • If the entry has no author or editor, the citation starts with the title of the entry.
  • If it is an online dictionary or encyclopedia, include '[Internet]' after the title, as well as 'Available from: URL or DOI' at the end.
  • If no date is available, use 'undated'.
  • If there are multiple editions, use the most recent one available.

Therefore, in the Vancouver format, an online dictionary entry without a known author would be:

Pro Tip: Keeping track of your references in Vancouver style can be challenging due to its numerical system. An effective practice is to maintain a separate document or file to update your reference list in real-time as you cite each source.

That way, you can easily refer back to your list and ensure each citation matches the corresponding number in your reference list. This method also makes it easier to spot if you've missed citing any source in your text. Remember, in Vancouver style, your sources must be listed in the order they appear in your text.

Cite Drug Information in Vancouver

The medicine field often requires the citation of drug information sources for both academic and professional purposes. In Vancouver style, the citation format will slightly vary depending on the type of drug information source you are citing - this could be a drug monograph from a reference book or information from an online drug database.

Below you will find a general citation structure for drug information:

Now, let's imagine we're citing a drug monograph for paracetamol from a reference book called "Drug Reference Guide", edited by J. Smith and published in New York by Pharma Publishers in 2022.

Or, we could be citing drug information for Paracetamol from an online database named "eDrugInfo" that was last updated in 2023.

It's important to remember that when citing sources in Vancouver style, each source should be numbered in the order they appear in your text. Furthermore, remember to include the date when you last accessed the website as online contents can be updated or changed over time.

Pro Tip: If the drug information you're citing is updated frequently online, you may want to take a screenshot or save a copy of the webpage for your records. This can serve as a reference in case the online content changes after you've cited it.

Cite Evidence Summaries in Vancouver

Evidence summaries are an essential source of information in the field of healthcare and medical research. They provide a concise overview of the available evidence on a particular health-related issue. In the Vancouver citation style, evidence summaries can be cited much like other online sources, but there are specific details to consider.

Below you will find a basic Vancouver citation structure for evidence summaries:

Now, consider that you're citing an evidence summary titled "Effectiveness of Flu Vaccination", authored by J. Doe and published on the World Health Organization's website in 2023.

Alternatively, here's how you would cite an evidence summary titled "Efficacy of Hand Sanitizers", published on the CDC's website in 2023, where no specific author is mentioned:

Please remember that online sources should include the date when the website was accessed as online content can change over time.

Pro Tip: As best practice, ensure to check back to the online summary frequently to stay updated, as they often contain dynamic content that may change or be updated over time.

Cite Standards & Pharmacopoeias in Vancouver

Standards and pharmacopoeias are vital resources for industries and researchers alike. Standards provide detailed specifications to ensure products, services, and systems are reliable and effective. Pharmacopoeias are official publications that contain directions for the identification of compound medicines. When using Vancouver style, these sources are typically referenced in a similar way to books.

Here's the general citation structure for pharmacopoeias:

Imagine you're citing the ISO 9001:2015 standard, titled "Quality Management Systems - Requirements":

Or, assume you're referencing the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 42-NF 37:

For an online standard, like the ISO 14001:2015 titled "Environmental Management Systems - Requirements", your Vancouver citation might look like:

Pro Tip: Since standards and pharmacopoeias are frequently updated, always use the most recent edition in your research and cite it accordingly.

Cite Tables & Figures in Vancouver

Tables and figures are valuable resources that provide visual representations of data and concepts. When using Vancouver style, citing tables and figures varies slightly depending on whether the table or figure is from a book, a journal article, a website, or is your own creation. Here, we'll go over these variations.

For tables and figures, you'll usually include the following:

If you're citing a figure from a journal article , your citation might look like this:

If you're citing a table from a book , your citation might look like this:

For a figure or table from a website , you may include the URL and access date:

If you created the table or figure yourself , the citation may look like this:

Pro Tip: Always remember to reference the source of the data presented in a figure or table, even if you created the visual yourself. Indicate in the caption if you have made modifications to the original.

Cite Technical Reports in Vancouver

Government or technical reports are a trove of detailed information that can support your research or arguments. In Vancouver style, citing these kinds of reports is straightforward, but there are still a few key pieces of information you need to gather for a complete and accurate citation.

Here's the basic structure for citing government or technical reports in Vancouver:

The general rule of thumb in Vancouver citation is to treat the issuing agency as the author. Here's an example:

If no author is identified, include the issuing agency as the corporate author.

If the report is retrieved online, add its URL and access date:

Pro Tip: Vancouver citations typically don't include access dates for print materials, but it's recommended to include them for online resources due to the changing nature of the web. This helps future readers verify the resource's availability.

Cite Course Materials & Lectures in Vancouver

Course materials such as lecture notes, slides, and handouts are vital educational resources in academic settings. When used in your research, it's important to accurately cite these materials in the Vancouver style to give credit to the educators who developed them.

The basic structure for citing course materials in Vancouver style is as follows:

Citing lecture notes in Vancouver:

When citing materials from an online course, the citation should include the URL and the date you accessed the material.

Pro Tip: Course materials often come with unique identifiers such as module or lecture numbers. Including these in your citation can make it easier for your readers to locate the specific material you referenced.

Cite Personal Communications in Vancouver

Personal communications are sources that are not publicly accessible and often include conversations, interviews, emails, or other correspondence. The Vancouver citation style has a specific way of citing such references that are not accessible to the reader.

In Vancouver style, personal communications should be cited within the text rather than in the reference list. You should include the communicator's name, their credentials, the fact that it is a personal communication, and the date of communication.

Here's how you may cite a personal communication, such as private conversation:

Dr. Susan Thompson (Professor of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, USA, personal communication, May 20, 2023) noted that...

When citing an email, it should be treated as a personal communication and cited in the same way:

As stated by J. K. Rowling (Author, Edinburgh, UK, personal communication, via email, May 20, 2023) ...

Pro Tip: You must obtain permission from the person you're citing before including their personal communication in your work. This not only respects their privacy but also verifies the accuracy of your information.

Remember, because personal communications are not retrievable by others, they are typically not included in the reference list in Vancouver style.

Vancouver Style: Final Notes

In this guide, we've provided an overview of citing various types of sources in Vancouver style, with practical examples and the occasional pro tip. We've unveiled the mysteries of this numeric referencing system, illustrating how each source is identified by a unique number that corresponds to its appearance in the text.

This systematic and orderly approach makes the Vancouver style an ideal choice for medical and scientific papers. It provides a clear, unobtrusive way to refer to sources within the text while maintaining a comprehensive list of references at the end.

As always, our team at Bibcitation is ready to assist you with our efficient citation generator. For any doubts or queries, you can refer back to this comprehensive guide or reach out to us for further assistance.

Here's to mastering the art of citation and elevating your academic writing!

Vancouver Referencing Guide (updated Jul 2024)

This is the citationsy guide to vancouver citations, reference lists, in-text citations, and bibliographies. the complete, comprehensive guide shows you how easy citing any source can be. referencing books, youtube videos, websites, articles, journals, podcasts, images, videos, or music in vancouver..

cite Vancouver  — Referencing Guide

How do you cite a book in the Vancouver referencing style? (2024 Guide)

How to reference a journal article in the vancouver citation style, how do you cite scientific papers in vancouver format.

Referencing guide for Vancouver

This guide gives you information on how to format references in the Vancouver referencing style. The references are numbered sequentially, following the order in which they first appear in the text. The bibliography should be placed at the end of the document, be arranged numerically and contain all necessary bibliographic information.

The guide is primarily intended for students at Karolinska Institutet. The references should be considered as recommendations based on  International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Sample References  and  Citing Medicine  and in some cases with the support of Swedish cataloging rules for libraries . When in doubt, double check with official manuals. You might also need to discuss with your supervisor or teacher at KI before submitting your thesis or assignment.

Book, 1-6 authors

Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Lorig K. Patient education: A practical approach. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications; 2000.

Crossman AR, Neary D. Neuroanatomy: An illustrated colour text. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2010.

In the text, numbers are used in parentheses. The citations are numbered and the reference list is arranged in the same order.

More information

  • Information about the edition shall be stated if you use any other edition than the first one. If there is no information about the edition of your source, you can assume that it is the first edition.Use the abbreviation “ed.”
  • If there is no year of publication, use year of copyright instead, preceded by c. If neither a year of publication nor a year of copyright can be found, use [date unknown]
  • The terms that are used in the references (for example editor, chapter, edition) are determined by the language of your text and not by the language of the source

Book, more than 6 authors

Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC, Surname DD, Surname EE, Surname FF, et al. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Doornbos MM, Groenhout ER, Hotz GK, Brandsen C, Cusveller B, Flikkema M, et al. Transforming care: a Christian vision of nursing practice. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company; 2005.

Mer information

  • The first six authors are mentioned, followed by “et al.”
  • Information about the edition shall be stated if you use any other edition than the first one. If there is no information about the edition of your source, you can assume that it is the first edition. Use the abbreviation “ed.”

Surname AA , Surname BB, editor(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Pryor JA, Ammani Prasad S, editors. Physiotherapy for respiratory and cardiac problems: adults and paediatrics. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone; 2008.

  • Editor(s) is noted after the names
  • Up to six editors are stated in the reference list. If there are more than six editors, this is indicated by “et al.”, see the reference example for “Book, more than 6 authors”

Chapter in edited book

Author of chapter’s Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC. Title of chapter. In: Editor(s) Surname AA, editor(s). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. p. xx-x.

Spatz D. The use of human milk and breastfeeding in the neonatal intensive care unit. In: Wamback K & Riordan J, editors. Breastfeeding and human lactation. 5th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014. p. 469-522.

Skoog T. Adolescent and adult implications of girls' pubertal timing. In: Andershed A-K, editor. Girls at risk: Swedish longitudinal research on adjustment.New York, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London: Springer; 2012. p. 9-34.

  • Up to six authors or editors are stated in the reference list. If there are more than six, this is indicated by “et al.”, see the reference example for “Book, more than 6 authors”
  • Editor(s) is noted after the editors names
  • State the chapter's first and last page. Omit the numbers that the first and the last page have in common, for example 12-8 instead of 12-18

Chapter in authored book

Surname AA. Title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Number of chapter, Title of chapter; p. x..

Moody HR. Aging. Concepts and controversies. (6th ed.) Los Angeles: Pine Forge Press; 2010. Basic Concepts I, A life course perspective on aging; p. 1-26.

Steketee G, Frost RO. Treatment for hoarding disorder. Therapist guide [Internet]. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2014. Chapter 2, Evidence-based treatment for hoarding disorder; p. 13-22. Available from: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ki/detail.action?docID=1573147

  • The reference is constructed in the same way as the reference to the entire book, followed by information about the chapter
  • For more information on how to format references to books and report, see these reference types
  • Use the same name and number for the chapter as in the source. If a number is lacking, omit this information
  • State the chapter's first and last page. Omit the numbers that the first and the last page have in common, for example 12-8 instead of 12-18. If page numbers are lacking, omit this information

Conference contribution

Author of contribution’s Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC. Title of contribution. In: Editor(s) Surname AA, editor(s). Title of proceedings. Title of conference. Date of conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. p. xx-x.

Haglund L, Hanson UC. Making yourself indispensable: Experiences from 25 years of networking. In: Bakker S, editor. Health Information Management: What Strategies? Proceedings of the 5th European Conference of Medical and Health Libraries. September 18-21, 1996; Coimbra, Portugal. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1997. p. 45-8.

  • Conference contributions can also be published as articles in journals; in such cases, follow the template for journal articles
  • State the conference contribution's first and last page. Omit the numbers that the first and the last page have in common, for example 12-8 instead of 12-18
  • If the material comes from an electronic source, state [Internet] after the title and state [cited date] “Available from: current URL” at the end of the reference

Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC. Title [Internet]. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. [cited date]. Available from: URL

Fromm HJ, Hargrove M. Essentials of Biochemistry [Internet]. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2012. [cited 2014 Jan 17] Available from: http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-642-19624-9

Translated book

Author’s surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC. Title. Edition. Translator’s surname AA, translator. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Foucault M. Madness: The invention of an idea. Sheridan A, translator. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Thought; 2011.

  • Up to six authors are stated in the reference list. If there are more than six authors, this is indicated by “et al.”, see the reference example for “Book, more than 6 authors”.
  • Information regarding the title, edition, publisher, and place of publication should apply to the translation (not the original)
  • Information about the translator is not mandatory and can be omitted
  • If there is no information regarding publication year, use [date unknown]

Forthcoming book

Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Forthcoming Planned publication year.

Fleischman AR. Pediatric Ethics. Protecting the Interests of Children. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Forthcoming 2016.

  • Unpublished material is normally only cited in the text, and not included in the reference list
  • If a book has been accepted for publication it may be included in the reference list even if it has not been published yet. State Forthcoming and planned publication year (if known) in the end of the reference
  • Please see the examples for books to find more information about how to refer to books with more than six authors or edited books.

Journal article, 1-6 authors

Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC, Surname DD, Surname EE, Surname FF. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. Year;volume(issue):pages xx-x.

Müllersdorf M, Ivarsson A. Use of creative activities in occupational therapy practice in Sweden. Occup Ther Int. 2012 Sep;19(3):127-34.

  • The same template applies to printed and electronic journals
  • Use the abbreviated title of the journal in accordance with PubMed
  • Sometimes, the day and month are stated in PubMed in connection to years (for example Dec 25) and then this should be stated in the reference
  • State the article's first and last page. Omit the numbers that the first and the last page have in common, for example 12-8 instead of 12-18
  • If information is missing, for example regarding issue or page numbers, this information is omitted from your reference
  • You can chose to add a unique number from the database that the references is collected from, for example the PMID number in PubMed – you add the following after the page number: PubMed: PMID: 22489029
  • Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC, Surname DD, Surname EE, Surname FF. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. Year;volume(issue):pages xx-x. Available from: URL

Journal article, more than 6 authors

Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC, Surname DD, Surname EE, Surname FF, et al. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. Year;volume(issue):pages xx-x

Walsh JP, Ward LC, Burke V, Bhagat CI, Shiels L, Henley D, et al. Small changes in thyroxine dosage do not produce measurable changes in hypothyroid symptoms, well-being, or quality of life: results of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jul;91(7):2624-30.

  • State the article's first and last page. Omit the numbers that the first and the last page have in common, for example 12-8 instead of 12 -18
  • Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC, Surname DD, Surname EE, Surname FF, et al. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. Year;volume(issue):pages xx-x. Available from: URL

Forthcoming journal article

Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC, Surname DD, Surname EE, Surname FF. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. Forthcoming Planned publication year.

Fasano A. Importance of response time of esophageal thermal probes. Heart Rhythm. Forthcoming 2016.

  • If an article has been accepted for publication it may be included in the reference list even if it has not been published yet, State Forthcoming and planned publication year (if known) in the end of the reference
  • It is possible to add a DOI number in the end of the reference: DOI: 10.1002/oti.1327
  • Please see Journal articles, more than 6 authors for information on how to refer to articles with more than six authors

Newspaper articles, printed form

Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC. Title of article. Title of newspaper. Date; Ev section:beginning page.

Konnikova M. The joy of psyching myself out. International New York Times. 2016 Jan 11:8

  • Up to six authors are stated in the reference list. If there are more than six authors, this is indicated by “et al.”, see the reference example for “Journal article, more than 6 authors”

Newspaper articles, electronic form

Surname AA, Surname BB, Surname CC. Title of article. Title of newspaper [Internet]. Date [cited date]; Available from: URL

Medina J. California set to mandate childhood vaccines amid intense fight. New York Times [Internet]. 2015 Jun 25 [cited 2015 Sep 11]. Available from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/26/us/california-vaccines-religious-and-personal-exemptions.html

Entry in encyclopaedia

Unsigned article.

Title of encyclopedia [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Entry term. [cited date]. Available from: URL

Unsigned articlel

Encyclopaedia Britannica [Internet]. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc; c2015. Anemia. [cited 2015 Sep 14]. Available from: http://academic.eb.com/EBchecked/topic/24269/anemia

Signed article

Surname AA. Entry term. In Title of encyclopedia [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year [cited date]. Available from: URL

Delinsky SS, St Germain SA. Anorexia Nervosa. In Cash T, editor. Encyclopedia of body image and human appearance [Internet]. London, San Diego, Waltman, Oxford: Academic Press; 2012 [cited 2015 Dec 18]. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012384925000002X

  • Up to six authors or editors are stated in the reference list. If there are more than six, this is indicated by “et al.”, see the reference example for “Journal article, more than 6 authors”..
  • When referring to an entire encyclopaedia, see the example for books

Reports in printed form by named author(s)

Surname AA. Title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Series; serial number.

Bánóczy J, Petersen PE, Rugg-Gunn AJ, editors. Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.

  • If information is missing, for example regarding series or serial numbers, this information is omitted from the reference

Reports in printed form by agencies/institutions/organisations

Organisation. Title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Series; serial number.

World Health Organization. WHO child growth standards: Growth velocity based on weight, length and head circumference: Methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.

  • If information is missing, for example regarding series and serial number, this information is omitted from the reference

Reports in electronic form by named author(s)

Surname AA. Title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Series; serial number. [cited date]. Available from: URL

Lucas R, McMichael T, Smith W, Armstrong B. Solar ultraviolet radiation: Global burden of disease from solar ultraviolet radiation [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. Environmental Burden of Disease Series; No. 13. [cited 2015 Sep 14]. Available from: http://www.who.int/uv/health/solaruvradfull_180706.pdf

  • Up to six authors are stated in the reference list. If there are more than six authors, this is indicated by “et al.”, see the reference example for “Book, more than 6 authors”
  • If information is missing, for example regarding series or serial number, this information is omitted from the reference

Reports in electronic form by agencies/institutions/organisations

Organisation. Title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Series; serial number. [cited date]. Available from: URL

World Health Organization. Guideline: Vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. [cited 2015 Sep 14]. Available from: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/guidelines/vit_d_supp_pregnant_women/en/

Government publications

Laws and legislation, template printed form.

Title (SFS Year:number) Place of publication: Publisher

Example printed form

Hälso- och sjukvårdslag (SFS 1982:763) Stockholm: Socialdepartementet

Template electronic form

Title (SFS Year:number) [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher [cited date]. Available from: URL

Example electronic form

Hälso- och sjukvårdslag (SFS 1982:763) [Internet]. Stockholm: Socialdepartementet [cited 2014 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument- Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Halso--och-sjukvardslag-1982_sfs-1982-763/?bet=1982:763

  • Most Swedish laws and regulations are now available electronically on the Internet

Socialstyrelsens författningssamling (HSLF-FS/SOSFS)

Title (HSLF-FS Year:number). Place of publication: Publisher

Title (SOFS Year:number). Place of publication: Publisher

Socialstyrelsens föreskrifter och allmänna råd om vissa åtgärder i hälso- och sjukvården vid dödsfall (HSLF-FS 2015:15). Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen

Socialstyrelsens föreskrifter om praktisk tjänstgöring för psykologer (SOSFS 2008:34). Västerås: Edita Västra Aros

Title (HSLF-FS Year:number). [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher [cited date]. Available from: URL

Title (SOFS Year:number). [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher [cited date]. Available from: URL

Socialstyrelsens föreskrifter och allmänna råd om vissa åtgärder i hälso- och sjukvården vid dödsfall (HSLF-FS 2015:15) [Internet]. Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen [cited 2018 Jul 31]. Available from https://www.socialstyrelsen.se/publikationer2015/2015-10-13

Socialstyrelsens föreskrifter om praktisk tjänstgöring för psykologer (SOSFS 2008:34). [Internet]. Västerås: Edita Västra Aros. [cited 2014 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/Lists/Artikelkatalog/Attachments/19244/2008-10-34.pdf

  • Socialstyrelsens föreskrifter och allmänna råd is now published as a part of a series common to several governmental agencies in the field of health care, social service, pharmaceutical drugs and public health. Regulations published before 1 July 2015 are included in the new collection but retain their old names with the abbreviation SOFS

Statens offentliga utredningar (SOU)

Organisation. Title (SOU Year:number) Place of publication: Publisher

Nationella folkhälsokommittén. Hälsa på lika villkor: nationella mål för folkhälsan: slutbetänkande (SOU 2000:91). Stockholm: Fritze

Institution. Title (SOU Year:number) [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher [cited date]. Available from: URLL

Nationella folkhälsokommittén. Hälsa på lika villkor: nationella mål för folkhälsan: slutbetänkande (SOU 2000:91) [Internet]. Stockholm: Fritze [cited 2014 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.regeringen.se/sb/d/108/a/2822

  • SOUs are handled as reports and the organisations are treated as the authors, for example the National Board of Health and Welfare
  • The organisations often appoint committees or investigation groups who become the actual authors and who are to be listed as authors
  • If the names of these authors cannot act independently (or if it is difficult to determine the name format) these shall be subservient to their respective administrative units. For example, authorities and departments or geographic units such as countries or cities
  • The administrate unit for this example is “Sweden” but this can be omitted if it is entirely certain from the context that the organisation/committee is Swedish

Departementsserien (DS)

Organization. Title (Ds Year:number) Place of publication: Publisher

Socialdepartementet. Fysioterapeut: ny skyddad yrkestitel för sjukgymnaster (Ds 2013:4). Stockholm: Fritze

Institution. Title (Ds Year:number) [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher [cited date]. Available from: URL

Sverige. Socialdepartementet. Fysioterapeut: ny skyddad yrkestitel för sjukgymnaster (Ds 2013:4). [Internet]. Stockholm: Fritze [cited 2014 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.regeringen.se/sb/d/108/a/207575

  • Reports in Departementserien are handled as reports and the organisations are treated as the authors, for example the National Board of Health and Welfare

University. Title of curriculum. [Internet]. Place of publication: University, department; Year. [cited date]. Available from: URL

Karolinska Institutet. Utbildningsplan för tandläkarprogrammet; 2013. [Internet]. Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet, Styrelsen för utbildning; 2013. [cited 2014 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.ki.se/ua/utbildningsplan/2TL13.pdf

  • If there is no information regarding year of publication, use [date unknown]

Dissertations and degree projects

Degree projects, bachelor's & master's theses.

Surname AA. Title [degree project/master's thesis on the Internet]. Place: University; Year [cited date]. Available from: URL

Duque-Arrubla M. Exploring the use of health communication in health policy implementation: response to the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone [master's thesis on the Internet]. Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet; 2015 [cited 2017 Jan 17]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10616/44903

  • Up to six authors are stated in the reference list
  • If there is no year of publication, use year of copyright instead, preceded by c. If neither a year of publication nor a year of copyright can be found, use [date unknown
  • For degree projects and theses in printed form, omit date cited and URL

Doctoral and licenciate theses

Surname AA. Title [dissertation/ licentiate thesis (on the Internet)]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year [cited date]. Available from: URL

Mattsson J. Uncovering pain and caring for children in the pediatric intensive care unit: nurses' clinical approach and parent's perspective [dissertation on the Internet]. Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet; 2013 [cited 2014 Jan 14]. Available from: http://publications.ki.se/xmlui/handle/10616/41340

Saidi S. An exploration of self-care practice and self-care support of patients with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia [dissertation on the Internet]. Manchester; University of Manchester; 2015 [cited 2015 Sep 14]. Available from: https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/uk-ac-man-scw:269816

  • For theses, the academic department constitutes the publisher
  • If a thesis is published as a part of a series, this information is stated at the end of the reference

Organisation/Surname AA. Title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year [updated date; cited date]. Available from: URL

World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory (GHO) data. Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. [cited 2015 Nov 19] Available from: http://www.who.int/gho/neglected_diseases/dracunculiasis/en/

  • Documents, for example reports, pdf-files or books, that have been downloaded from websites are referenced in the same way as printed documents. The only difference is that the supplement [Internet] comes after the title, and the URL in question, or any eventual DOI no. is stated at the end of the reference
  • If information is missing, for example regarding author or when the web page was updated, this information is omitted from your reference

X post (Tweet)

Author/User name. Title [X post or tweet if before 2023]. Date [cited date]. Available from: URL

Biden, J. We're back in the Paris Climate Agreement. [X post]. 2021 January 21 [cited 2024 February 20]. Availble from: https://twitter.com/POTUS/status/1352072818847068163

Obama B. Women can no longer be charged more for health coverage just for being women [tweet]. 2015 June 25 [cited 2015 Nov 26]. Available from https://twitter.com/POTUS/status/614111236620427265

  • Use the twitterers real name if this is known. If the twitter user is a group or organization, use the real name of the group
  • If the real name of the twitterer is unknown, use the Twitter user name without brackets
  • The terms that are used in the references (for example X post, cited, Availiable from) are determined by the language of your text and not by the language of the source

Title of blog [Internet/Blog on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Publication date/Beginning date- . [cited date]. Available from: URL

Aspiring docs diaries [Blog on the Internet]. Washington: Association of American Medical Colleges; 2012 Aug 20- . [cited 2015 Dec 17]. Available from: http://aspiringdocsdiaries.org/

In the text, numbers are used in parentheses. The citations are numbered and the reference list is arranged in the same order. You can read more about how citations are inserted in the text in accordance with the Vancouver style  here

  • If it is not clear from the title that the reference is a blog, this is included in accordance with the template above – [Blog on the Internet]

Surname AA. Title of blog post. Year of publication, date [cited date]. In: Title of blog [Internet/Blog on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Publication date/Beginning date- . Available from: URL

Besselink A. Is non-evidence-based clinical practice an ethical dilemma? 2011 Oct 3 [cited 2015 Nov 26]. In: Allan Besselink [Blog on the Internet]. Austin: Allan Besselink; 2006- . Available from: http://www.allanbesselink.com/blog/smart/854-is-non-evidence-based-clinical-practice-an-ethical-dilemma

With author

Surname AA. Title of article. Year [updated date; cited date]. In: Title of wiki [Internet/wiki on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Publication date / Beginning date - . Available from: URL

Without author

Title of wiki [Internet/wiki på Internet/wiki on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Publication date/Beginning date- . Title of article; [updated date; cited date]. Available from: URL

Smith D, Wijayagoonawardana PA. Direct inguinal hernia. 2009 [updated 2015 May, cited 2015 Dec 9]. In: Radiopaedia.org [wiki on the Internet]. [place unknown]: Radiopaedia.org; 2005- . Available from: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/direct-inguinal-hernia

Wikipedia [Internet]. St. Petersburg (FL): Wikimedia Foundation, Inc; 2001 - . Self care; [revised 2015 Nov 28; cited 2015 Dec 9]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self_care

  • If it is not clear from the title that the reference is a Wiki, this is included in accordance with the template above – [wiki on the Internet]

Database on the Internet

Name of the database [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Beginning date - . [cited date]. Available from: URL

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) [Internet]. Baltimore, Betsheda: McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, John Hopkins Medicine, National Human Genome Research Institute; 1966- .[cited 2015 Dec 10]. Available from: http://www.omim.org/

  • If there is no beginning year, use year of copyright instead, preceded by c. If neither a beginning year nor a year of copyright can be found, use [date unknown]

Part of database on the Internet

Name of the database [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Beginning date- . Title of part [updated date; cited date]. Available from: URL

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) [Internet]. Baltimore, Betsheda: McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, John Hopkins Medicine, National Human Genome Research Institute; 1966- . 113705 Breast cancer gene, BTCA1; [updated 2015 Nov 10; cited 2015 Dec 10]. Available from:http://www.omim.org/entry/113705

Documents on closed networks

Karolinska institutet University Library. Searching with subject headings or free text [video file]. 2016, Nov 9 [cited 2018 Jul 31]. Available from https://pingpong.ki.se/courseId/15752/content.do?id=18249165/

  • As a general rule, you should only refer to sources that are available to the general audience. Avoid references to documents on closed networks, for example password protected intranets or learning platforms
  • In some situations you may refer to this kind of documents. This might be the case if the readers of your text also have access to the website, or if the information isn’t available elsewhere. Use the template for the appropriate source, for example web page or report

Surname AA/Organisation/Agency. Title [Internet]. Version. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [updated date; cited date]. Available from: URL

Palin K, Pitkänen E, Turunen M, Sahu B, Pihlajamaa P, Kivioja T et al. Contribution of allelic imbalance to colorectal cancer [Internet]. Geneva: Zenodo; 2018. [cited 2019 Apr 3]. Available from: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1222172

Andersen LM. Data for group analyses in the Frontiers Reseach Topic: From raw MEG/EEG to publication: How to perform MEG/EEG group analysis with free academic software [Internet]. Version 2. Geneva: Zenodo; 2017. [cited 2019 Apr 3]. Available from: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1134776

World Health Organization. Adolescent birth rate. Data by country [Internet]. Geneva: Global Health Observatory data repository; [date unknown]. [updated 2018 Apr 9; cited 2019 Apr 4]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.REPADO39?lang=en

  • Up to six creators are stated in the reference list. If there are more than six creators, this is indicated by “et al.”, see the reference example for “Book, more than 6 authors”
  • Information about the version shall be stated if you use any other version than the first one. If there is no information about the version of your source, you can assume that it is the first version

Sound and images

Film, video, tv-programme.

Producer's/Director's Surname AA, producer/director.Title [type of medium]. Ev title of series. Place of publication: Publisher/distributor; Publication date.

Film or standalone programme

Hauben L, Goldman B, Douglas M, Zaentz S, producers; Forman M, director. One flew over the cuckoo's nest [film]. Berkeley: Fantasy Films; N. V. Zvaluw; 1975.

Episode in series

Crichton M; Holcomb R, director. 24 hours [TV programme]. ER. Universal City: Constant C Productions/ Amblin Television/ Warner Bros Television; Sep 19 1994.

  • Specify the role of the creator after the name of directors and producers
  • If there is no publication date, use copyright date instead, preceded by c. If neither a publication date nor a copyright date can be found, use [date unknown]
  • If the programme has been downloaded from the Internet, this should be stated in the reference. State Available from: URL at the end of the reference and state which date the references was cited in accordance with the template [cited date] directly before the URL

Youtube, TikTok

Publisher/producer/User name. Title [video file]. Year, date [cited date]. Available from: URL

Gapminder Foundation. The relation between ebola & extreme poverty goes both ways — Factpod #9 [video file]. 2014, Dec 9 [cited 2015 Dec 18]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a7m1E5nIRqg

docamen. New Research: PLOS One 'Benzodiazepine use associated with brain injury, job loss and unaliving by University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. [video file]. 2023, July 3 [cited 2023 Nov. 20]. Available from: https://www.tiktok.com/@docamen/video/7251705044372884778

  • It is possible to use either the creator's real name or the user name
  • The terms that are used in the references (for example video file, cited, available from) are determined by the language of your text and not by the language of the source

Author/producer/narrator. Title [podcast on the Internet]. Ev series. Place of publication/Place of recording: Publisher; Year [cited date]. Available from: URL

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, producer. Meningococcal Immunizations for Preteens and Teens [podcast on the internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2015 [cited 2015 Dec 9]. Available from: http://www2c.cdc.gov/podcasts/player.asp?f=9956

Sanford K. Chemical warfare at home [podcast on the Internet]. Dr Kiki’s science hour. Petaluma: Twit; 2015 [cited 2015 Dec 9]. Available from: https://twit.tv/shows/dr-kikis-science-hour/episodes/145

Image/table/figure that is part of another source

Reference to the source where the image/table/figure is included. Number of picture/table/figure, Title of image/table//figure; p. x

Cann AJ. Principles of molecular virology [Internet]. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press, 2005. Available from: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/kiub/detail.action?docID=10167025. Figure 2.6, Icosahedra with triangulation numbers of 1, 3 and 4; p. 36

  • The reference is constructed in the same way as the reference to the entire source, followed by information about the image, table or figure
  • Use the same name and number for the image, table or figure as in the source

Standalone image

Creator's Surname AA. Title [type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

Standalone image on the Internet

Creator' Surname AA/User name. Title [type of medium]. Year of publication [cited date]. Available from: URL. Licence

Monfils L. X-ray of the heelbone with plantar fasciitis [photography]. 2008 [cited 12 February 2015]. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Plantar_fasciitis#mediaviewer/File:Fasciitis.jpg. (CC BY 3.0) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

CB Du Rietz. Öga [photography]. 2014 [cited 11 February 2015] Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/cbdurietz/15687017165/. (CC BY 2.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

  • It is possible to use the creator's real name or user name.
  • If there is no information regarding publication year, use [date unknown].
  • For AI generated images, see Other sources - Software, apps and AI tools. Make sure you citation is places next to the images.
  • For images with a Creative Commons license, state the license that applies, and the URL of the license.
  • The terms that are used in the references (for example editor, chapter, edition) are determined by the language of your text and not by the language of the source.

Other sources

Surname AA, inventor; Organisation, assignee. Title. Country/region Patent number. Issue date/Grant date.

Boiten H, inventor; Otto Bock HealthCare GmbH, assignee. Prosthetic knee joint. European patent EP 3089711. Dec 6 2017.

  • Up to six inventors are stated in the reference list. If there are more than six inventors, this is indicated by “et al.”, see the reference example for “Book, more than 6 authors”
  • The patent assignee might also be a person
  • Use the same template if you want to refer to a patent application. State the patent applicant instead of the assignee. Use the phrase Patent application followed by the number of the patent application. Use the publication date instead of the issue date.

Reference to the source. Number of appendix, Title of appendix; p. x.

Stirling JD, Elliott R. Introducing neuropsychology. 2. ed. Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press; 2008. Appendix, A primer of nervous system structure and function; p. 311-26.

Stoyanov SR, Hides L, Kavanagh DJ, Zelenko O, Tjondronegoro D, Mani M. Mobile app rating scale: a new tool for assessing the quality of health mobile apps. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2015 Mar 11;3(1):e27. Appendix 2, Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS).

  • The reference is constructed in the same way as the reference to the entire source, followed by information about the appendix
  • Use the same name and number for the appendix as in the source. If a number is lacking, omit this information. If page numbers are lacking, omit this information too

Unpublished material

  • Unpublished material such as an author's draft or manuscript for an article, book or other text is normally not included in the reference list, but only cited in the text
  • In such a case, you must clearly state the nature of the source, the author and the date within parentheses
  • Manuscripts that are available in an open and accessible archive can sometimes be included in the reference list. Then it is common to also specify where the source can be retrieved
  • If a book or article has been accepted for publication it may be included in the reference list even if it has not been published yet. Please see Forthcoming article and Forthcoming book

Personal communication

  • Personal communication includes letters, email, interviews, telephone conversations, non recorded lectures, study visits and similar material
  • Personal communication should only be cited in the text, and is not included in the reference list. State the kind of source, inital of the person's given name, family name and date within parentheses Examples (Personal communication AB Higgins 10 Jan 2018) (Email A Svensson 22 May 2015) (Lecture L Jing 4 May 2017) (Study visit MT Bern 18 Feb 2017)
  • Prefer other sources than personal communication, and check with teachers/supervisors if personal communication is an acceptable source
  • Letters that are available in an open and accessible archive can sometimes be included in the reference list. Then it is common to also specify where the source can be retrieved

Pamphlets and brochures

Author. Title [pamphlet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

American Heart Association, American Stroke Association. Let’s talk about Stroke, TIA and Warning Signs [pamphlet on the Internet]. Dallas: American Heart Association, American Stroke Association; 2015. [cited 2015 Dec 9]. Available from: http://www.strokeassociation.org/idc/groups/stroke-public/@wcm/@hcm/@sta/documents/downloadable/ucm_309532.pdf

  • If the pamphlet/brochure is in electronic format, indicate this with [pamphlet on the Internet], state “Available from: URL” at the end of the reference and specify which day the reference was cited in accordance with the template [cited date] directly before the URL

Software, Applications and AI tools

Creator. Title of software/application/AI tool, version [computer program/mobile application/large language model/text-to-image model]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [cited date]. Available from: URL

Skyscape. Skyscape Medical Resourses, ver. 2.6.24 [mobile application]. Northborough (MA): Skyscape Medpresso Inc; 2020. [cited 20 April 2022]. Available from: http://www.skyscape.com/Apps/

Region Stockholm. AlltidÖppet, ver. 1.40.0 [mobile application]. Stockholm: Stockholms läns sjukvårdsområde; [date unknown]. [cited 23 September 2023]. Available from: https://www.slso.regionstockholm.se/vard-hos-oss/alltid-oppet/ 

OpenAI. ChatGPT, 2023. [Large language model]. San Fransisco: OpenAI; 2023 [cited 23 September 2023]. Available from: https://openai.com/ 

Microsoft Bing. Copilot, 2024. [Large language model]. Redmond: Microsoft Corporation; 2024. [cited 21 January 2024]. Available from: https://www.bing.com/chat 

You.com. YouImagine. [Text-to-image model]. Palo Alto: You.com; 2024. [cited 22 February 2024]. Available from: https://you.com/search?q=ai&fromSearchBar=true&tbm=imagine&chatMode=default 

  • Common software and mobile apps mentioned in the text, but not paraphrased or quoted, do not need citations. “Common” is relative to your audience – exampes include Microsoft Office, social media apps (e.g. Facebook, Twitter), survey software, Adobe products, Java and statistical programs (e.g. SPSS).
  • The year of a computer software or mobile app reference is the year of publication of the version used. If there is no information regarding the year, use [date unknown].
  • For AI tools use the year you used the tool both as version number and in the slot for year. See examples above.
  • You should never use a text generated in an AI tool as your own, but AI generated material can be used as e.g. study material or basis for discussion. Whenever you paraphrase, quote, or incorporate into your own work any content from a generative AI tool (whether text, image, data, or other) make sure you cite the tool you used to create it.
  • AI generated material is always unique, therefore it is a good idea to copy the material (prompt and generated material) as an attachment to your work.
  • The terms that are used in the references (for example large language model, mobile application) are determined by the language of your text and not by the language of the source.

Surname AA. Title [Internet/PowerPoint presentation on the Internet]. Place of publicationt: Publisher; Year. [cited date]. Available from: URL

Bramer WM. A unique method for fast, high-quality systematic searching [PowerPoint presentation on the Internet]. Rotterdam: Erasmus MC; 2015. [cited June 21 2016]. Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/rocheam/systematic-searching-in-embase-webinar-march-25-2015.

  • Up to six authors are stated in the reference list. If there are more than authors, this is indicated by “et al.”, see the reference example for “Book, more than 6 authors”
  • If it is not clear from the title that the reference is a PowerPoint presentation, this is included in accordance with the template above – [Powerpoint presentation on the Internet]

Secondary source

When citing a secondary source, only provide a reference list entry for the secondary source that you used. In text, identify the primary source and then write “as cited in” the secondary source that you used.

According to Glaser and Strauss, as cited in Polit & Beck 7 , the Grounded theory method is used...

Retzius, as cited in a book by Bahlo 4 from 2001, classified humans in several ways.

  • A secondary source refers to content first reported in another source.
  • Avoid secondary sources if possible. Use it only when the original work is out of print, unavailable or available in a language that you don’t understand. If possible, as a matter of good scholarly practice, find the original source, read it and cite the original source rather than citing a secondary source.
  • The primary source is not listed in the reference list, only in the text.. In the reference list, only the sources that you’ve actually read is listed, in this case, the secondary source.
  • For information how to cite the secondary source in the reference list, see the template for the source in question.

Numbering and location of the citations

... (1). ... (2).

The reference list

1. ... 2. ...

In Sweden, about 30,000 cases of lung cancer are diagnosed annually (1). Between 1986 and 2005, the number of cases among women has increased by about 3% per year, while the increase among men has stopped (2). The difference between the sexes is connected to the differences in smoking habits in men and women, respectively. Since it takes a long time for lung cancer to develop, these changes reflect smoking habits of many years ago. Socialstyrelsen has indicated a delay of an average of 30 years (1).

  • Socialstyrelsen. Cancerincidens i Sverige 2014: nya diagnosticerade cancerfall år 2014. Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen; 2015. Retrieved from http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/publikationer2015/2015-12-26
  • Koyi H, Hillerdal G, Brandén E. A prospective study of a total material of lung cancer from a county in Sweden 1997-1999: gender, symptoms, type, stage, and smoking habits. Lung Cancer. 2002 Apr;36(1):9-14.
  • In the text, the citations are indicated with a number. The citations are numbered sequentially and the reference list is arranged in the same order
  • Citations are placed next to the statement they refer to and before the full stop when they appear in the end of the sentence
  • Square brackets and superscript numbers can also appear in the Vancouver style. If superscript numbers are used, these are placed after the full stop when the citation appears in the end of the sentence

Citing the same source several times

Studies indicate that lung cancer may grow more slowly in women. Lindell et al. (1) showed that 85% of the lung tumours that took more than 400 days to double in volume were found in women. This result is a reflection of the higher incidence among women of forms of cancer with a slower disease progression such as alveolar cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, but Lindell et al. found that the time it took for the volume to double was greater in women, regardless of the histological type of lung cancer. Their study also showed that …

  • If an entire paragraph or more than one statement have the same source, this can be shown in the text and the citation only needs to be included once.

More than one citation in the same parentheses

... (1, 2). ... (1-3). ... (2, 4).

Among non-smokers, lung cancer is significantly more common among women than men. Fifteen per cent of all women who get lung cancer have never smoked, while five per cent of men who suffer from lung cancer are non-smokers (1, 3). It is still not clear why this is. Several studies have investigated women's exposure to known risk factors for lung cancer, such as radon (4, 5) and passive smoking (4, 6-8), but no statistically significant link has been found. Studies investigating the link between hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer have arrived at contradictory conclusions (5-7).

  • If more than one source is cited at the same time, the citations are placed in the same parentheses and separated by a comma and a space
  • If more than two sequential sources are cited, they are written with a hyphen in-between them

Author names in the text

Note on vancouver.

Vancouver only regulates the formatting of references (ie. the in-text numbering and the bibliography) and the example below is therefore to be considered a recommendation

Surnname (1) showed that ... According to Surname et al. (2) ...

Holloway (1) describes ... According to Lindell et al. (2) ....

  • It is possible to mention the author in the text. Use the author's surname
  • You should still insert the citation as a number in parentheses
  • Only the first author is mentioned in the text, followed by the abbreviation et al. if there are more than one

Double names with hyphens

Surname-Surname AA Surname AA.

Rodriguez-Vieitez E Hulting AL

In the text, numbers are used in parentheses. The references are numbered and the reference list is arranged in the same order. You can read more about how references are inserted in the text in accordance with the Vancouver style  here .

  • Keep the hyphen in hyphenated double surnames
  • Abbrievate hyphenated first names to initials and omit the hyphen

"..." (1, s./p.).

"Evidence based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients." (1, p. 71)

  • If you use quotations in your text, you should give information about page number(s). Include the page number(s) after the citation in the same parentheses
  • Use the abbreviation p./pp. for page number(s)

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Citation Style Guide

  • Vancouver 2nd edition
  • APA 7th edition
  • MLA 9th edition
  • Chicago 17th edition
  • What is Vancouver Style?

Books on Vancouver Citation

Online guides, acknowledgements.

  • CSE 8th edition
  • McGill 9th edition
  • Indigenous citation styles
  • Citing artificial intelligence (AI)
  • Citation management

Vancouver Style

Vancouver Style is the citation style used by most biomedical journals , and it is maintained by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It was established at a meeting of medical journal editors in Vancouver in 1978, which is where the name comes from. It is also known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.   Vancouver is the citation style used by Medline and PubMed . 

The main feature that sets Vancouver apart from other citation styles is its sequential numbering of references in the text. References are numbered according to where they are first used in the text, and will continue to use that number for the rest of the paper. 

In-text Citation with Vancouver:

Vancouver Style only requires one piece of information for the in-text citation:

  • A number tracking, numerically, when the resources was first cited in the paper. 
  • Each number refers to unique cited source in the paper.

Example in-text citations, from fictional authors and sources:

While all flies provide sustenance, one obtains more "nutrition for the soul" from high quality specimens [4] .

If the author is mentioned in the text, the citation is placed as follows:

While all flies provide sustenance, Ribbit Frog [4] argues that one obtains more "nutrition for the soul" from high quality specimens. 

Once a resource is assigned a number it keeps that number for the rest of the paper. In the example above, this article by Ribbit Frog will be labelled number '4' for the entirety of the paper.

Papers using  Vancouver Style to cite their references must include a "References" page at the end of their paper.  This section can either directly follow the text on the same page, or be on its own page following the text.   When citing from online journal articles, you must use a special abbreviation of the journal title.  

This NLM database allows you to search for the abbreviations for commonly-used medical journals. 

The References Page

Documents using the Vancouver style of citation must contain a " References " page at the end of the text. The following are some examples of how to cite commonly used references:

Frog RR. Experts guide to artisanal fly cuisine . 2nd Ed. Halifax: Imaginary Publishing INC; 1998. 243 p. Book and article titles are in sentence case!

Online Scholarly Journal Article

Frog RR, Frog BB. I've got ninety-nine problems but a fly ain't one. J Eso Ridic [internet]. 1999 Mar [cited 2008 Feb 2]; 33(1): 12-20. Available from: http://frogscholars.ca/books/flygourmand/articles/flyfood1=12345. Journal titles are abbreviated following NLM guidelines!

Page from a Website

Fly Gourmand Association [internet]. Halifax NS: Imaginary Publishing INC; c1998-2016. How to prepare delicious fly scallopini; 2011 Oct 12 [cited 2016 Mar 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.websitename.com/stuff/en/flyfood1.html. For pages from websites: List the home page and place of publication!

For more information on how to cite different formats (such as multiple authors, video, etc) in Vancouver style check out the links to NLM or Monash University's Quick Guide! (Links below.)

Special thanks to Jackie Phinney for her knowledge of Vancouver Style and her help creating the content for this page. 

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  • Last Updated: Jul 3, 2024 1:26 PM
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What is Vancouver referencing?

Vancouver referencing is an author-number citation style used widely in the scientific and medical disciplines. The Vancouver system was created in 1978 as a way of standardising and clarifying the formatting in its related fields, to make things as clear as possible for the reader.

How to Vancouver reference

There are many variations within the Vancouver style, so it’s important to find out exactly which version your academic institution expects. In Vancouver citation, a number is assigned to each reference as it is used. The original number assigned to the reference is used each time that reference is cited in the text.

References are also listed in numerical order in a bibliography at the end of the essay. The number can be placed either outside or inside the text punctuation and you’ll need to check with your academic institution to find out which style they prefer.

When it’s time to complete your Vancouver referencing, why not give Cite This For Me a try? We’ll have the whole thing done for you in moments using our mobile app or web tool. Free yourself up to work on other things and save yourself the worry of incorrect referencing with Cite This For Me.

Vancouver referencing example

Popular vancouver style citation examples, how to cite a book in vancouver style.

Use the following template to cite a book using the Vancouver citation style.

Reference List

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.

How to cite a Journal in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite a journal using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite Film or Movie in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite a film or movie using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite an Online image or video in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite an online image or video using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite a Website in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite a website using the Vancouver citation style.

Additional Vancouver style Citation Examples

How to cite a blog in vancouver style.

Use the following template to cite a blog using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite a Court case in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite a court case using the Vancouver citation style.

” “

How to cite a Dictionary entry in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite a dictionary entry using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite an E-book or PDF in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite an e-book or pdf using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite an Edited book in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite an edited book using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite an Email in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite an email using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite an Encyclopedia article in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite an encyclopedia article using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite an Interview in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite an interview using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite a Magazine in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite a magazine using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite a Newspaper in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite a newspaper using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite a Podcast in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite a podcast using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite a Song in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite a song using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite The Bible in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite The Bible using the Vancouver citation style.

How to cite a TV Show in Vancouver style

Use the following template to cite a TV Show using the Vancouver citation style.

bibliography style vancouver

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VANCOUVER Citation Generator

- powered by chegg, all of our writing tools, none of the ads, is this source credible consider the criteria below..

Is the purpose to entertain, sell, persuade, or inform/teach ? Journal articles are often designed to inform or teach. Books and websites could have any of these or a combination of the purposes above. So it is important to determine why the source was created and if it is appropriate for your research. For websites in particular, looking at their "About Us" page or "Mission Statement" can help you evaluate purpose.

Accuracy is the reliability and truthfulness of the source. Here are a few indicators of an accurate source:

  • Citations or a works cited list. For websites, this can be links to other credible sites.
  • Evidence that backs up claims made by the author(s).
  • Text that is free of spelling and grammatical errors.
  • Information that matches that in other, credible sources.
  • Language that is unbiased and free of emotion.

Based on the above the source could be accurate, inaccurate, a mixture of accurate and inaccurate, or hard to tell.

Authority: Author

The author is the individual or organization who wrote the information in the book, in the journal article, or on the website. If no author is listed, there may be another contributor instead. For example, an editor or a translator. A credible author has:

  • Written several articles or books on the topic.
  • Provided contact information. For example, an email address, mailing address, social media account, etc.
  • The experience or qualifications to be an expert on the topic.

Authority: Publisher

The credibility of the publisher can contribute to the authority of a source. The publisher can be a person, company or organization. Authoritative publishers:

  • Accept responsibility for content.
  • Are often well-known.
  • Often publish multiple works on the same or related topics.

Relevance describes how related or important a source is to your topic. While a source may be credible, it does not necessarily mean it is relevant to your assignment. To determine relevance, you should:

  • Determine the website's intended audience. Look at the level of the information and the tone of the writing. For example, is it meant for academics or the general public?
  • Make sure that the information is related to your research topic.
  • Make sure that the information helps you answer your research question.

A publication date is an important part of evaluating the credibility of a source and its appropriateness for your topic. It is generally best to use content that was recently published or updated, but depending on your assignment, it may be appropriate to use older information. For example, a journal entry from Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War is too outdated to use in a discussion about modern politics and war, but would be appropriate for a paper about the Civil War. Consider the following when evaluating currency:

  • Was it published or updated recently? If a website, is there even a publication date listed?
  • Is the date of the source appropriate or inappropriate for my assignment?

After analyzing your source, do you believe it is credible, not credible, partially credible, or are you unsure? If you are still unsure, it may help to ask your instructor a librarian for assistance.

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Citing and referencing: Vancouver

  • In-text citations
  • Reference list
  • Books and book chapters
  • Journals/Periodicals
  • Newspapers/Magazines
  • Government and other reports
  • Legal sources
  • Websites and social media
  • Audio, music and visual media
  • Conferences
  • Dictionaries/Encyclopedias/Guides
  • Theses/Dissertations
  • University course materials
  • Company and Industry reports
  • Patents and Standards
  • Tables and Figures
  • Abbreviations used in referencing
  • Medicine and Health sources
  • Foreign language sources
  • Music scores
  • Journals and periodicals
  • Government sources
  • News sources
  • Web and social media
  • Games and apps
  • Ancient and sacred sources
  • Primary sources
  • Audiovisual media and music scores
  • Images and captions
  • University lectures, theses and dissertations
  • Interviews and personal communication
  • Archival material
  • In-Text Citations: Further Information
  • Reference List: Standard Abbreviations
  • Data Sheets (inc. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS))
  • Figures & Tables (inc. Images)
  • Lecture Materials (inc. PowerPoint Presentations)
  • Reports & Technical Reports
  • Theses and Dissertations
  • Reference list guidelines
  • Journal articles
  • Government and industry publications
  • Websites, newspaper and social media
  • Conference papers, theses and university material
  • Video and audio
  • Images, graphs, tables, data sets
  • Personal communications
  • In-text Citations
  • Journals / Periodicals
  • Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
  • Interviews and lectures
  • Music Scores / Recordings
  • Film / Video Recording
  • Television / Radio Broadcast
  • Online Communication / Social Media
  • Live Performances
  • Government and Organisation Publications
  • Medicine & health sources
  • Government/organisational/technical reports
  • Images, graphs, tables, figures & data sets
  • Websites newspaper & magazine articles, socia media
  • Conferences, theses & university materials
  • Personal communication & confidential unpublished material
  • Video, audio & other media
  • Generative AI
  • Indigenous knowledges
  • Bibliography
  • More Referencing guides Blog Automated transliteration Relevant bibliographies by topics
  • Automated transliteration
  • Relevant bibliographies by topics
  • Referencing guides

Vancouver referencing generator online

Create a spot-on reference in Vancouver

What is vancouver style.

The Vancouver system, also commonly referred to as the Vancouver referencing style, is an international citation style based on the citation-sequence system that is used most widely in the medical sciences (including by the MEDLINE and PubMed databases) and biological sciences.

While there might be many variations to the Vancouver system, the term ‘Vancouver Style’ is generally used to describe the referencing rules presented in ‘Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers’.

How is Vancouver Style specific?

A specific trait of the Vancouver citation style is the fact that it uses the author-sequence system (although variations might exist), which means that the sources cited in a paper are presented in the bibliography in the sequential order and are not sorted alphabetically or otherwise.

There are many specific traits in terms of the contents of citations: Vancouver Style has unique requirements regarding the presentation of authors’ names (initials ‘merged’ together without spaces, punctuation omitted, etc.), allows for variations in the presentation of certain elements (inclusion of ISBN, optional abbreviation of journal titles, etc.), and so on. Thus, this style is difficult to master.

On the website Grafiati, the Vancouver Style citation generator has algorithms developed in strict conformity with the rules set forth in Citing Medicine, i.e. with the latest recommendations for references in the Vancouver System.

The different systems of Vancouver Style

While Vancouver Style is based on the citation-sequence system in the general case as described above, two other systems may be used as well. So, there are overall three systems of Vancouver Style:

  • Vancouver citation-sequence (also known as: NLM Style, NLM Style citation-sequence, Uniform requirements submitted to medical journals ): numbered list of references with references ordered by chronology of citation.
  • Vancouver citation-name  (also known as:  Vancouver alphabetical ordering, NLM Style citation-name, NLM Style alphabetical ordering ): numbered list of references with references ordered alphabetically by author's name and title of work.
  • Vancouver name-year  (also known as:  Vancouver author-date, NLM Style name-year, NLM style author-date ): list of references ordered by name of author and chronology of publication, with the classical author-date parenthetical in-text citations.

The most popular system is the first one, the other two can be used optionally.

What is the purpose of the Vancouver referencing generator Grafiati?

The Vancouver Style generator Grafiati aims at creating the best and most exact bibliographic references in accordance with the rules of the Vancouver system. As a result, you can:

  • spare over 90% of your time spent on citations;
  • avoid major time expenditures on studying all the tiny nuances of the Vancouver Style manual;
  • create your citations online from any device;
  • generate references and in-text citations in any of the three systems of Vancouver Style:  citation-sequence, citation-name,  or  name-year ;
  • convert all your Vancouver references into APA, MLA, Chicago, and other popular international citation styles in one click;
  • save, export, and edit your bibliography;
  • use many features to fine-tune your Vancouver references and citations where the Citing Medicine guide allows for variations.

How to use Grafiati for Vancouver Style references and citations?

As can be seen from what is stated above, the references under the Vancouver system are complex. However, with our service, they become as easy as a piece of cake: you do the research, and we take care of your bibliography. Moreover, you can further reuse all of your Vancouver references for your other papers or thesis.

Start with our homepage . Choose Vancouver as the citation style for your bibliography. Then, search for your source in catalogues and add a reference in one click or enter your source details manually. There is no need to read any instructions or watch any tutorials. We offer the most user-friendly interface among all bibliographic managers.

Using the bibliography menu, adjust the settings for your Vancouver references or convert them into any language available on the website.

How is Grafiati different from other citation generators (Zotero, Mendeley, Citethisforme, etc.)?

You can see a more detailed explanation of the differences between Grafiati and the other citation generators (Zotero, Mendeley, Citethisforme, etc.) in terms of Vancouver references here and in general terms here .

To put it briefly, all these websites and applications use the same faulty code for generating your references and citations. On the contrary, with Grafiati, you get citation algorithms based exclusively on a detailed analysis of each particular citation style manual, and thus the most exact citations possible.

Furthermore, none of the aforementioned citation generators support the generation of references in all the three systems of Vancouver (NLM) Style, which makes Grafiati a unique tool allowing you to tailor Vancouver references to your needs. To change the desired system of Vancouver Style, search for 'Vancouver' in the menu of available citation styles.

If you want to get top-quality Vancouver Style references and citations, start using Grafiati right away !

VANCOUVER Citation Generator

Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper, consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.

  • Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
  • Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
  • Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
  • Book: What have reviews said about it?
  • What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
  • Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
  • Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
  • Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
  • Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
  • Are there ads?
  • When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
  • Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
  • Does the source even have a date?
  • Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
  • If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?

MLA Format: Everything You Need to Know and More

Filled with a wide variety of examples and visuals, our Citation Machine® MLA guide will help you master the citation process. Learn how to cite websites, books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, films, social media, and more!

MLA Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs

Comprehensive Guide to APA Format

Our Citation Machine® APA guide is a one-stop shop for learning how to cite in APA format. Read up on what APA is, or use our citing tools and APA examples to create citations for websites, books, journals, and more!

APA Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs

Everything You Need to Know About Chicago Style

Creating citations in Chicago style has never been easier thanks to our extensive Citation Machine® Chicago style guide and tools. Learn about footnotes, endnotes, and everything in between, or easily create citations for websites, books, journal articles, and more!

Chicago Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs

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Whether you’re a student, writer, foreign language learner, or simply looking to brush up on your grammar skills, our comprehensive grammar guides provide an extensive overview on over 50 grammar-related topics. Confused about reflexive verbs, demonstrative adjectives, or conjunctive adverbs? Look no further! Learn about these grammar topics and many, many more in our thorough and easy to understand reference guides!

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What is MLA Format?

MLA (Modern Language Association) citation format is commonly used in the humanities and liberal arts. In MLA style, you use in-text citations to give credit to the sources you have used in your research. These citations include the author's last name and the page number of the source material. In the list of works cited at the end of your paper, you should include full citations for all of the sources you have used, including the author's name, title of the work, publication information, and the medium of publication (such as print or web). It is important to follow the guidelines of the MLA citation format to ensure that your paper is properly formatted and that you are giving credit to the sources you have used.

What is APA Format?

APA (American Psychological Association) citation format is commonly used in the social sciences and education. In APA style, you also use in-text citations to give credit to the sources you have used in your research. The reference list at the end of the paper is called a "References" list and includes full citations for all of the sources you have used, with additional information such as the volume and issue number of a journal article. It is important to follow the guidelines of the APA citation format to ensure that your paper is properly formatted and that you are giving credit to the sources you have used.

What is Harvard Style?

Harvard citation style is a widely used style in the UK and other parts of the world. In Harvard style, you use in-text citations and a reference list to give credit to the sources you have used in your research. The citations include the author's last name and the year of publication only. It is important to follow the guidelines of the Harvard citation format to ensure that your paper is properly formatted and that you are giving credit to the sources you have used.

What is Chicago Style?

Chicago citation style is commonly used in the humanities and social sciences. In Chicago style, you use footnotes or endnotes to give credit to sources, and a bibliography at the end of the paper. The footnotes or endnotes include full citations for the sources, while the bibliography includes a list of all of the sources you have used in your research. It is important to follow the guidelines of the Chicago citation format to ensure that your paper is properly formatted and that you are giving credit to the sources you have used.

What is Vancouver Style?

Vancouver citation style is commonly used in the field of medicine. In Vancouver style, you use numerical citations within the text to give credit to the sources you have used in your research, and a reference list at the end of the paper. The reference list includes full citations for all of the sources you have used, with the sources numbered in the order that they are cited in the text. It is important to follow the guidelines of the Vancouver citation format to ensure that your paper is properly formatted and that you are giving credit to the sources you have used.

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Vancouver bibliography style

How can I implement the function sort and compress in the vancouver bibliography style ? Also, the last reference ( \bibitem{sitoedta} ) of the bibliography ends with a ';' instead of a '.' because it's a shorter reference and I have no access to the missing parts of the entry. How can I fix this?

Bibliography:

From the .bib file:

  • bibliographies

diabonas's user avatar

  • 2 While you wait for an answer to this question, can you go back to your previous ones and look if the answers solve your problems and accept them, if they do? –  samcarter_is_at_topanswers.xyz Commented Sep 28, 2017 at 15:30
  • 1 Why did you undo the formatting? If you don't want other people to edit your post, do it yourself: tex.meta.stackexchange.com/q/1192 –  samcarter_is_at_topanswers.xyz Commented Sep 28, 2017 at 15:38
  • 2 Please complete your code snippet to be compilable and add some of the bib entrys to your question too. –  Mensch Commented Sep 28, 2017 at 16:32
  • Can you please add the problematic entries from the .bib file? –  samcarter_is_at_topanswers.xyz Commented Sep 29, 2017 at 10:34
  • Concerning your third question: if you cannot fill all the mandatory fields of an article, don't use an article but something else. Try for example @misc{sitoedta, instead. –  samcarter_is_at_topanswers.xyz Commented Sep 29, 2017 at 10:48

to compress the cites, you could use the cite package.

if you cannot fill all the mandatory fields of an article, don't use an article but something else. Try for example @misc{sitoedta, instead.

samcarter_is_at_topanswers.xyz's user avatar

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bibliography style vancouver

COMMENTS

  1. Free Vancouver Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    The Vancouver citation style is a citation style used in the fields of biomedicine, health, and physical sciences. It is used to correctly attribute the authors of work cited within your paper. The Vancouver style uses numbers within the article body that refer to formatted citations in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  2. Vancouver Referencing

    Vancouver is a system of referencing commonly used in biomedicine, among other scientific disciplines. In Vancouver style, you place a reference number in the text wherever a source is cited: Davies et al. state that the data is 'unreliable' (1, p. 15). This number corresponds to an entry in your reference list - a numbered list of all ...

  3. Reference list / Bibliography

    A bibliography is a separate list from the reference list and should be arranged alphabetically by author or title (where no author is given) in the Vancouver style. A bibliography lists sources not cited in the text but which are relevant to the subject and were used for background reading.

  4. Vancouver Style Guide: Home

    Placement of citations: In-text citation numbers should be placed after the relevant part of a sentence.The original Vancouver Style documents do not discuss placement of the in-text citation in regards to punctuation, so it is acceptable to place it before or after the period. Be consistent. References are numbered consecutively in the order they are first mentioned.

  5. BibTeX vancouver bibliography style [examples]

    Usage. \documentclass[a4paper,10pt] { article } \begin { document } This is an example of a paragraph with in-text. citations using the vancouver BibTeX style. Here is a reference to a journal article with. a single author \cite { article1 }, to a journal. article with two authors \cite { article2 } and. three authors \cite { article3 }, and to ...

  6. Free Vancouver citation generator [2024 Update]

    The Vancouver citation style is a numeric citation system used in biomedical, health and some science publications. It uses numbers within the text that refer to numbered entries in the reference list. Hundreds of scientific journals use author-number systems, which essentially follow the same logic (numbered citations pointing to numbered list ...

  7. PDF Citing and Referencing: Vancouver Style

    Citing and Referencing:Vancouver StyleThere are many. tyles that can be used for referencing. When you are given coursework or dissertation guidelines, check which style of referencing your. ecturer or department asks you to use. If you don't check, and you use a style that is not the one stated in your gui.

  8. Vancouver referencing style

    Many types of publication examples have been provided in this guide. If you cannot find the example you need, you can: consult the Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors and publishers (2nd edition) guide; type the title of the item into Library Search to see if it has a suggested citation; view the reference lists of articles in publications that use Vancouver such as the ...

  9. Library Guides: Vancouver referencing style: Books

    Elements of the citation. Author (s) - Family name and initials (no more than 2 initials and no space between initials), Multiple authors separated by a comma. After the 6th author add - "et al." Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication.

  10. Vancouver referencing

    Vancouver uses numbers in the text and a references list. In-text citation. At every point in the text where a particular work is referred to by quoting or paraphrasing, include the number which identifies the reference used, in brackets. References are numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited in the text. References list

  11. Vancouver system

    The Vancouver system, also known as Vancouver reference style or the author-number system, is a citation style that uses numbers within the text that refer to numbered entries in the reference list. It is popular in the physical sciences and is one of two referencing systems normally used in medicine, the other being the author-date, or ...

  12. Free Vancouver Citation & Bibliography Generator

    The Vancouver citation style has a specific way of citing such references that are not accessible to the reader. In Vancouver style, personal communications should be cited within the text rather than in the reference list. You should include the communicator's name, their credentials, the fact that it is a personal communication, and the date ...

  13. Vancouver Referencing Guide · Vancouver citation (updated Jul 04 2024

    This is the Citationsy guide to Vancouver citations, reference lists, in-text citations, and bibliographies. The complete, comprehensive guide shows you how easy citing any source can be. Referencing books, youtube videos, websites, articles, journals, podcasts, images, videos, or music in Vancouver. Automate citations and referencing with our ...

  14. Referencing guide for Vancouver

    Referencing guide for Vancouver. This guide gives you information on how to format references in the Vancouver referencing style. The references are numbered sequentially, following the order in which they first appear in the text. The bibliography should be placed at the end of the document, be arranged numerically and contain all necessary ...

  15. LibGuides: Citation Style Guide: Vancouver 2nd edition

    Vancouver Style. Vancouver Style is the citation style used by most biomedical journals, and it is maintained by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It was established at a meeting of medical journal editors in Vancouver in 1978, which is where the name comes from. It is also known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts ...

  16. Free Vancouver Referencing Generator by Cite This For Me

    How to cite a Journal in Vancouver style. Use the following template to cite a journal using the Vancouver citation style. Reference List. Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment. Template: 1. Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title [Internet].

  17. BibMe: Free VANCOUVER Bibliography & Citation Maker

    MLA and APA citation styles + 7,000 more. Scan your paper for plagiarism mistakes. Check for 400+ advanced grammar errors. Create in-text citations and save them. Free 3-day trial. Cancel anytime.*. Try it for free. *See Terms and Conditions. Is this source credible?

  18. Citing and referencing: Vancouver

    A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers A guide to referencing using the Vancouver style

  19. Vancouver referencing generator online

    The Vancouver Style generator Grafiati aims at creating the best and most exact bibliographic references in accordance with the rules of the Vancouver system. As a result, you can: spare over 90% of your time spent on citations; avoid major time expenditures on studying all the tiny nuances of the Vancouver Style manual; create your citations ...

  20. Free VANCOUVER Citation Generator and Format

    Scan your paper for plagiarism mistakes. Get help for 7,000+ citation styles including APA 7. Check for 400+ advanced grammar errors. Create in-text citations and save them. Free 3-day trial. Cancel anytime.*️. Try Citation Machine® Plus! *See Terms and Conditions. Consider your source's credibility.

  21. FREE Citation Generator

    Vancouver citation style is commonly used in the field of medicine. In Vancouver style, you use numerical citations within the text to give credit to the sources you have used in your research, and a reference list at the end of the paper. The reference list includes full citations for all of the sources you have used, with the sources numbered ...

  22. Bibliography style (vancouver)

    This is what the school asks for the reference style (with the abbreviation of journal names): Gibson J.P. (1989) Selection strategies and artificial evolution. Theor. Appl. Genet. 78,87-92. And in the text, the citation has to be "author, year" form. I think that it's Vancouver style without numeration. I used the natbib package.

  23. Vancouver bibliography style

    The control over the removal of the fluid is obtained though the variation of the dialysate composition, for instance by adding glucose or icodextrin as osmolytes in dialysate \cite{sitoedta}. \bibliographystyle{vancouver} \bibliography{literature/new} \end{document} Bibliography: \begin{thebibliography}{1} \bibitem{RefWorks:102}